Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.
One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.
It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.
Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.
Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.
Metropolitan Borough of Wigan
The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, in North West England. It is named after its largest component town and former county borough and includes the towns and villages of Leigh, part of Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell, Atherton, Golborne, Billinge, Astley and Aspull; the borough was formed in 1974 and is an amalgamation of several former local government districts and parishes. The borough has three civil parishes and lies directly to the west of the City of Salford and southwest of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton; the local authority is Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council. Wigan metropolitan borough was created on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, it was formed from the former county borough of Wigan along with other local government units from the administrative county of Lancashire. These were the Municipal Borough of Leigh, the urban districts of Abram, Atherton, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell and Tyldesley. Ashton-in-Makerfield except for the parish of Seneley Green, the Golborne Urban District except for the parish of Culcheth and Glazebury in Warrington, the Higher End part of Billinge and Winstanley Urban District and the civil parishes of Haigh and Worthington from the Wigan Rural District were included.
Before its creation, the name Wigan-Leigh was used in the Redcliffe-Maud Report. It was suggested; however both names were rejected by a vote of 12 to 2. According to an opinion poll in 2003, 26% of 299 residents surveyed felt they belonged "very strongly" or "fairly strongly" to Greater Manchester, 64% to the borough of Wigan, 63% to Lancashire; the metropolitan borough was created from a industrialised area of Lancashire, part of the Lancashire Coalfield and had an important textile industry. Wigan borough covers an area of 77 square miles and is the 9th largest metropolitan borough, out of 36, in England; the borough is the most north western in Greater Manchester. Within Greater Manchester, it borders the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton to the north-east and east, the City of Salford to the east. Outwith Greater Manchester, in the south it borders Warrington. To the west it borders the West Lancashire borough, to the north it borders the Chorley borough, both in Lancashire. Wigan has seven Local Nature Reserves: including Wigan Flashes LNR, Borsdane Wood LNR, between Hindley and Aspull, Greenslate Water Meadows LNR within Orrell Water Park in Orrell, Low Hall LNR between Hindley and Platt Bridge, Pennington Flash LNR, Kirkless LNR at Ince and Three Sisters LNR, Ashton-In-Makerfield.
See also: Mayor of Wigan. For 12 years after the county was created in 1974, the borough had a two-tier system of local government, Wigan Council shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council; the county council was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. In April 2011 the Greater Manchester Combined Authority became the top tier of local government within Greater Manchester covering ten boroughs including Wigan; the first elections to the borough council were held on 10 May 1973. The Metropolitan Borough Council is divided into 25 wards. Elections are with one councillor from each ward up for re-election in each election year; the borough council has a cabinet system. The current leader is David Molyneux who took over from Peter Smith, who resigned in May 2018, having been leader since 1991; the council rejected the idea of a directly-elected mayor following a consultation in 2001. The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is traditionally a Labour stronghold - the council has been Labour Party-controlled since its creation.
The local elections in 1998 resulted in a council with only 2 non-Labour members. Labour had a majority with 43 seats at the 2006 election; the second largest party was the local Community Action Party. Community Action first contested Wigan elections in 2002, won 18 seats in the 2004 election following the re-warding - their councilors are for wards in the middle of the borough, between Wigan and Leigh; the Conservative Party had nine seats, the Liberal Democrats eight. At the 2008 elections Labour was the largest party with 41 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 14 seats, Community Action Party 8 seats, Independent 7 seats, Liberal Democrats 4 seats and one was vacant; as of November 2010, Labour was the largest party with 51 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 8 seats, 7 Independent, Community Action Party 4 seats and Liberal Democrats seats and the'Independent Conservative' members with 2 seats. As of June 2011, Labour continued to be the largest party with 58 seats out of 75, the Independent Councillor group with 8 seats form the official opposition, the Conservative Party had 5 seats, the Liberal Democrats hold 2 seats, Community Action Party 1 seat and 1 Independent councillor.
In May 2012 the composition of the council was Labour 63, Others 9, Liberal Democrats 2 and Conservatives 1. Presently in May 2018, the Council's political composition is: Labour 60, Conservatives 7, Independent 4, Independent Network 2, Shevington Independents 1, Standish Independents 1; the council uses Wigan Town Hall as its main headquarters. Leigh Town Hall is used as a secondary base; the borough is divided into 25 electoral wards. The present war
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is variously known as Old Brittonic and Common or Old Brythonic. By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cornish and the Pictish language. Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish and south of the Firth of Forth by Old English. Brittonic was replaced by English throughout England.
