Paul Robin Krugman is an American economist, Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, a columnist for The New York Times. In 2008, Krugman was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to New Trade Theory and New Economic Geography; the Prize Committee cited Krugman's work explaining the patterns of international trade and the geographic distribution of economic activity, by examining the effects of economies of scale and of consumer preferences for diverse goods and services. Krugman was a professor of economics at MIT, at Princeton University, he retired from Princeton in June 2015, holds the title of professor emeritus there. He holds the title of Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics. Krugman was President of the Eastern Economic Association in 2010, is among the most influential economists in the world. Krugman is known in academia for his work on international economics, economic geography, liquidity traps, currency crises.
Krugman is the author or editor of 27 books, including scholarly works and books for a more general audience, has published over 200 scholarly articles in professional journals and edited volumes. He has written several hundred columns on economic and political issues for The New York Times and Slate. A 2011 survey of economics professors named him their favorite living economist under the age of 60; as a commentator, Krugman has written on a wide range of economic issues including income distribution, taxation and international economics. Krugman considers himself a modern liberal, referring to his books, his blog on The New York Times, his 2007 book The Conscience of a Liberal, his popular commentary has attracted widespread attention and comments, both negative. Krugman was born to the son of Anita and David Krugman. In 1922, his paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Brest, Belarus, at that time a part of Poland, he was born in Albany, New York, grew up in Merrick, a hamlet in Nassau County.
He graduated from John F. Kennedy High School in Bellmore. According to Krugman, his interest in economics began with Isaac Asimov's Foundation novels, in which the social scientists of the future use a new science of "psychohistory" to try to save civilization. Since present-day science fell far short of "psychohistory", Krugman turned to economics as the next best thing. Krugman earned his B. A. summa cum laude in economics from Yale University in 1974, went on to pursue a PhD in economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1977, he completed his PhD in three years, with a thesis titled Essays on flexible exchange rates. While at MIT, he was part of a small group of MIT students sent to work for the Central Bank of Portugal for three months in the summer of 1976, during the chaotic aftermath of the Carnation Revolution. Krugman praised his PhD thesis advisor, Rudi Dornbusch, as "one of the great economics teachers of all time" and said that he "had the knack of inspiring students to pick up his enthusiasm and technique, but find their own paths".
In 1978, Krugman presented a number of ideas to Dornbusch, who flagged as interesting the idea of a monopolistically competitive trade model. Encouraged, Krugman worked on it and wrote, " knew within a few hours that I had the key to my whole career in hand". In that same year, Krugman wrote "The Theory of Interstellar Trade", a tongue-in-cheek essay on computing interest rates on goods in transit near the speed of light, he says he wrote it to cheer himself up when he was "an oppressed assistant professor". Krugman became an assistant professor at Yale University in September 1977, he joined the faculty of MIT in 1979. From 1982 to 1983, Krugman spent a year working at the Reagan White House as a staff member of the Council of Economic Advisers, he rejoined MIT as a full professor in 1984. Krugman has taught at Stanford and the London School of Economics. In 2000, Krugman joined Princeton University as Professor of International Affairs, he is currently Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics, a member of the Group of Thirty international economic body.
He has been a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research since 1979. Krugman was President of the Eastern Economic Association in 2010. In February 2014, he announced that he would be retiring from Princeton in June 2015 and that he would be joining the faculty at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Paul Krugman has written extensively on international economics, including international trade, economic geography, international finance; the Research Papers in Economics project ranks him among the world's most influential economists. Krugman's International Economics: Theory and Policy, co-authored with Maurice Obstfeld, is a standard undergraduate textbook on international economics, he is co-author, with Robin Wells, of an undergraduate economics text which he says was inspired by the first edition of Paul Samuelson's classic textbook. Krugman writes on economic topics for the general public, sometimes on international economic topics but on income distribution and public policy.
