Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece. It is located in the Olympus Range on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia, between the regional units of Pieria and Larissa, about 80 km southwest from Thessaloniki. Mount Olympus has 52 peaks, deep gorges, exceptional biodiversity; the highest peak, meaning "nose", rises to 2,919 metres. It is one of the highest peaks in Europe in terms of topographic prominence. Olympus is notable in Greek mythology on Mytikas peak. Mount Olympus is noted for its rich flora, it has been a National Park, the first in Greece, since 1938. It is a World Biosphere Reserve; every year, thousands of people visit Olympus to admire its fauna and flora, tour its slopes, reach its peaks. Organized mountain refuges and various mountaineering and climbing routes are available to visitors who want to explore it; the usual starting point for climbing Olympus is the town of Litochoro, on the eastern foothills of the mountain, 100 km from Thessaloniki. The shape of Olympus was formed by rain and wind, which produced an isolated tower 3,000 metres above the sea, only 18 kilometres away at Litochoro.
Olympus has many peaks and an circular shape. The mountain has a circumference of 150 kilometres, an average diameter of 26 kilometres, 500 square kilometres of area. To the northwest lies the Vlach village of Kokkinoplou; the Makryrema stream separates Olympus from the massif of Voulgara. The villages Petra and Dion lie to the northwest, while on the eastern side there is the town of Litochoro, where Enipeas bisects the massif of Olympus. On its southeastern side, the Ziliana gorge divides Mount Olympus from Kato Olympos, while on its southwestern foothills, there are the villages Sykaminea and Karya; the Agia Triada Sparmou Monastery and the village Pythion lie to the west. Olympus' dry foothills, known as the Xirokampi, are covered in chaparral and provides habitat for animals such as wild boar. Further east, the plain of Dion watered by the streams which originate on Olympus. Mount Olympus is formed of sedimentary rock laid down 200 million years ago in a shallow sea. Various geological events that followed caused the emergence of the sea.
Around one million years ago glaciers created its plateaus and depressions. With the temperature rise that followed, the ice melted and the streams that were created swept away large quantities of crushed rock in the lowest places, forming the alluvial fans, that spread out all over the region from the foothills of the mountain to the sea; the Geological Museum of Mount Olympus, located in Leptokarya, provides detailed information about the geological structure of the mountain. The complicated geological past of the region is obvious from the morphology of Olympus and its National Park. Features include deep gorges and dozens of smooth peaks, many of them in altitude of more than 2,000 metres, including Aghios Antonios, Kalogeros and Profitis Ilias. However, it is the central vertical, rocky peaks, that impress the visitor. Over the town of Litochoro, on the horizon, the relief of the mountain displays an apparent V, between two peaks of equal height; the left limb is the peak named Mytikas. It is Greece's highest peak.
On the right is Stefani, which presents the most impressive and steep peak of Olympus, with its last rising 200 meters presenting the greatest challenge for climbers. Further south, Skolio completes an arc of about 200 degrees, with its steep slopes forming on the west side, like a wall, an impressive precipitous amphitheatrical cavity, 700 metres in depth and 1,000 metres in circumference, the'Megala Kazania'. On the east side of the high peaks the steep slopes form zone like parallel folds, the'Zonaria'. Narrower and steeper scorings, the'Loukia', lead to the peak. Οn the north side, between Stefani and Profitis Ilias, extends the Muses' Plateau, at 2,550 metres, while further south in the center of the massif, extends the alpine tundra region of Bara, at an altitude of 2,350 metres. Olympus has numerous gullies. Most distinguishable of the ravines are those of Mavrologos-Enipeas and Mavratzas-Sparmos near Bara and'cut' the massif in two oval portions. On the southern foothills the great gorge of Ziliana, 13 km long, consists of a natural limit that separates the mountain from Lower Olympus.