O'Rahilly's historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance. O'Rahilly's model seems to be supported by the presence of Belgic tribes in Ptolemy's maps. No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified; the Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic. There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse: Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai The affixed – Deuina, Andagin, Uindiorix – I have bound An alternative translation taking into account case marking is: May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda. There is a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text; this seems to contain Brittonic names.
British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy's Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979, they show. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic; some Brittonic personal names are recorded. Tacitus' Agricola noted. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic. Pritenic is a modern term, coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain. Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages, "Pritenic" would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BC; the evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain.
These names have been discussed by Kenneth H. Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European; the rarity of survival of Pritenic names is due to Dál Riatan and Norse settlement in the area. The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Koch, their conclusions are that Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century. The Roman frontier between Britannia and Pictland is to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede considered Welsh/British to be separate languages. Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers; the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was replaced by Old English.
Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales and Devon, Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh and Breton, respectively; the early Common Brittonic vowel inventory is identical to that of Proto-Celtic. /ɨ/ and /ʉ/ have not developed yet. Notes: The central mid vowels /ə/ and /ɵ̞/ were allophonic developments of /i/ and /u/, respectively. Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic: Notes: The dative dual and plural represent the inherited instrumental forms, which replaced the inherited dative dual and plural, from Proto-Celtic *toutābom, *toutābos. Notes: Neuter 2nd declension stems deviate from the paradigm as such:Notes: Dual is same as singular All other declensions same as regular 2nd declension paradigm Common Brittonic survive
Ashton-in-Makerfield is a town in Greater Manchester, England. It is 4.2 miles south of the town of Wigan. In 2001 it had a population of 28,505. A part of Lancashire, Ashton-in-Makerfield was anciently a township in the parish of Newton-in-Makerfield and hundred of West Derby. With neighbouring Haydock, Ashton-in-Makerfield was a chapelry, but the two were split in 1845; the place has long been a centre for the manufacture of locks and hinges, but sits on the Lancashire Coalfield, so was a coal mining district. The name Ashton derives from Old English and means the "farmstead where the ash-trees grow"; the town's name was recorded as Eston in 1212. The suffix "in-Makerfield" was added, which relates the name of the old district of Makerfield of which Ashton was a part. St Thomas' Church of England parish church on Warrington Road has ancient origins although the present building is over 120 years old; the graveyard is the resting place of many of the 189 victims of the Wood Pit explosion, the worst coal-mining disaster in Lancashire at the time.
Hope Church on Heath Road was founded by Protestants from St Thomas' opposed to the High Church ideals brought in by a new Vicar in the 1880s. His introduction of Anglo-Catholic worship caused riots on Gerard Street and he was evicted from the town by a mob of miners, he returned backed by troops from Liverpool. Banned from worshipping in the form they had always done, many left and continued a simpler form of worship in a barn off Ashton Heath. Word of their plight reached a Miss Catherine Cave-Browne in London who sent money for a Protestant Mission to be built; the church was built with the official title of Cave-Browne Protestant Institute. Park Lane Chapel, Wigan Road, dates back to 1697, although its congregation was founded in 1662, it is the oldest non-conformist congregation in the district. By the 19th century Park Lane was only one of nine non-conformist chapels in the area. There was a Baptist, Congregational church, Independent, Independent Methodist, Primitive Methodist, Welsh Wesleyan Methodist and English Wesleyan Methodist chapel.
The Catholic Church of St Oswald and St Edmund Arrowsmith, constructed in 1935, houses the hand of St Edmund Arrowsmith. Ashton-in-Makerfield was part of the St. Helens Area of the South Lancashire Coalfield; the St Helens Area lay to the South West of the Wigan area and occupied around 60 square miles, skirting Wigan, Widnes and to within eight miles of Liverpool. In 1867 there were 13 collieries in the district of Ashton-in-Makerfield. Others followed including Bryn Hall Colliery, owned by Edward Frederick Crippin, the Mains and Park Lane Collieries. Park Colliery and some of those open in 1867 remained productive until the 1950s. A number of Ashton's coal miners made a significant impact on modern British history, including: Stephen Walsh M. P.. C. and Lance-Corporal in the 1st Lancashire Fusiliers. In the late 19th century, the district was described by one observer as having "extensive collieries, cotton mills and potteries", famed for the manufacture of "hinges, locks and nails". Mills such as the Record Mill, situated in York Road, the Makerfield Mill, in Windsor Road, took over from home-working.