The Nobel Prize Committee stated that Krugman's main contribution is his analysis of the effects of economies of scale, combined with the assumption that consumers appreciate diversity, on international trade and on the location of economic activity. The importance of spatial issues in economics has been enhanced by Krugman's ability to popularize this complicated theory with the
Reona Esaki known as Leo Esaki, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his work in electron tunneling in semiconductor materials which led to his invention of the Esaki diode, which exploited that phenomenon. This research was done, he has contributed in being a pioneer of the semiconductor superlattices. Esaki was born in Takaida-mura, Nakakawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture and grew up in Kyoto, near by Kyoto Imperial University and Doshisha University, he first had American culture in Doshisha Junior High School. After graduating from the Third Higher School, he studied physics at Tokyo Imperial University, where he had attended Hideki Yukawa's course in nuclear theory in October 1944, he lived through the Bombing of Tokyo while he was at college. Esaki received his B. Sc. and Ph. D. in 1947 and 1959 from the University of Tokyo. From 1947 to 1960, Esaki joined Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo. Meanwhile, American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, William Shockley invented the transistor, which encouraged Esaki to change fields from vacuum tube to heavily-doped germanium and silicon research in Sony.
One year he recognized that when the PN junction width of germanium is thinned, the current-voltage characteristic is dominated by the influence of the tunnel effect and, as a result, he discovered that as the voltage is increased, the current decreases inversely, indicating negative resistance. This discovery was the first demonstration of solid tunneling effects in physics, it was the birth of new electronic devices in electronics called Esaki diode, he received a doctorate degree from UTokyo due to this breakthrough invention in 1959. In 1973, Esaki was awarded the Nobel Prize for research conducted around 1958 regarding electron tunneling in solids, he became the first Nobel laureate to receive the prize from the hands of the King Carl XVI Gustaf. Esaki moved to the United States in 1960 and joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, where he became an IBM Fellow in 1967, he predicted that semiconductor superlattices will be formed to induce a differential negative-resistance effect via an artificially one-dimensional periodic structural changes in semiconductor crystals.
His unique "molecular beam epitaxy" thin-film crystal growth method can be regulated quite in ultrahigh vacuum. His first paper on the semiconductor superlattice was published in 1970. A 1987 comment by Esaki regarding the original paper notes: "The original version of the paper was rejected for publication by Physical Review on the referee's unimaginative assertion that it was'too speculative' and involved'no new physics.' However, this proposal was accepted by the Army Research Office..." In 1972, Esaki realized his concept of superlattices in III-V group semiconductors the concept influenced many fields like metals, magnetic materials. He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor "for contributions to and leadership in tunneling, semiconductor superlattices, quantum wells" in 1991 and the Japan Prize "for the creation and realization of the concept of man-made superlattice crystals which lead to generation of new materials with useful applications" in 1998. In 1994 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, Esaki suggests a list of “five don’ts” which anyone in realizing his creative potential should follow.
Two months the chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics Carl Nordling incorporated the rules in his own speech. Don’t allow yourself to be trapped by your past experiences. Don’t allow yourself to become overly attached to any one authority in your field – the great professor, perhaps. Don’t hold on to what you don’t need. Don’t avoid confrontation. Don’t forget your spirit of childhood curiosity. Esaki moved back to Japan in 1992, subsequently, he served as president of the University of Tsukuba and Shibaura Institute of Technology. Since 2006 he is the president of Yokohama College of Pharmacy. Esaki is the recipient of The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence, the Order of Culture and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun. In recognition of three Nobel laureates' contributions, the bronze statues of Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, Leo Esaki, Makoto Kobayashi were set up in the Central Park of Azuma 2 in Tsukuba City in 2015. After the death of Yoichiro Nambu on 2015, Esaki is the eldest Japanese Nobel laureate.