There are many precipices and a number of caves nowadays unexplored. The form and layout of the rocks favor the emergence of numerous springs lower than 2,000 m, of small seasonal lakes and streams and of a small river, with its springs in the site Prionia and its estuary in the Aegean Sea; the origin of the name Όλυμπος Olumpos is unknown and considered of "pre-Greek" origin. In Homeric Greek, the variant Οὔλυμπος Oulumpos occurs. Homer appears to be using οὔλυμπος as a common noun, as a synonym of οὐρανός ouranos "sky". Mt Olympus was also known as Mount Belus, after Iliad 1.591, where the seat of the gods is referred to as βηλ θεσπεσίο "heavenly threshold". In Ancient Greek religion and myth
Elis or Eleia is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern regional unit of Elis. Elis is in southern Greece on the Peloponnese, bounded on the north by Achaea, east by Arcadia, south by Messenia, west by the Ionian Sea. Over the course of the archaic and classical periods, the polis "city-state" of Elis controlled much of the region of Elis, most through unequal treaties with other cities. Perioeci, unlike other Spartans, could travel between cities, thus the polis of Elis was formed. Homer mentions; the first Olympic festival was organized in Elian land - Olympia - by the authorities of Elis in the eighth century BC, with tradition dating the first games to 776 BC. The Hellanodikai, the judges of the Games, were of Elian origin; the local form of the name was Valis, or Valeia, its meaning, in all probability was, "the lowland". In its physical constitution Elis is similar to Arcadia. According to Strabo, the first settlement was created by Oxylus the Aetolian who invaded there and subjugated the residents.
The city of Elis underwent synoecism—as Strabo notes—in 471 BC. Elis held authority over the site of the Olympic games; the spirit of the games had influenced the formation of the market: apart from the bouleuterion, the place the boule "citizen's council" met, in one of the gymnasia, most of the other buildings were related to the games, including two gymnasia, a palaestra, the House of the Hellanodikai. As described by Strabo, Elis was divided into three districts: Koilē, or Lowland Elis Pīsâtis Triphylia. Koilē Elis, the largest and most northern of the three, was watered by the river Peneus and its tributary, the Ladon; the district was famous during antiquity for its horses. Pisatis extended south from Koilē Elis to the right bank of the river Alpheios, was divided into eight departments named after as many towns. Triphylia stretched south from the Alpheios to the river Neda. Nowadays Elis is a small village of 150 citizens located 14 kilometres NE of Amaliada, built over the ruins of the ancient town.
It has a museum. It has one of the most well-preserved ancient theaters in Greece. Built in the fourth century BC, the theater had a capacity of 8,000 people. Elis was a traditional ally of Sparta, but the city state joined Argos and Athens in an alliance against Sparta around 420 BC during the Peloponnesian War; this was due to Spartan support for the independence of Lepreum. As punishment following the surrender of Athens, Elis was forced to surrender Triphylia in 399 BC, the territory was permanently ceded to Arcadia in 369 BC. Eric W. Robinson has argued that Elis was a democracy by around 500 BC, on the basis of early inscriptions which suggest that the people could make and change laws. Robinson further believes that literary sources imply that Elis continued to be democratic until 365, when an oligarchic faction seems to have taken control. At some point in the mid-fourth century, democracy may have been restored; the classical democracy at Elis seems to have functioned through a popular Assembly and a Council, the two main institutions of most poleis.
The Council had 500 members, but grew to 600 members by the end of the fifth century. There was a range of public officials such as the demiourgoi who submitted to public audits. Athletes Coroebus of Elis, the first ancient Olympic gold-medalist Troilus of Elis, 4th century BC equestrianIn mythology Salmoneus, Pelops mythological kings of Elis Endymion Sons of Endymion: Epeius Aetolus Paeon Augeas, king of Elis related to the Fifth Labour of Heracles Amphimachus, king of Elis and leader of Eleans in the Trojan War Thalpius, leader of Eleans in the Trojan War Oxylus, king of ElisIntellectuals Alexinus, philosopher Hippias of Elis, Greek sophist Phaedo of Elis, founder of the Elean School Pyrrho, founder of the Pyrrhonist school of philosophy Eleans were labelled as the greatest barbarians barbarotatoi by musician Stratonicus of Athens And when he was once asked by some one who were the wickedest people, he said, "That in Pamphylia, the people of Phaselis were the worst, and when he was asked again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians he said, "The Eleans."