Thomas Crompton & Sons in Gerard Street, which would employ around 1,200 workers, superseded the subcontracting system that sustained substantial numbers of locally based blacksmiths and other craftsmen. As as the 1970s the district of Ashton-in-Makerfield had one of the highest proportions of derelict land in the form of spoil tips, left over from coal mining. Major land reclamation schemes have since transformed the area. Before 1894 Ashton-in-Makerfield was a township in the parish of Winwick, part of the West Derby Hundred of Lancashire. By an Act in 1845 and the division of the Parish of Winwick, Holy Trinity Church, Downall Green, was made the principal parish church and St. Thomas' made a parish church in the same Act, both being part of the Diocese of Liverpool. By the Local Government Act 1894 Ashton-in-Makerfield was made an urban district. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the district was split administratively with Seneley Green Parish, containing Garswood and Downall Green, going to the Metropolitan Borough of St Helens in Merseyside, the rest going to the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan in Greater Manchester.
The section of Ashton-in-Makerfield within the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan creates the Bryn & Ashton Township, consisting of the six'neighbourhoods' of Bryn, Ashton Heath, Stubshaw Cross and Town Green, one of the ten areas into which Wigan Metropolitan Borough has been divided for consultation purposes. Each township has a forum, with some influence over the provision of municipal services. Ashton-in-Makerfield consists of the following sections. Town Green, Stubshaw Cross and Bryn, with Garswood and Downall Green in the Parish of Seneley Green; the west of Ashton-in-Makerfield is part of St Helens, in Merseyside. The east section lies in Greater Manchester, it is included in the Liverpoo
Magor - meaning'a wall' - is a large village in Monmouthshire, south east Wales, about 9 miles west of Chepstow and about 9 miles east of the city of Newport. It lies on the Caldicot Levels beside the Severn Estuary, is in the community of Magor with Undy. Magor lies close to the M4 motorway. There is a nearby motorway service area sharing its name and it is within the commuter belts of Newport and Cardiff; the original Welsh language name Magwyr, from which the English name is derived, is thought to originate from the Latin maceria, meaning masonry walls or ruins. It may relate either to a now-lost Roman villa in the area, or alternatively to sea defences or a causeway built by the Romans. Magor and the surrounding area contain many Roman ruins and artefacts, the village centre was located at the inner edge of salt marshes which the Romans began to reclaim as farmland; the local name "Whitewall" may relate to the same causeway, which would have connected the village to a small now-vanished harbour on the Severn Estuary known as Abergwaitha or Aberweytha.
In 1994 the remains of a 13th-century boat, used for trading along and across the Severn Estuary, with Ireland, were found buried in the mud of the estuary close to Magor Pill. The boat was found to have been carrying iron ore from Glamorgan. Magor, as "Magur", is one of the few villages to appear on the Cambriae Typus map of 1573. According to tradition, the parish church was founded in the 7th century, was dedicated to St. Leonard; the existing building has been described as "one of the most ambitious churches in Monmouthshire". The earliest parts of the building date from the 13th century, at about the same time as it was handed by Gilbert Marshal, Earl of Pembroke to the Abbey of Anagni in Italy, it was administered by Tintern Abbey. The church was extended in the 15th century, was restored and re-dedicated to St. Mary in the mid-19th century. Remains of The Procurator's House, some parts of which may date from the 14th century and others from the 16th century, are still standing just off the village square.
The procurator was responsible for collecting the tithes of the village on behalf of the abbey. The church is the burial place of Welsh composer Mansel Thomas. Although it could be described as a dormitory town, it has a thriving village centre containing shops, restaurants and a Post Office; as well as the large parish church, the village has an historic Baptist church. Magor and the neighbouring village of Undy support a thriving athletic club whose clubhouse and pitches are found at the eastern end of the villages. Undy consists of all land lying to the north of Magor reen, taking in Dancing Hill where the reen intersects Cowleaze to the south and Millfield Park and Mill Reen to the north. Vinegar Hill regarded as a boundary point between Magor and Undy lies wholly within Undy. Magor Marsh is a 90 acres wetland reserve managed by the Gwent Wildlife Trust, it has a rich variety of habitats, including damp hay meadows, sedge fen, scrub, wet woodland, a large pond and numerous reens. It includes breeding grounds for common snipe, common redshank, reed warbler, grasshopper warbler and Cetti's warbler.