List of Japanese Nobel laureates List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo Large scale integrated circuits technology: state of the art and prospects, proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Large Scale Integrated Circuits Technology: State of the Art and Prospects," Erice, July 15–27, 1981 / edited by Leo Esaki and Giovanni Soncini Highlights in condensed matter physics and future prospects / edited by Leo Esaki Leo Esaki – Biography. Retrieved August 5, 2003 from http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1973/esaki-bio.html IBM record IEEE History Center – Leo Esaki. Retrieved July 19, 2011 from http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Leo_Esaki Sony History – The Esaki Diode. Retrieved August 5, 2003 from https://web.archive.org/web/20030804052243/http://www.sony.net/Fun/SH/1-7/h5.html Freeview video'An Interview with Leo Esaki' by the Vega Science Trust
Tsukuba is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2015, the city had an estimated population of 223,151, a population density of 787 persons per km², its total area is 283.72 square kilometres. It is known as the location of the Tsukuba Science City, a planned science park developed in the 1960s. Located in southern Ibaraki Prefecture, Tsukuba is located to the south of Mount Tsukuba, from which it takes its name. Ibaraki Prefecture Tsukubamirai Jōsō Shimotsuma Chikusei Sakuragawa Ishioka Tsuchiura Ushiku Ryūgasaki Mount Tsukuba has been a place of pilgrimage since at least the Heian period. During the Edo period, parts of what became the city of Tsukuba were administered by a junior branch of the Hosokawa clan at Yatabe Domain, one of the feudal domains of the Tokugawa shogunate. With the creation of the municipalities system after the Meiji Restoration on April 1, 1889, the town Yatabe was established within Tsukuba District, Ibaraki). On November 30, 1987 the town of Yatabe merged with the neighboring towns of Ōho and Toyosato and the village of Sakura to create the city of Tsukuba.
The neighboring town of Tsukuba merged with the city of Tsukuba on January 1, 1988, followed by the town of Kukizaki on November 1, 2002. In 1985, Tuskuba hosted. On April 1, 2007 Tsukuba was designated a Special city with increased autonomy. Following the Fukushima I nuclear accidents in 2011, evacuees from the accident zone reported that municipal officials in Tsukuba refused to allow them access to shelters in the city unless they presented certificates from the Fukushima government declaring that the evacuees were "radiation free". On May 6, 2012, Tsukuba was struck by a tornado that caused heavy damage to numerous structures and left 20,000 residents without electricity; the storm injured 45 people. The tornado was rated an F-3 by the Japan Meteorological Agency, making it the most powerful tornado to hit Japan; some spots had F-4 damage. Intel Japan Cyberdyne Inc. SoftEther Corporation TonQ Corporation University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Campus National University Corporation Tsukuba University of Technology Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba Campus Tsukuba Gakuin University Tsukuba has 37 elementary schools, 15 middle schools, two combined middle school/high schools and six high schools, along with one special education school.
In addition, it has an international school, Tsukuba International School, a Brazilian school, the Instituto Educare. Metropolitan Intercity Railway Company – Tsukuba Express Midorino - Bampaku-kinenkōen - Kenkyū-gakuen - Tsukuba Mount Tsukuba Cable Car Mount Tsukuba Ropeway Jōban Expressway – Yatabe IC, Tsukuba JCT, Yatabe-Higashi PA, Sakura-Tsuchiura IC Ken-Ō Expressway – Tsukuba-Chuo IC, Tsukuba JCT, Tsukuba-Ushiku IC Japan National Route 6 Japan National Route 125 Japan National Route 354 Japan National Route 408 Japan National Route 468 Tsukuba Community Broadcast Inc. – Radio Tsukuba Academic Newtown Community Cable Service Beginning in the 1960s, the area was designated for development. Construction of the city centre, the University of Tsukuba and 46 public basic scientific research laboratories began in the 1970s. Tsukuba Science City became operational in the 1980s; the Expo'85 world's fair was held in the area of Tsukuba Science City, which at the time was still divided administratively between several small towns and villages.