In Hesychius and other ancient lexica, Eleans are listed as barbarophones. Indeed, the North-West Doric dialect of Elis is, after the Aeolic dialects, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Elis, Philosophical School of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Map from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture Elis - the c
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It lies between the Pindus Mountains and the Ionian Sea, stretching from the Bay of Vlorë and the Acroceraunian mountains in the north to the Ambracian Gulf and the ruined Roman city of Nicopolis in the south, it is divided between the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece and the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, Berat in southern Albania. The largest city in Epirus is Ioannina, seat of the region of Epirus, with Gjirokastër the largest city in the Albanian part of Epirus. A rugged and mountainous region, Epirus was the north-west area of ancient Greece, it was inhabited by the Greek tribes of the Chaonians and Thesprotians, home to the sanctuary of Dodona, the oldest ancient Greek oracle, the most prestigious one after Delphi. Unified into a single state in 370 BC by the Aeacidae dynasty, Epirus achieved fame during the reign of Pyrrhus of Epirus, whose campaigns against Rome are the origin of the term "Pyrrhic victory".
Epirus subsequently became part of the Roman Empire along with the rest of Greece in 146 BC, followed by the Byzantine Empire. Following the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade, Epirus became the center of the Despotate of Epirus, one of the successor states to the Byzantine Empire. Conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, Epirus became semi-independent during the rule of Ali Pasha in the early 19th century, but the Ottomans re-asserted their control in 1821. Following the Balkan Wars and World War I, southern Epirus became part of Greece, while northern Epirus became part of Albania; the name Epirus is derived from the Greek: Ḗpeiros, meaning "mainland" or terra firma. It is thought to come from an Indo-European root *apero-'coast', was applied to the mainland opposite Corfu and the Ionian islands; the local name was stamped on the coinage of the unified Epirote commonwealth: ΑΠΕΙΡΩΤΑΝ. The Albanian name for the region, which derives from the Greek, is Epiri; the historical region of Epirus is regarded as extending from the northern end of the Ceraunian mountains, located just south of the Bay of Aulon, to the Ambracian Gulf in Greece.
The northern boundary of ancient Epirus is alternatively given as the mouth of the Aoös river to the north of the Bay of Vlorë. Epirus's eastern boundary is defined by the Pindus Mountains, that form the spine of mainland Greece and separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly. To the west, Epirus faces the Ionian Sea; the island of Corfu is not regarded as part of Epirus. The definition of Epirus has changed over time, such that modern administrative boundaries do not correspond to the boundaries of ancient Epirus; the region of Epirus in Greece only comprises a fraction of classical Epirus and does not include its easternmost portions, which lie in Thessaly. In Albania, where the concept of Epirus is never used in an official context, the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, Berat extend well beyond the northern and northeastern boundaries of classical Epirus. Epirus is a predominantly mountainous region, it is made up of the Pindus Mountains, a series of parallel limestone ridges that are a continuation of the Dinaric Alps.
The Pindus mountains form the spine of mainland Greece and separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly to the east. The ridges of the Pindus are parallel to the sea and so steep that the valleys between them are suitable for pasture rather than large-scale agriculture. Altitude increases as one moves east, away from the coast, reaching a maximum of 2,637 m at Mount Smolikas, the highest point in Epirus. Other important ranges include Tymfi, Lygkos, to the west and east of Smolikas Gramos in the northeast, Tzoumerka in the southeast, Tomaros in the southwest, Mitsikeli near Ioannina and Nemercke/Aeoropos on the border between Greece and Albania, the Ceraunian Mountains near Himara in Albania. Most of Epirus lies on the windward side of the Pindus, the prevailing winds from the Ionian Sea make the region the rainiest in mainland Greece. Significant lowlands are to be found only near the coast, in the southwest near Arta and Preveza, in the Acheron plain between Paramythia and Fanari, between Igoumenitsa and Sagiada, near Saranda.
