Halal spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law. It is applied to permissible food and drinks. In the Quran, the word halal is contrasted with haram. In Islamic jurisprudence, this binary opposition was elaborated into a more complex classification known as "the five decisions": mandatory, neutral and forbidden. Islamic jurists disagree on whether the term halal covers the first three or the first four of these categories. In recent times, Islamic movements seeking to mobilize the masses and authors writing for a popular audience have emphasized the simpler distinction of halal and haram; the term halal is associated with Islamic dietary laws, meat processed and prepared in accordance with those requirements. The words halal and haram are the usual terms used in the Quran to designate the categories of lawful or allowed and unlawful or forbidden. In the Quran, the root h-l-l denotes lawfulness and may indicate exiting the ritual state of a pilgrim and entering a profane state.
In both these senses, it has an opposite meaning to. In a literal sense, the root h-l-l may refer to alighting. Lawfulness is indicated in the Quran by means of the verb ahalla, with God as the stated or implied subject; the terms halal and haram parallel the Hebrew terms mutar and asur, — with respect to dietary rules — the Old Testament categories of clean and unclean. Several food companies offer halal processed foods and products, including halal foie gras, spring rolls, chicken nuggets, lasagna and baby food. Halal ready meals are a growing consumer market for Muslims in Britain and America and are offered by an increasing number of retailers. Vegetarian cuisine is halal; the most common example of haram food is pork. While pork is the only meat that categorically may not be consumed by Muslims other foods not in a state of purity are considered haram; the criteria for non-pork items include their source, the cause of the animal's death, how it was processed. It depends on the Muslim's madhab.
Muslims must ensure that all foods, as well as non-food items like cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, are halal. These products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies. Foods which are not considered halal for Muslims to consume include blood and intoxicants such as alcoholic beverages. A Muslim who would otherwise starve to death is allowed to eat non-halal food if there is no halal food available. At a conference called "Agri-biotechnology: Shariah Compliance" held in Malaysia in December 2010 by the Malaysian Biotechnology Information Centre and International Halal Integrity Alliance, participants "adopted a resolution that accepts GM crops and products as halal should all ingredients used to develop them are from halal sources.... The only Haram cases are limited to products derived from Haram origin retaining their original characteristics that are not changed."An article from 2000 stated: "Should a product be brought to market with a gene from a haram source, today it would at least be considered Mashbooh — questionable — if not outright haram.
However, all biotechnology-derived foods on the market today are from approved sources." Globally, halal food certification has been criticized by anti-halal lobby groups and individuals using social media. Critics have argued. Australian Federation of Islamic Councils spokesman Keysar Trad told a journalist in July 2014 that this was an attempt to exploit anti-Muslim sentiments; the Dubai Chamber of Commerce estimated the global industry value of halal food consumer purchases to be $1.1 trillion in 2013, accounting for 16.6 percent of the global food and beverage market, with an annual growth of 6.9 percent. Growth regions include Turkey; the European Union market for halal food has an estimated annual growth of around 15 percent and is worth an estimated $30 billion. The food must come from a supplier. Dhabīḥah is the prescribed method of slaughter for all meat sources, excluding fish and other sea-life, per Islamic law; this method of slaughtering animals consists of using a well-sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery and jugular veins.
The head of an animal, slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the qiblah. In addition to the direction, permitted animals should be slaughtered upon utterance of the Islamic prayer Bismillah "in the name of God"; the slaughter can be performed by a Muslim or an adherent of religions traditionally known as People of the Book. Blood must be drained from the veins. Carrion cannot be eaten. Additionally, an animal, strangled, killed by a fall, savaged by a beast of prey, or sacrificed on a stone altar cannot be eaten; the animal may be stunned prior to having its throat cut. The UK Food Standards Agency figures from 2011 suggest that 84% of cattle, 81% o
A mufti is an Islamic jurist qualified to issue a nonbinding opinion on a point of Islamic law. The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ. Muftis and their fatwas played an important role throughout Islamic history, taking on new roles in the modern era. Tracing its origins to the Quran and early Islamic communities, the practice of ifta crystallized with the emergence of the traditional legal theory and schools of Islamic jurisprudence. In the classical legal system, fatwas issued by muftis in response to private queries served to inform Muslim populations about Islam, advise courts on difficult points of Islamic law, elaborate substantive law. In times, muftis issued public and political fatwas that took a stand on doctrinal controversies, legitimized government policies or articulated grievances of the population. Traditionally, a mufti was seen as a scholar of upright character who possessed a thorough knowledge of the Quran and legal literature. Muftis acted as independent scholars in the classical legal system.
Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were incorporated into state bureaucracies, while Shia jurists in Iran progressively asserted an autonomous authority starting from the early modern era. With the spread of codified state laws and Western-style legal education in the modern Muslim world, muftis no longer play their traditional role of clarifying and elaborating the laws applied in courts. However, muftis have continued to advise the general public on other aspects of sharia questions regarding religious rituals and everyday life; some modern muftis are appointed by the state to issue fatwas, while others serve on advisory religious councils. Still others issue fatwas in response over the internet. Modern public fatwas have addressed and sometimes sparked controversies in the Muslim world and beyond; the legal methodology of modern ifta diverges from pre-modern practice. While the proliferation of contemporary fatwas attests to the importance of Islamic authenticity to many Muslims, little research has been done to determine to what extent the Muslim public continues to acknowledge the religious authority of muftis or heeds their advice.
The word mufti comes from the Arabic root f-t-y, whose meanings include "youth, clarification, explanation." A number of related terms derive from the same root. A mufti's response is called a fatwa; the person who asks a mufti for a fatwa is known as mustafti. The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ; the term futyā refers to issuing fatwas. The origins of muftis and the fatwa can be traced back to the Quran. On a number of occasions, the Quranic text instructs the Islamic prophet Muhammad how to respond to questions from his followers regarding religious and social practices. Several of these verses begin with the phrase "When they ask you concerning... say..." In two cases this is expressed with verbal forms of the root f-t-y, which signify asking for or giving an authoritative answer. In the hadith literature, this three-way relationship between God and believers, is replaced by a two-way consultation, in which Muhammad replies directly to queries from his Companions. According to Islamic doctrine, with Muhammad's death in 632, God ceased to communicate with mankind through revelation and prophets.
At that point, the expanding Muslim community turned to Muhammad's Companions, as the most authoritative voices among them, for religious guidance, some of them are reported to have issued pronouncements on a wide range of subjects. The generation of Companions was in turn replaced in that role by the generation of Successors; the institution of ifta thus developed in Islamic communities under a question-and-answer format for communicating religious knowledge, took on its definitive form with development of the classical theory of Islamic law. By the 8th century CE, muftis became recognized as legal experts who elaborated Islamic law and clarified its application to practical issues arising in the Islamic community; the legal theory of the ifta was formulated in the classical texts of usul al-fiqh, while more practical guidelines for muftis were found in manuals called adab al-mufti or adab al-fatwa. A mufti's fatwa is issued in response to a query. Fatwas can range from a simple yes/no answer to a book-length treatise.
A short fatwa may state a well-known point of law in response to a question from a lay person, while a "major" fatwa may give a judgment on an unprecedented case, detailing the legal reasoning behind the decision. Queries to muftis were supposed to address real and not hypothetical situtations and be formulated in general terms, leaving out names of places and people. Since a mufti was not supposed to inquire into the situation beyond the information included in the query, queries regarding contentious matters were carefully constructed to elicit the desired response. A mufti's understanding of the query depended on their grasp of local customs and colloquial expressions. In theory, if the query was unclear or not sufficiently detailed for a ruling, the mufti was supposed to state these caveats in their response. Muftis consulted another mufti on difficult cases, though this practice was not foreseen by legal theory, which saw futya as a transaction between one qualified jurist and one "unqualified" petitioner.
In theory, a mufti was expected to issue fatwas free of charge. In practice, muftis received support from the public treasury, public endowments or private donations. Taking of bribes was forbidden; until the 11th or 12th century, the vast majority of jurists held other jobs to support themselves. T
The Mahdi is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who, according to some Islamic traditions, will appear and rule for five, nine or nineteen years before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. There is no direct reference to the Mahdi in the Quran, only in the hadith. In most traditions, the Mahdi will arrive with'Isa to defeat Al-Masih ad-Dajjal. Although the concept of a Mahdi is not an essential doctrine in Sunni Islam, it is popular among both Sunni and Shia Muslims. Both agree that he will establish justice. Throughout history, various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi; these have included founder of the Mahdavia sect. Shi'ites have alternate views. Twelvers, who form the majority of Shi'ites today, believe that Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan al-Askari is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi. Tayyibi Isma'ili Shi'ites, including the Dawoodi Bohrah, however believe that At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi; the term mahdi does not occur in the Quran. It is derived from the Arabic root h-d-y used to mean "divine guidance".
The term al-Mahdi was employed from the beginning of Islam, but only as an honorific epithet and without any messianic significance. As an honorific it has been used in some instances to describe Muhammad, as well as Abraham, al-Hussain, various Umayyad rulers. During the second civil war, after the death of Muʾawiya, the term acquired a new meaning of a ruler who would restore Islam to its perfect form and restore justice after oppression. In Kufa during the rebellion in 680s, Al-Mukhtar proclaimed Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah as the Mahdi in this heightened sense. Among the Umayyads, caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik encouraged the belief that he was the Mahdi, other Umayyad rulers, like Umar II, have been addressed as such in the panegyrics of Jarir and al-Farazdaq. Early discussions about the identity of al-Mahdi by religious scholars can be traced back to the time after the Second Fitna; these discussions developed in different directions and were influenced by traditions attributed to Muhammad.