Attractions at the event included the 85-metre Technocosmos, which at that time was the world's tallest Ferris wheel. By 2000, the city's 60 national research institutes and two national universities had been grouped into five zones: higher education and training, construction research, physical science and engineering research and agricultural research, common facilities; these zones were surrounded by more than 240 private research facilities. Among the most prominent institutions are the University of Tsukuba; the city has an international flair, with about 7,500 foreign students and researchers from as many as 133 countries living in Tsukuba at any one time. Over the past several decades, nearly half of Japan's public research and development budget has been spent in Tsukuba. Important scientific breakthroughs by its researchers include the identification and specification of the molecular structure of superconducting materials, the development of organic optical films that alter their electrical conductivity in response to changing light, the creation of extreme low-pressure vacuum chambers.
Tsukuba has become one of the world's key sites for government-industry collaborations in basic research. Earthquake safety, environmental degradation, studies of roadways, fermentation science and plant genetics are some of the broad research topics having close public-private partnerships. Tsukuba Science City is a center for research and education in the city of Tsukuba, located northeast of Tokyo; the idea of constructing the science city was by the late Ichiro Kono, former minister of construction, Kniomi Umezawa, former vice minister of the science and technology agency. Another key figure for the development of the Science City is Leo Esaki. What sets Tsukuba apart from other town developments in Japan is the large scale and fast pace of its development into a place with high quality of scientific innovation. In September 1963, the national government of Japan, led by Ichiro Kono and Kniomi Umezawa, ord
Nagoya University, abbreviated to Meidai, is a Japanese national university located in Chikusa-ku, Nagoya. It was the last Imperial University among the National Seven Universities, it is the 3rd highest. As of 2014, six Nobel Prize winners have been associated with Nagoya University, the third most in Japan behind Kyoto University and the University of Tokyo. Nagoya University traces its roots back to 1871. In 1939 it became Nagoya Imperial University. In 1947 it was renamed Nagoya University, became a Japanese national university. In 2004 it became a Japanese national university corporation; the ideal written in the Nagoya University academic charter is to encourage the intelligentsia with courage by providing an education which respects independent thought. In March 2012 the university played host to the International Symposium on Innovative Nanobiodevices. While the majority of its students come from Tōkai region, Nagoya University has a good portion of students from all over Japan; the school has many students from abroad.
There are over 1300 international students from 78 countries studying in the faculties of Nagoya University. The majority of them are from Korea. Among other countries, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan are represented by more than 30 students. Among non-Asian countries, the United States and Brazil sent 16 students each. Law Medicine Engineering Letters Science Agriculture Economics Education Information Culture Education Law Economics Arts and Sciences Science Mathematics Engineering Life Sciences and Agriculture Medicine International Language Culture International Development Environmental Studies Information ScienceThe University's Research Center for Seismology and Disaster mitigation is represented on the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction. Nagoya University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan; this can be seen in several rankings such as the ones shown below. The university has been ranked 15th in 2009 and 21st in 2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai.
In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Nagoya as the 8th best university in Japan. The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2009 ranks Nagoya University as fourth in Japan; the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings ranks Nagoya University as fifth in Japan. The 2010 QS Asian University Rankings rated Nagoya number ten in Asia and number five in Japan, while the QS World University Rankings for 2011 ranked Nagoya 80th in the world. Nagoya is one of the top research institutions in Japan. According to Thomson Reuters, Nagoya is the 5th best research university in Japan, its research standard is high in Physics and Biology & Biochemistry. Weekly Diamond reported that Nagoya has the 6th highest research standard in Japan in research funding per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's ranked 6th in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 16 February 2004 surveyed the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese research centers, Nagoya was placed 9th in this ranking.