The Zagori area is a scenic upland plateau surrounded by mountain on all sides. The main river flowing through Epirus is the Vjosë, which flows in a northwesterly direction from the Pindus mountains in Greece to its mouth north of the Bay of Vlorë in Albania. Other important rivers include the Acheron river, famous for its religious significance in ancient Greece and site of the Necromanteion, the Arachthos river, crossed by the historic Bridge of Arta, the Louros, the Thyamis or Kalamas, the Voidomatis, a tributary of the Vjosë flowing through the Vikos Gorge; the Vikos Gorge, one of the deepest in the world, forms the centerpiece of the Vikos–Aoös National Park, known for its scenic beauty. The only significant lake in Epirus is Lake Pamvotis, on whose shores lies the city of Ioannina, the region's largest and traditionally most important city; the climate of Epirus is Alpine in the interior. Epirus is forested by coniferous species; the fauna in Epirus is rich and features species such as bears, foxes and lynxes.
Epirus has been occupied since at least Neolithic times by
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959. He was the son of the emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife, Zoe Karbonopsina, the nephew of his predecessor, the emperor Alexander. Most of his reign was dominated by co-regents: from 913 until 919 he was under the regency of his mother, while from 920 until 945 he shared the throne with Romanos Lekapenos, whose daughter Helena he married, his sons. Constantine VII is best known for his four books, De Administrando Imperio, De Ceremoniis, De Thematibus, Vita Basilii, his nickname alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were born. Constantine was born in this room, although his mother Zoe had not been married to Leo at that time; the epithet allowed him to underline his position as the legitimized son, as opposed to all others who claimed the throne during his lifetime.
Sons born to a reigning Emperor held precedence in the Eastern Roman line of succession over elder sons not born "in the purple". Constantine was born at Constantinople, an illegitimate son born before an uncanonical fourth marriage. To help legitimize him, his mother gave birth to him in the Purple Room of the imperial palace, hence his nickname Porphyrogennetos, he was symbolically elevated to the throne as a two-year-old child by his father and uncle on May 15, 908. In June 913, as his uncle Alexander lay dying, he appointed a seven-man regency council for Constantine, it was headed by the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, the two magistroi John Eladas and Stephen, the rhaiktor John Lazanes, the otherwise obscure Euthymius and Alexander's henchmen Basilitzes and Gabrielopoulos. Following Alexander's death, the new and shaky regime survived the attempted usurpation of Constantine Doukas, Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos assumed a dominant position among the regents. Patriarch Nicholas was presently forced to make peace with Tsar Simeon of Bulgaria, whom he reluctantly recognized as Bulgarian emperor.
Because of this unpopular concession, Patriarch Nicholas was driven out of the regency by Constantine's mother Zoe. She was no more successful with the Bulgarians, who defeated her main supporter, the general Leo Phokas, in 917. In 919 she was replaced as regent by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine. Romanos used his position to advance to the ranks of basileopatōr in May 919, to kaisar in September 920, to co-emperor in December 920. Thus, just short of reaching nominal majority, Constantine was eclipsed by a senior emperor. Constantine's youth had been a sad one due to his unpleasant appearance, his taciturn nature, his relegation to the third level of succession, behind Christopher Lekapenos, the eldest son of Romanos I Lekapenos, he was a intelligent young man with a large range of interests, he dedicated those years to studying the court's ceremonial. Romanos kept and maintained power until 944, when he was deposed by his sons, the co-emperors Stephen and Constantine.
