The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Butaritari is an atoll in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. The atoll is four-sided; the south and southeast portion of the atoll comprises a nearly continuous islet. The atoll reef is continuous but without islets along the north side. Bikati and Bikatieta islets occupy a corner of the reef at the extreme northwest tip of the atoll. Small islets are found on reef sections between channels on the west side; the lagoon of Butaritari is deep and can accommodate large ships, though the entrance passages are narrow. It is the most fertile of the Gilbert Islands, with good soils and high rainfall. Butaritari atoll has a land area of 13.49 km2 and a population of 4,346 as of 2010. During World War II, Butaritari was known by US forces as Makin Atoll, was the site of the Battle of Makin. Locally, Makin is the name of a separate atoll three kilometers to the northeast of Butaritari. Butaritari is the second most northerly of the Gilbert Islands. Butaritari was called Makin Atoll by the U. S. military, present-day Makin was known as Makin Meang or Little Makin to distinguish it.
Now that Butaritari has become the preferred name for the larger atoll, speakers tend to drop the qualifier for Makin. Butaritari has previously been known as Pitt Island, Taritari Island, or Touching Island; the atoll is four-sided and nearly 30 km across in the east-west direction, averages about 15 km north to south. The reef is more submerged and broken into several broad channels along the west side. Small islets are found on reef sections between these channels; the atoll reef is continuous but without islets along the north side. In the northeast corner, the reef is some 1.75 km across and with only scattered small islet development. Thus, the lagoon of Butaritari is open to exchange with the ocean; the lagoon is deep and can accommodate large ships, though the entrance passages are narrow. The south and southeast portion of the atoll comprises a nearly continuous islet, broken only by a single, broad section of interislet reef; these islets are between 0.2 km and 0.5 km across, but widen in the areas where the reef changes directions.
Mangrove swamps appear well developed in these latter areas as well as all along the southern lagoon shore. Bikati and Bikatieta islets occupy a corner of the reef at the extreme northwest tip of the atoll, bordering a small lagoon to the north of the main lagoon. There is a village on the larger Bikati. Seepage of saltwater into the pits in which babai is grown is the major concern of islanders; the erosion problems are identified as being linked to aggregate mining, land reclamation and the construction of causeways, thought to change the currents along the shoreline. The causeways have resulted to reduced flushing of the lagoon that has resulted in low levels of oxygen in the lagoon, which has caused damage to fish stocks in the lagoon and causes other biological problems. Aggregate mining and the removal of coral boulders is exacerbating coastal erosion; the population of Butaritari in the 2010 Census was 4,346 people, inhabiting twelve villages: Butaritari is one of the lushest of the islands of Kiribati due to good rainfall.
Typical annual rainfall is about 4 m, compared with about 2 m on Tarawa Atoll and 1 m in the far south of Kiribati. Rainfall on Butaritari is enhanced during an El Niño. Butaritari has rich marine resources, with wide reef. Butaritari has the greatest potential for agriculture in Kiribati: bananas and papaya grow well, successful cultivars of pumpkin, cucumber and other vegetables have been created with assistance from the Taiwan Technical Mission based in South Tarawa. However, most households keep to a subsistence lifestyle and, although food is plentiful, money is scarce as there are few paid jobs on the island. There are different stories told as to the creation of Butaritari and the other islands in the Southern Gilberts. An important legend in the culture of Butaritari is that spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree, Te Kaintikuaba, which translates as the tree of life, it was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise. The Spanish expedition led by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sighted the Buen Viaje Islands on 8 July 1606.
Traditionally and Makin were ruled by a chief or Uea who lived on Butaritari Island. This chief had all the powers and authority to make and impose decisions for Butaritari and Makin, a system different from the southern Gilbert Islands where power was wielded collectively by the unimwane or old men; the people of Kuma village had the power to call dolphins or whales, used this ability on special occasions to provide meat for important feasts such as the opening of a new maneaba. The islands were visited as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1841. Any possible Guano Islands Act claim by the United States to Butaritari and Little Makin was renounced in the 1970s; the first traders resident in the Gilberts were Randell and Durant who arrived in 1846. Durant moved on the Makin; the earliest trading companies on Butaritari were the Hamburg-based Handels-und Plantagen-Gesellschaft der Südsee-Inseln zu Hamburg with Pacific headquarters in Samoa, On Chong. These traders helped Butaritari became the co
New Guinea campaign
The New Guinea campaign of the Pacific War lasted from January 1942 until the end of the war in August 1945. During the initial phase in early 1942, the Empire of Japan invaded the Australian-administered territories of the New Guinea Mandate and Papua and overran western New Guinea, a part of the Netherlands East Indies. During the second phase, lasting from late 1942 until the Japanese surrender, the Allies—consisting of Australian and US forces—cleared the Japanese first from Papua the Mandate and from the Dutch colony; the campaign resulted in heavy losses for the Empire of Japan. As in most Pacific War campaigns and starvation claimed more Japanese lives than enemy action. Most Japanese troops never came into contact with Allied forces, were instead cut off and subjected to an effective blockade by the US Navy. Garrisons were besieged and denied shipments of food and medical supplies, as a result, some claim that 97% of Japanese deaths in this campaign were from non-combat causes. According to John Laffin, the campaign "was arguably the most arduous fought by any Allied troops during World War II".