Furthermore, Nagoya had the 8th highest number of patents accepted in 2009 among Japanese universities. It has a high research standard in Social Humanities. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, Nagoya University was ranked 4th during 2005-2009. RePEc in January 2011 ranked Nagoya's Economic department as Japan's 13th best economic research university. Nagoya Law School is considered one of the top law schools in Japan, as it was ranked 10th in the pass rate of the Japanese Bar Examination in 2010. According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings, graduates from Nagoya have the 38th best employment rate in 400 major companies in Japan. Nagoya is one of the most selective universities in Japan, its entrance difficulty is considered one of the highest in Japan. Full list can be found in the Japanese Wikipedia article: List of Nagoya University people It includes six Nobel Prize winners. Hiroshi Amano, one of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the blue LED.
Isamu Akasaki, one of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the blue LED. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics. Toshihide Maskawa, one of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics. Osamu Shimomura, one of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Ryōji Noyori, one of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry winners, spent most of his academic career researching and teaching at the university, it includes one Fields Medalist. Shigefumi Mori, one of the 1990 Fields Medalists, spent most of his academic career at the university until he won the Fields Medal in 1990. There are several world-class scientists: Koji Nakanishi, a Japanese-American bioorganic and natural products chemist, graduated from Nagoya, professor at Columbia University. Hisashi Yamamoto, a Japanese chemist, laureate of the Medal of Honor with a Purple Ribbon. Masayoshi Nagata, a Japanese mathematician, disproved Hilbert's fourteenth problem. Goro Azumaya, a Japanese mathematician, int
Shoichi Sakata was a Japanese physicist, internationally known for theoretical work on the subatomic particles. He proposed the two meson theory, the Sakata model, the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata theory on the neutrino mixings. After the end of World War II, he joined other physicists in campaigning for the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Sakata got in to the Kyoto Imperial University in 1930; when he was a second year student, Yoshio Nishina, a granduncle-in-law of Sakata, gave a lecture on quantum mechanics at the Kyoto Imperial University. Sakata became acquainted with Hideki Yukawa and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, the first and the second Japanese Nobel laureates, through the lecture. After the graduation from the University, Sakata worked with Tomonaga and Nishina at Rikagaku Kenkyusho in 1933 and moved to Osaka Imperial University in 1934 to work with Yukawa. Yukawa published his first paper on the meson theory in 1935 and Sakata collaborated with him for the developments of the meson theory. Possible existence of the neutral nuclear force carrier particle π0 was postulated by them.
Accompanied by Yukawa, Sakata moved to Kyoto Imperial University as a lecturer in 1939. Sakata and Inoue proposed their two-meson theory in 1942. At the time, a charged particle discovered in the hard component cosmic rays was misidentified as the Yukawa’s meson; the misinterpretation led to puzzles in the discovered cosmic ray particle. Sakata and Inoue solved these puzzles by identifying the cosmic ray particle as a daughter charged fermion produced in the π± decay. A new neutral fermion was introduced to allow π± decay into fermions. We now know that these charged and neutral fermions correspond to the second generation leptons μ and νμ in the modern language, they discussed the decay of the Yukawa particle, It should be noted that Sakata and Inoue predicted correct spin assignment for the muon, they introduced the second neutrino. They treated it as a distinct particle from the beta decay neutrino, anticipated the three body decay of the muon; the English printing of Sakata-Inoue’s two-meson theory paper was delayed until 1946, one year before the experimental discovery of π → μν decay.
Sakata moved to Nagoya Imperial University as a professor in October 1942 and remained there until his death. The name of the university was changed to Nagoya University in October 1947 after the end of the Pacific War. Sakata reorganized his research group in Nagoya to be administrated under the democracy principle after the War. Sakata stayed at the Niels Bohr Institute from May to October 1954 at the invitation of N. Bohr and C. Møller. During his stay, Sakata gave a talk introducing works of young Japanese particle physics researchers emphasizing an empirical relation found by Nakano and Nishijima, now known as the Nakano-Nishijima-Gell-Mann rule among the interacting particles. After Sakata returned to Nagoya and his Nagoya group started researches trying to uncover the physics behind the NNG rule. Sakata proposed his Sakata Model in 1956, which explains the NNG rule by postulating the fundamental building blocks of all interacting particles are the proton, the neutron and the lambda baryon.