Romanos spent the last years of his life in exile on the Island of Prote as a monk and died on June 15, 948. With the help of his wife, Constantine VII succeeded in removing his brothers-in-law, on January 27, 945, Constantine VII became sole emperor at the age of 39, after a life spent in the shadow. Several months Constantine VII crowned his own son Romanos II co-emperor. Having never exercised executive authority, Constantine remained devoted to his scholarly pursuits and relegated his authority to bureaucrats and generals, as well as to his energetic wife Helena Lekapene. In 949 Constantine launched a new fleet of 100 ships against the Arab corsairs hiding in Crete, but like his father's attempt to retake the island in 911, this attempt failed. On the Eastern frontier things went better if with alternate success. In 949 the Byzantines conquered Germanicea defeated the enemy armies, in 952 they crossed the upper Euphrates, but in 953 the Hamdanid amir Sayf al-Daula entered the imperial territory.
The land in the east was recovered by Nikephoros Phokas, who conquered Hadath, in northern Syria, in 958, by the general John Tzimiskes, who one year captured Samosata, in northern Mesopotamia. An Arab fleet was destroyed by Greek fire in 957. Constantine's efforts to retake themes lost to the Arabs were the first such efforts to have any real success. Constantine had active diplomatic relationships with foreign courts, including those of the caliph of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman III and of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. In the autumn of 957 Constantine was visited by Olga of Kiev, regent of the Kievan Rus'; the reasons for this voyage have never been clarified. According to legends, Constantine VII fell in love with Olga, however she found the way to refuse him by tricking him to become her godfather; when she was baptized, she said. Constantine VII died at Constantinople in November 959 and was succeeded by his son Romanos II, it was rumored that Constantine had been poisoned by his son or his da
The Macedonians were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece. An ancient Greek people, they expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring non-Greek tribes Thracian and Illyrian, they spoke Ancient Macedonian, a language related to Ancient Greek a dialect, although the prestige language of the region was at first Attic and Koine Greek. Their religious beliefs mirrored those of other Greeks, following the main deities of the Greek pantheon, although the Macedonians continued Archaic burial practices that had ceased in other parts of Greece after the 6th century BC. Aside from the monarchy, the core of Macedonian society was its nobility. Similar to the aristocracy of neighboring Thessaly, their wealth was built on herding horses and cattle. Although composed of various clans, the kingdom of Macedonia, established around the 8th century BC, is associated with the Argead dynasty and the tribe named after it.
The dynasty was founded by Perdiccas I, descendant of the legendary Temenus of Argos, while the region of Macedon derived its name from Makedon, a figure of Greek mythology. Traditionally ruled by independent families, the Macedonians seem to have accepted Argead rule by the time of Alexander I. Under Philip II, the Macedonians are credited with numerous military innovations, which enlarged their territory and increased their control over other areas extending into Thrace; this consolidation of territory allowed for the exploits of Alexander the Great, the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, the establishment of the diadochi successor states, the inauguration of the Hellenistic period in West Asia and the broader Mediterranean world. The Macedonians were conquered by the Roman Republic, which dismantled the Macedonian monarchy at the end of the Third Macedonian War and established the Roman province of Macedonia after the Fourth Macedonian War. Authors and statesmen of the ancient world expressed ambiguous if not conflicting ideas about the ethnic identity of the Macedonians as either Greeks, semi-Greeks, or barbarians.
This has led to debate among modern academics about the precise ethnic identity of the Macedonians, who embraced many aspects of contemporaneous Greek culture such as participation in Greek religious cults and athletic games, including the Ancient Olympic Games. Given the scant linguistic evidence, it is not clear how related the Macedonian language was to Greek, how close it was to the Phrygian and Illyrian languages; the ancient Macedonians participated in the production and fostering of Classical and Hellenistic art. In terms of visual arts, they produced frescoes, mosaics and decorative metalwork; the performing arts of music and Greek theatrical dramas were appreciated, while famous playwrights such as Euripides came to live in Macedonia. The kingdom attracted the presence of renowned philosophers, such as Aristotle, while native Macedonians contributed to the field of ancient Greek literature Greek historiography, their sport and leisure activities included hunting, foot races, chariot races, as well as feasting and drinking at aristocratic banquets known as symposia.