In Umayyad times and traditionists not only differed on which caliph or rebel leader should be designated as Mahdi, but on whether the Mahdi is a messianic figure and if signs and predictions of his time have been satisfied. By the time of the Abbasid Revolution in the year 750, Mahdi was a known concept. Evidence shows. In Shia Islam, it seems that the attribution of messianic qualities to the Mahdi originated from two of the groups supporting al-Hanafiyyah: southern Arabian settlers and local recent converts in Iraq, they became known as Kaysanites, introduced what became two key aspects of the Shia's concept of the Mahdi. The first was the notion of return of the dead of the Imams; the second was that after al-Hanafiyyah's death they believed he was, in fact, in hiding in the Razwa mountains near Medina. This developed into the doctrine known as the Occultation; the Mahdi appeared in early Shi'ite narratives, spread among Shi'ite groups and became dissociated from its historical figure, Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah.
During the 10th century, based on these earlier beliefs, the doctrine of Mahdism was extensively expanded by Al-Kulayni, Ibrahim al-Qummi and Ibn Babawayh. In particular, in the early 10th century, the doctrine of the Occultation, which declares that the Twelfth Imam did not die but was concealed by God from the eyes of men, was expounded; the Mahdi became synonymous with the "Hidden Imam", thought to be in occultation awaiting the time that God has ordered for his return. This return is envisaged as occurring shortly before the final Day of judgment. In fact, the concept of the "hidden Imam" was attributed to several Imams in turn; some historians suggest that the term itself was introduced into Islam by southern Arabian tribes who had settled in Syria in the mid-7th century. They believed that the Mahdi would lead them back to their homeland and reestablish the Himyarite kingdom, they believed that he would conquer Constantinople. It has been suggested that the concept of the Mahdi may have been derived from messianic Judeo-Christian beliefs.
Accordingly, traditions were introduced to support certain political interests Anti-Abbassid sentiments. These traditions about the M | works of Muslim. Since Sunnism has no established doctrine of Mahdi, compositions of Mahdi varies among Sunni scholars. While some scholars like Ibn Khaldun disputed the authenticity of references concerning the Mahdi in hadith literature, others like Ibn Kathir elaborated a whole apocalyptic scenario which included prophecies about Mahdi and Dajjal during the endtime; some Sunni beliefs deny the Mahdi as a separate figure, accordingly Jesus will fulfill this role and judge over mankind, thus Mahdi is considered as a title for Jesus, when he returns. However the more common opinion among Sunni Muslims is, that the Mahdi is an expected ruler sent by God before the endtime
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence known as Uṣūl al-fiqh, are traditional methodological principles used in Islamic jurisprudence for deriving the rulings of Islamic law. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence elaborates how the scriptures should be interpreted from the standpoint of linguistics and rhetoric, it comprises methods for establishing authenticity of hadith and for determining when the legal force of a scriptural passage is abrogated by a passage revealed at a date. In addition to the Quran and hadith, the classical theory of Sunni jurisprudence recognizes two other sources of law: juristic consensus and analogical reasoning, it therefore studies the application and limits of analogy, as well as the value and limits of consensus, along with other methodological principles, some of which are accepted by only certain legal schools. This interpretive apparatus is brought together under the rubric of ijtihad, which refers to a jurist's exertion in an attempt to arrive at a ruling on a particular question.
The theory of Twelver Shia jurisprudence parallels that of Sunni schools with some differences, such as recognition of reason as a source of law in place of qiyas and extension of the notions of hadith and sunnah to include traditions of the imams. Uṣūl al-fiqh is a genitive construction with two Arabic terms, fiqh. Uṣūl means roots or basis. Fiqh linguistically refers to deep understanding or comprehension. In the context of Islamic law, it refers to traditional Islamic jurisprudence. Classical jurists held that human reason is a gift from God which should be exercised to its fullest capacity. However, they believed that use of reason alone is insufficient to distinguish right from wrong, that rational argumentation must draw its content from the body of transcendental knowledge revealed in the Quran and through the sunnah of Muhammad. In Islam, the Quran is considered to be the most sacred source of law. Classical jurists held its textual integrity to be beyond doubt on account of it having been handed down by many people in each generation, known as "recurrence" or "concurrent transmission".
Only several hundred verses of the Quran have direct legal relevance, they are concentrated in a few specific areas such as inheritance, though other passages have been used as a source for general principles whose legal ramifications were elaborated by other means. The body of hadith provides more detailed and practical legal guidance, but it was recognized early on that not all of them were authentic. Early Islamic scholars developed a methodology for evaluating their authenticity by assessing trustworthiness of the individuals listed in their transmission chains; these criteria narrowed down the vast corpus of prophetic traditions to several thousand "sound" hadiths, which were collected in several canonical compilations. The hadiths which enjoyed concurrent transmission were deemed unquestionably authentic; the uncertainty was further compounded by ambiguity of the language contained in some hadiths and Quranic passages. Disagreements on the relative merits and interpretation of the textual sources allowed legal scholars considerable leeway in formulating alternative rulings.