It is the richest site in Wales for wetland beetles and soldier-flies, its pattern of drainage ditches and other features have remained unchanged since the 14th century. Nearby the village, at Junction 23A of the M4 motorway is Magor services motorway service area, which opened in 1996. In 2007 a M4 relief road was proposed for Newport, to be built to the west of the village utilising the existing motorway junction; these plans were dropped in 2009. As of October 2013, a revised draft plan is under consultation. Monmouthshire County Council relocated many of its office-based staff to Innovation House at Magor, on the Wales 1 Business Park beside the motorway, in 2011; this followed from the need to vacate its offices at the former Gwent County Hall at Croesyceiliog, due to "concrete cancer" in the building. The South Wales Railway between Swansea and Chepstow passed through Magor and a station was opened here in the 1850s, shortly after the line opened; the station provided three sidings serving local farmers.
By the 1920s, traffic on the line was so heavy. In 1941 the main line was doubled to four running lines, with the outer two lines as slow goods-only lines to serve the increasing wartime coal traffic, without delaying fast trains on the central main lines; the station closed, along with Undy Halt, in November 1964. Harry Harris, professional football player. Magor with Undy Community Council Monumental Inscriptions for Magor
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
Ince-in-Makerfield or Ince is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, in Greater Manchester, England. The population of the Ince ward at the 2011 census was 13,486, but a southern part of Ince was listed under the Abram ward. Adding on this area brings the total in 2011 to 15,664. In Lancashire, Ince is contiguous to Wigan and is a residential suburb. Divided by a railway line into two separate areas - Higher Ince and Lower Ince, from 1894 Ince was an urban district of the administrative county of Lancashire and in 1974 became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan; the name Ince may be of Cumbric origin and derived from ïnïs, meaning'island' or, as is in this case,'dry land'. The earliest mention of the Manor of Ince and the Ince family dates from 1202 at which point it was under the barony of Newton in Makerfield. There were three halls in Ince, both the Manor of Ince and the original hall on Warrington Road were held by a family of the same name who owned the Manor of Aspull and had close ties to the Hindley family, the lineage was replaced by the Gerard family by marriage in the reign of Henry IV who adopted the name Gerard family of Ince and the manor remained with them for several centuries until William Gerard sold it to the Earl of Balcarres at some point between 1796 and 1825, it was of timber framed construction.
A branch of the Gerard family lived at New Hall from about 1600 until the line died out with marriage to the Andertons of Euxton who adopted the name Ince Anderton and temporarily inhabited the hall from 1760-1818 before moving to Euxton Hall. The third known as Ince Hall was a timber and plaster building built in the reign of James I off Manchester Road, it had a moat, Italian chimneys and an oak panelled interior but in 1854 was damaged by fire and rebuilt in plain brick of no architectural merit and modernised inside. All three halls were still standing in 1911 but none remain today; the township covered 2,221 acres of level ground. The underlying rocks contained strata of cannel and coal and many collieries were sunk, the early pits were 120 to 900 feet deep, subsequently to 1,800 feet, its coal pits included Ince Hall, Rose Bridge and Ince Collieries. Mining left a legacy of spoil flashes which were known as the Wigan Alps. Stone was quarried and used to build bridges on the railway. Ince became industrialised in the Industrial Revolution.
The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, the North Union and Liverpool and Bury railways passed through the township and a cotton mill was built. Ince is served by Ince railway station on the Manchester to Southport line, however to distinguish it from Ince & Elton in Cheshire, on destination boards it is displayed as InceInce was once criss-crossed by railway lines on the London and North Western Railway's Warrington to Wigan, Eccles to Wigan, Wigan to St Helens and Springs Branch to Haigh and Aspull lines, the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway's Bury to Liverpool line and the Great Central Railway line from Glazebrook to Wigan; the Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes through Higher Ince and 16 of the Wigan flight of locks are within the township. Listed buildings in Ince-in-Makerfield St Mary's Church, Lower Ince Rose Bridge Academy Makerfield List of mining disasters in Lancashire Bibliography https://web.archive.org/web/20070927013841/http://www.wigan.gov.uk/Services/CommunityLiving/Townships/WiganNorth/