The struggle for New Guinea began with the capture by the Japanese of the city of Rabaul at the northeastern tip of New Britain Island in January 1942. Rabaul overlooks Simpson Harbor, a considerable natural anchorage, was ideal for the construction of airfields. Over the next year, the Japanese built up the area into naval base; the Japanese 8th Area Army, under General Hitoshi Imamura at Rabaul, was responsible for both the New Guinea and Solomon Islands campaigns. The Japanese 18th Army, under Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi, was responsible for Japanese operations on mainland New Guinea; the colonial capital of Port Moresby on the south coast of Papua was the strategic key for the Japanese in this area of operations. Capturing it would both neutralize the Allies' principal forward base and serve as a springboard for a possible invasion of Australia. For the same reasons, General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander Allied Forces South West Pacific Area was determined to hold it. MacArthur was further determined to conquer all of New Guinea in his progress toward the eventual recapture of the Philippines.
General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area Operational Instruction No.7 of 25 May 1942, issued by Commander-Allied-Forces, General Douglas MacArthur, placed all Australian and US Army, Air Force and Navy Forces in the Port Moresby Area under the control of New Guinea Force. Due north of Port Moresby, on the northeast coast of Papua, are the Huon Peninsula; the Japanese entered Lae and Salamaua, two locations on Huon Gulf, unopposed in early March 1942. MacArthur would have liked to deny this area to the Japanese, but he had neither sufficient air nor naval forces to undertake a counterlanding; the Japanese at Rabaul and other bases on New Britain would have overwhelmed any such effort. The only Allied response was a bombing raid of Lae and Salamaua by aircraft flying over the Owen Stanley Range from the carriers USS Lexington and USS Yorktown, leading the Japanese to reinforce these sites. Operation Mo was the designation given by the Japanese to their initial plan to take possession of Port Moresby.
Their operation plan decreed a five-pronged attack: one task force to establish a seaplane base at Tulagi in the lower Solomons, one to establish a seaplane base in the Louisiade Archipelago off the eastern tip of New Guinea, one of transports to land troops near Port Moresby, one with a light carrier to cover the landing, one with two fleet carriers to sink the Allied forces sent in response. In the resulting 4–8 May 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea, the Allies suffered higher losses in ships, but achieved a crucial strategic victory by turning the Japanese landing force back, thereby removing the threat to Port Moresby, at least for the time being. After this failure, the Japanese decided on a longer term, two-pronged assault for their next attempt on Port Moresby. Forward positions would first be established at Milne Bay, located in the forked eastern end of the Papuan peninsula, at Buna, a village on the northeast coast of Papua about halfway between Huon Gulf and Milne Bay. Simultaneous operations from these two locations, one amphibious and one overland, would converge on the target city.
Buna was taken as the Allies had no military presence there. The Japanese occupied the village with an initial force of 1,500 on 21 July and by 22 August had 11,430 men under arms at Buna. Began the grueling Kokoda Track campaign, a brutal experience for both the Japanese and Australian troops involved. On 17 September, the Japanese had reached the village of Ioribaiwa, just 30 kilometres from the Allied airdrome at Port Moresby; the Australians began their counterdrive on 26 September." "...the Japanese retreat down the Kokoda Trail had turned into a rout. Thousands perished from disease, thus was the overland threat to Port Moresby permanently removed. Since Port Moresby was the only port supporting operations in Papua, its defence was critical to the campaign; the air defences consisted of P-40 fighters. RAAF radar could not provide sufficient w
South Tarawa is the capital and hub of the Republic of Kiribati and home to half of Kiribati's population. The South Tarawa population centre consists of all the small islets from Betio in the west to Bonriki and Tanaea in the east, connected by the South Tarawa main road, with a population of 50,182 as of 2010. South Tarawa is home to most of the government and education facilities in Kiribati including the Port and the High Court at Betio, the State House, Government Ministries and foreign High Commissions in Bairiki, a University of the South Pacific campus in Teaorereke, the House of Assembly in Ambo, the Kiribati Teacher College and King George V and Elaine Bernachi School, the Government High School, is in Bikenibeu, the central hospital in Nawerewere; the Roman Catholic diocese is based in Teaorereke, the Kiribati Protestant Church in Antebuka, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Eita. At the local government level, South Tarawa has two administrative subdivisions: Betio Town Council on Betio Teinainano Urban Council from Bairiki to Tanaea Buota, part of North Tarawa and administered by the Eutan Tarawa Council, is linked by road to South Tarawa and is experiencing many similar issues of rapid population growth and environmental degradation.