The expansion of the Macedonian kingdom has been described as a three-stage process. As a frontier kingdom on the border of the Greek world with barbarian Europe, the Macedonians first subjugated their immediate northern neighbours—various Illyrian and Thracian tribes—before turning against the states of southern and central Greece. Macedonia led a pan-Hellenic military force against their primary objective—the conquest of Persia—which they achieved with remarkable ease. Following the death of Alexander the Great and the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC, the diadochi successor states such as the Attalid and Seleucid Empires were established, ushering in the Hellenistic period of Greece, West Asia and the Hellenized Mediterranean Basin. With Alexander's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonians colonized territories as far east as Central Asia; the Macedonians continued to rule much of Hellenistic Greece, forming alliances with Greek leagues such as the Cretan League and Epirote League. However, they fell into conflict with the Achaean League, Aetolian League, the city-state of Sparta, the Ptolemaic dynasty of Hellenistic Egypt that intervened in wars of the Aegean region and mainland Greece.
After Macedonia formed an alliance with Hannibal of Ancient Carthage in 215 BC, the rival Roman Republic responded by fighting a series of wars against Macedonia in conjunction with its Greek allies such as Pergamon and Rhodes. In the aftermath of the Third Macedonian War, the Romans abolished the Macedonian monarchy under Perseus of Macedon and replaced the kingdom with four client state republics. A brief revival of the monarchy by the pretender Andriscus led to the Fourth Macedonian War, after which Rome established the Roman province of Macedonia and subjugated the Macedonians. In Greek mythology, Makedon is the eponymous hero of Macedonia and is mentioned in Hesiod's Catalogue of Women; the first historical attestation of the Macedonians occurs in the works of Herodotus during the mid-5th century BC. The Macedonians are absent in Homer's Catalogue of Ships and the term "Macedonia" itself appears late; the Iliad states that upon leaving Mount Olympus, Hera journeyed via Pieria and
Eustathius of Thessalonica
Eustathius of Thessalonica was a Byzantine Greek scholar and Archbishop of Thessalonica. He is most noted for his contemporary account of the sack of Thessalonica by the Normans in 1185, for his orations and for his commentaries on Homer, which incorporate many remarks by much earlier researchers, he was canonized on June 10, 1988, his feast day is on September 20. A pupil of Nicholas Kataphloron, Eustathius was appointed to the offices of superintendent of petitions, professor of rhetoric, was ordained a deacon in Constantinople, he was ordained bishop of Myra. Around the year 1178, he was appointed to the archbishopric of Thessalonica, where he remained until his death around 1195/1196. Accounts of his life and work are given in the funeral orations by Michael Choniates. Niketas Choniates praised him as the most learned man of his age, a judgment, difficult to dispute, he wrote commentaries on ancient Greek poets, theological treatises, letters, an important account of the sack of Thessalonica by William II of Sicily in 1185.
Of his works, his commentaries on Homer are the most referred to: they display an extensive knowledge of Greek literature from the earliest to the latest times. Other works exhibit impressive character, oratorical power, which earned him the esteem of the Komnenoi emperors. Politically, Eustathios was a supporter of emperor Manuel I. An original thinker, Eustathios sometimes praised such secular values as military prowess, he decried slavery, believed in the concept of historical progress of civilization from a primitive to a more advanced state. His most important works are the following: On the Capture of Thessalonica, an eye-witness account of the siege of 1185 and subsequent sufferings of the people of Thessalonica. In early sections of this memoir Eustathios describes political events at Constantinople from the death of emperor Manuel I through the short reign of Alexios II to the usurpation of Andronikos I, with sharp comments on the activities of all involved; the Greek text was edited with an Italian translation by V. Rotolo.