The positively charged pion is made out of a proton and an antineutron, in a manner similar to the Fermi-Yang composite Yukawa meson model, while the positively charged kaon is composed of a proton and an anti-lambda, succeeding to explain the NNG rule in the Sakata model. Aside from the integer charges, the proton and lambda have similar properties as the up quark, down quark, strange quark respectively. In 1959, Ikeda and Ohnuki and, Yamaguchi found out the U symmetry in the Sakata model; the U symmetry provides a mathematical descriptions of hadrons in the eightfold way idea of Murray Gell-Mann. Sakata's model was superseded by the quark model, proposed by Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, which keeps the U symmetry, but made the constituents fractionally charged and rejected the idea that they could be identified with observed particles. Still, within Japan, integer charged quark models parallel to Sakata's were used until the 1970s, are still used as effective descriptions in certain domains.
Sakata's model was used in Harry J. Lipkin's book "Lie Groups for Pedestrians"; the Sakata model and its SU symmetry were explained in the textbook "Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles", L. B. Okun. In 1959, Gamba and Okubo found Sakata’s baryon triplet bears striking similarity to the lepton triplet in the weak interaction aspects. In order to explain the physics behind this similarity in the composite model framework, in 1960, Sakata expanded his composite model to include leptons with his Nagoya University associates Maki and Ohnuki; the expanded model was termed “Nagoya Model”. Shortly thereafter the existence of two kinds of neutrinos was experimentally confirmed. In 1962, Maki and Sakata, Katayama, Matumoto and Yamada accommodated the two distinct types of neutrino into the composite model framework. In his 1962 paper with Maki and Nakagawa, they used the Gell-Mann-Levy proposal of modified universality to define the weak mixing angle that became known as Cabibbo angle; the neutrino flavor mixing matrix is now named Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix.
The nontrivial neutrino mixi
European Physical Society
The European Physical Society is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote physics and physicists in Europe through methods such as physics outreach. Formally established in 1968, its membership includes the national physical societies of 42 countries, some 3200 individual members; the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, is a major member. One of its main activities is organizing international conferences; the EPS sponsors conferences other than the Europhysics Conference, like the International Conference of Physics Students in 2011. The scientific activities of EPS are organised through Divisions and Groups, who organise topical conferences and workshops; the Divisions and Groups are governed by boards elected from members. The current Divisions of the EPS are: Atomic and Optical Physics Division Condensed Matter Division Physics Education Division Environmental Physics Division Gravitational Physics Division High Energy & Particle Physics Division Nuclear Physics Division Division of Physics in Life Sciences Plasma Physics Division European Solar Physics Division Statistical & Nonlinear Physics DivisionAnd the current Groups of the EPS are: Accelerator Group Computational Physics Group Energy Group History of Physics Group Physics for Development Group Technology and Innovation Group The EPS awards a number of prizes, including the Edison Volta Prize, the EPS Europhysics Prize, the EPS Statistical and Nonlinear Physics Prizes and the High Energy and Particle Physics Prize.