South Tarawa is a string of islets between the Tarawa Lagoon to the north, with a maximum depth of 25 metres, the Pacific Ocean to the south, with a depth of up to 4,000 metres. The island has been built from sediments from the lagoon; the process of soil accumulation is driven by the dominant easterly trade winds and can be reversed during extended periods of westerly winds during El Niño–Southern Oscillations. These islets are now joined by causeways, forming one long islet on the reef along the southern side of the Tarawa Lagoon. Most of South Tarawa is less than 3 metres above sea level with an average width of only 450 metres. At the time of the 1978 Census, South Tarawa had a population of 17,921 with most residents living in the main population centres of Betio and Bikenibeu. Since Kiribati became independent in 1979, the population of South Tarawa has tripled, now stands at 50,182 people. All of South Tarawa is now urbanised and is one continuous settlement from the northeastern end of the island, Tanaea, to its southwestern end at Betio.
Buota in North Tarawa is connected to the South Tarawa main road and is growing rapidly. Tarawa island is central to Kiribati mythology and culture, but life on South Tarawa was little different to that on other islands before the it was selected as the seat of colonial government for the Protectorate of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Betio was the location of the Battle of Tarawa; the highest point on South Tarawa is only a few meters above sea level, making the island vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters. The effects of rising sea levels and associated soil salination are starting to threaten limited fresh water supplies; the weather in South Tarawa is warm and humid all year round and average rainfalls are high. However, rainfall is unpredictable, varying with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, South Tarawa can go for many months with no rain during La Niña cycles. South Tarawa has limited water resources for its growing population. During the frequent droughts, the only source of water is the shallow freshwater lens that permeates the coral rock of the atoll.
The water lenses at Bonriki and Buota have been declared as water reserves, have a combined sustainable yield of 1,300 m3 per day. Other declared water reserves have been relinquished for urbanisation or abandoned due to overpumping and pollution from human settlement. Water from the Bonriki and Buota reserves is distributed by a reticulated network to South Tarawa households. However, the poor condition of the network and the limited water supply mean that water can only be supplied to each village for around 2 hours every two days. Most schools and community buildings have no water supply at all, many households rely on polluted groundwater due to the shortage of treated water; because of the shortage of fresh water, sanitation systems must use saltwater for flushing. The sanitation network on South Tarawa is performing poorly, a major project is underway to rehabilitate the system and improve sanitation and public hygiene; the Ministry of Environment and Agriculture Development is involved in the replanting of mangroves in selected sites to help against coastal erosion.
It is unclear how much of the erosion being experienced on South Tarawa is due to sea-level rise and how much is due to human activities (such as building inappropriate seawalls and mining sand and gravel from the beaches and foreshores0. Coastal erosion will accelerate in due to climate change related sea level rise; the land area of South Tarawa is recorded as 3,896 acres or 15.76 square km. Much of this land is not available for use, including the water reserve and runway, the causeways, a large area of reclaimed land at Temwaiku, the eastern corner of the atoll, too swampy and low-lying. If these areas are excluded, the land area of South Tarawa is only just over 1,000 hectares and the population density of 49 people per hectare or 4,905 per square km is equal to the density of London (5,100 people per km2
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault
Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault is a first-person shooter video game, the story of which takes place during the Pacific War. It is the 7th installment of the Medal of Honor series. Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault introduced some new features to the franchise, such as recovering health by calling the corpsman, the ability to order squad members to give covering fire, move up and fall back. In Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault, it was important for the developers to have a full story line, emphasizing Sergeant Thomas Conlin and his squad. Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault Director's Edition features some additional content, such as a presentation that shows the real history of American-Japanese war, behind the in-game missions, and a built-in music player that allows the user to listen to the soundtracks of the game. The game begins with the player, in the role of Pvt. Thomas Conlin, a U. S. Marine in the Pacific Theater of World War II, aboard the USS Arizona during the attack on Pearl Harbor, taking part in the defense.
After that, Conlin is reassigned to the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion joins with his old bootcamp training mate as they take part in the notorious Makin Island raid. During the raid, they are tasked with destroying a radio tower, destroying a supply dump, rescuing a downed airman, before returning to their insertion point to fend off a Japanese counter-attack and defend their submarines from an aerial attack. Following the Makin raid, the squad is assigned to the 1st Marine Raider Battalion and deployed in the Guadalcanal, where they are first tasked with the defence of Henderson Field and the outlying area against a Japanese attack, culminating in a push to re-take the airfield, they take part in the Battle of Edson's Ridge and patrols of the Lunga River. As part of the Guadalcanal Mission, Conlin becomes an impromptu pilot, as he is required to take control of the SBD Dauntless. Afterwards, Conlin is promoted to sergeant and squad leader, takes part in the Battle of Tarawa, it took only three days to take Tarawa.
Where Conlin secures the Tarawa beachhead he neutralizes a major Japanese command center and destroys some Japanese AA guns which are used by Japanese forces to prevent American boats from coming to Tarawa atoll he continues to clear Tarawa from the remaining forces. The game was developed by EA Los Angeles and published by EA Games for the PC, it is a first-person shooter, with the exception of one level in which the player flies an SBD Dauntless in the middle of a dog fight. The engine of the game is a modified Lithtech Jupiter created from Monolith Productions in additional with Havok physics engine; the music was composed by Christopher Lennertz. In July 2017, EA made the game free to download on Origin; the game received "favorable" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. Pacific Assault received a "Silver" sales award from the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association, indicating sales of at least 100,000 copies in the United Kingdom. Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault on IMDb Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault at MobyGames