A number of orations, some of which have been edited by P. Wirth. In 2013 a translation of six of the earliest of these speeches was published with a commentary by Andrew F. Stone. Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey; these address questions of grammar, mythology and geography. They are not so much original commentaries as extracts from earlier commentators - there are many correspondences with Homeric scholia. Drawing on numerous extensive works of Alexandrian grammarians and critics and commentators, they are a important contribution to Homeric scholarship, not least because some of the works from which Eustathios made extracts are lost. Although it is that Eustathios quotes some authors second-hand, he seems acquainted with the works of the greatest ancient critics - Aristarchos of Samothrace, Aristophanes of Byzantium, others; this is a great tribute to the state of the libraries of Constantinople and of classical scholarship there in the 12th century. He was an avid reader of the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus.
Some of the etymological and grammatical comments by Eustathios's Alexandrian predecessors are full of errors. The first printed edition, by Majoranus, was published in Rome in 1542-1550, an inaccurate reprint being published in Basel in 1559-1560. A. Potitus' edition, contains only the commentary on the first five books of the Iliad with a Latin translation. A tolerably correct reprint of the Roman edition was published at Leipzig, the first part containing the Odyssey commentary, 1825-1826, the second, containing the Iliad commentary, edited by J. G. Stallbaum for the Patrologia Graeca, 1827-1829; these were superseded by the edition of 1971 onwards. Extracts from the commentaries are quoted in many editions of the Homeric poems. A commentary on Dionysius Periegetes; this is as diffuse as the commentary on Homer, but includes numerous valuable extracts from earlier writers. A commentary on Pindar. No manuscript of this has come to light. (The introduction was first published by Gottlieb Tafel in his Eustathii Thessalonicensis Opuscula, from which it was reprinted separately by Schneidewin, Eustathii prooemium commentariorum Pindaricorum.
Other published works. Some were first published by Tafel in the 1832 Opuscula just mentioned, some appeared as by P. Wirth for the Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae series. Unpublished works; these include commemorative speeches. Several of the latter are important historical sources. Angold, Michael. Church and society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081–1261. Cambridge University Pre
Modern Greek is the form of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD. During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the demotic and learned varieties that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian and Tsakonian. Speaking, Demotic refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present; as shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor and Cyprus.
Today, a standardised variety of Demotic Greek is the official language of the Hellenic Republic and Cyprus, is referred to as "Standard Modern Greek", or less simply as "Modern Greek" or "Demotic". Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the high degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as "idioms" of a wider "Demotic dialect", known as "Koine Modern Greek". Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as "dialects", emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary. Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern; the main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes: becomes and and are dropped. The dropped vowels' existence is implicit, may affect surrounding phonemes: for example, a dropped palatalizes preceding consonants, just like an, pronounced. Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts.
Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Macedonian, Thracian, Northern Euboean, Samos and Sarakatsanika. The Southern category is divided into groups that include: Old Athenian-Maniot: Megara, Athens and Mani Peninsula Ionian-Peloponnesian: Peloponnese, Ionian Islands, Attica and Southern Euboea Cretan-Cycladian: Cyclades and several enclaves in Syria and Lebanon Southeastern: Chios, Ikaria and Cyprus. Demotic Greek has been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982. Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles. Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic, it was the official language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script. While Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. See the Greek language question. Pontic was spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece during the Pontic genocide, followed by the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923.
It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region. Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the region's isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Cappadocian is a Greek dialect of central Turkey of the same fate as Pontic. Cappadocian Greek diverged from the other Byzantine Greek dialects earlier, beginning with the Turkish conquests of central Asia Minor in the 11th and 12th centuries, so developed several radical features, such as the loss of the gender for nouns. Having been isolated from the crusader conquests and the Venetian influence of the Greek coast, it retained the Ancient Greek terms for many words that were replaced with Romance ones in Demotic Greek; the poet Rumi, whose name means "Roman", referring to his residence amongst the "Roman" Greek speakers of Cappadocia, wrote a few poems in Cappadocian Greek, one of the earliest attestations of the dialect.
Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine and Russia. Mariupolitan Greek is related to Pontic Greek and evolved from the dialect of Greek spoken in Crimea, a part of the Byzantine Empire and the Pontic Empire of Trebizond, until that latter state fell to the Ottomans in 1461. Thereafter, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principali