It recognises sites which are important for advances to physics, such as the Blackett Laboratory in 2014, the Residencia de Estudiantes in 2015. Its letters journal is EPL. 2017–present: Rüdiger Voss 2015–17: C. Rossel 2013–15: John M. Dudley 2011–13: L. Cifarelli 2009–11: M. Kolwas 2007–9: F. Wagner 2005–7: O. Poulsen 2003–5: M. C. E. Huber 2001–3: M. Ducloy 1999–2001: Arnold Wolfendale 1997–99: Denis Weaire 1995–97: Herwig Schopper 1993–95: N. Kroo 1991–93: M. Jacob 1988–91: R. A. Ricci 1986–88: W. Buckel 1984–86: G. H. Stafford 1982–84: Jacques Friedel 1980–82: A. R. Mackintosh 1978–80: Antonino Zichichi 1976–78: I. Ursu 1972–76: H. B. G. Casimir 1970–72: Erik Gustav Rydberg 1968–70: G. Bernardini Official website
Martin Lee Chalfie is an American scientist. He is University Professor at Columbia University, he shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP", he holds a Ph. D. in neurobiology from Harvard University. Chalfie grew up in Chicago, son of the guitarist Eli Chalfie and owner of an apparel store Vivian Chalfie, his maternal grandfather, Meyer L. Friedlen, immigrated to Chicago from Moscow at an early age, he matriculated at Harvard University in 1965, intending to be a math major, but he switched to biochemistry because it combined his interests in chemistry and biology. He spent the summer after his junior year working in the laboratory of Klaus Weber at Harvard, but "It was so disheartening to fail that I decided I shouldn't be in biology." As a result, in his senior year, he completed his major and took courses in law and Russian literature. He competed on the swim team at Harvard and was named captain in his senior year.
At the time, swimming coach Bill Brooks said, "Marty will make an excellent captain because he has the admiration of the entire team." As captain, he won the Harold S. Ulen trophy, awarded "to a senior on the Harvard team who best demonstrates those qualities of leadership and team cooperation as exemplified by Harold S. Ulen." Following the announcement of Chalfie's Nobel award, his freshman-year roommate observed of Chalfie, "He would always identify himself as a swimmer."After graduating in 1969, he worked at a variety of temporary jobs, such as selling dresses for his parents' dress manufacturing business in Chicago and teaching at Hamden Hall Country Day School in Hamden, Connecticut. In the summer of 1971, his research at the laboratory of Jose Zadunaisky at Yale University resulted in his first publication. With revived confidence, he returned to Harvard for graduate studies under Robert Perlman, received his Ph. D. in 1977. Chalfie conducted his postdoctoral research at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Sydney Brenner and John Sulston, the three published a paper in 1985 on "The Neural Circuit for Touch Sensitivity in C. elegans".
Chalfie left the LMB in 1982 to join the faculty of Columbia University in the department of biological sciences and continued to study C. elegans touch mutants. He married Tulle Hazelrigg, she joined him on the faculty of Columbia University. She gave him permission to cite her unpublished research in his seminal Science paper "Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker for Gene Expression" on condition that he made coffee and emptied the garbage nightly for a month. Chalfie and his wife had a daughter, Sarah, in July 1992. Chalfie was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2004, he slept through the phone call from the Nobel Prize Committee. When he woke up, he knew the prize would have been announced so he said "Okay, who's the schnook that got the Prize this time?" And so he opened up his laptop, got to the Nobel Prize site and found out that he was the schnook! In 2015, Chalfie signed the Mainau Declaration 2015 on Climate Change on the final day of the 65th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting.
The declaration was signed by a total of 76 Nobel Laureates and handed to then-President of the French Republic, François Hollande, as part of the successful COP21 climate summit in Paris. Chalfie's lab uses the nematode C. elegans to investigate aspects of nerve cell development and function. The wealth of developmental, anatomical and molecular information available for C. elegans provides a powerful and multifaceted approach to these studies. He has published over 100 papers, he traces his work on Green fluorescent protein to a 1988 seminar from Paul Brehm about bioluminescent organisms, which led to some crucial experiments in 1992, detailed in his paper "Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression", among the 20 most-cited papers in the field of Molecular Biology & Genetics. Chalfie won a Golden Goose Award for this work in 2012. Chalfie's lab Website Chalfie Nobel lecture Martin Chalfie's Short Talk: "Developing GFP as a Biological Marker" Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence - Popular science book describing history and discovery of GFP and includes a biography of Martin Chalfie GFP: Adventures in Nontranslational Research lecture at the Linda Hall Library, April 26, 2011