Consensus could in principle elevate a ruling based on probable evidence to absolute certainty. This classical doctrine drew its authority from a series of hadiths stating that the Islamic community could never agree on an error; this form of consensus was technically defined as agreement of all competent jurists in any particular generation, acting as representatives of the community. However, the practical difficulty of obtaining and ascertaining such an agreement meant that it had little impact on legal development. A more pragmatic form of consensus, which could be determined by consulting works of prominent jurists, was used to confirm a ruling so that it could not be reopened for further discussion; the cases for which there was a consensus account for less than 1 percent of the body of classical jurisprudence. Analogical reasoning is used to derive a ruling for a situation not addressed in the scripture by analogy with a scripturally based rule. In a classic example, the Quranic prohibition of drinking wine is extended to all intoxicating substances, on the basis of the "cause" shared by these situations, which in this case is identified to be intoxication.
Since the cause of a rule may not be apparent, its selection occasioned controversy and extensive debate. Twelver Shia jurisprudence relies on reason in its place; the classical process of ijtihad combined these recognized principles with other methods, which were not adopted by all legal schools, such as istihsan and istishab. A jurist, qualified to practice ijtihad is known as a mujtahid; the use of independent reasoning to arrive at a ruling is contrasted with taqlid, which refers to following the rulings of a mujtahid. By the beginning of the 10th century, development of Sunni jurisprudence prompted leading jurists to state that the main legal questions had been addressed and the scope of ijtihad was restricted. From the 18th century on, leading Muslim reformers began calling for abandonment of taqlid and renewed emphasis on ijtihad, which they saw as a return to the vitality of early Islamic jurisprudence. Sharia rulings fall into one of five categories known as “the five decisions”: mandatory (
Imam is an Islamic leadership position. It is most used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was given to the king of the country. For Shi'a Muslims, the imam has a more central meaning and role in Islam through the concept of imamah; the Sunni branch of Islam does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi'a, an important distinction overlooked by those outside of the Islamic religion. In everyday terms, the imam for Sunni Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal prayers in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading and the others following by copying his ritual actions of worship. Friday sermon is most given by an appointed imam. All mosques have an imam to lead the prayers though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than an appointed salaried person.
The position of women as imams is controversial. The person that should be chosen, according to Hadith, is one who has most knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah and is of good character; the term is used for a recognized religious scholar or authority in Islam for the founding scholars of the four Sunni madhhabs, or schools of jurisprudence. It may refer to the Muslim scholars who created the analytical sciences related to Hadith or it may refer to the heads of Muhammad's family in their generational times; the Position of Imams In Turkey Imams are appointed by the state to work at mosques and they are required to be graduates of an İmam Hatip high school or have a university degree in Theology. This is an official position regulated by the Presidency of Religious Affairs in Turkey and only males are appointed to this position while female officials under the same state organisation work as preachers and Qur'an course tutors, religious services experts; these officials are supposed to belong to the Hanafi school of the Sunni sect.
A central figure in an Islamic movement is called as an Imam like the Imam Nabhawi in Syria and Ahmad Raza Khan in India and Pakistan is called as the Imam for Sunni Muslims. In the Shi'a context, an imam is not only presented as the man of God par excellence, but as participating in the names and acts that theology reserves for God alone. Imams have a meaning more central to belief. Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a believe that these imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life, they believe that all the imams chosen are free from committing any sin, impeccability, called ismah. These leaders must be followed. Here follows a list of the Twelvers imams: Fatimah Fatimah al-Zahraa, daughter of Muhammed, is considered infallible but not an Imam; the Shi'a believe that the 12th Imam Mahdi will one day emerge on Qiyamah. See Imamah and List of Ismaili imams for Ismaili imams. See details under Zaidiyyah, Islamic history of Yemen and Imams of Yemen.
At times, imams have held religious authority. This was the case in Oman among the Ibadi sects. At times, the imams were elected. At other times the position was inherited, as with the Yaruba dynasty from 1624 and 1742. See List of rulers of Oman, the Rustamid dynasty: 776–909, Nabhani dynasty: 1154–1624, the Yaruba dynasty: 1624–1742, the Al Said: 1744–present for further information; the Imamate of Futa Jallon was a Fulani state in West Africa where secular power alternated between two lines of hereditary Imams, or almami. In the Zaidi Shiite sect, imams were secular as well as spiritual leaders who held power in Yemen for more than a thousand years. In 897, a Zaidi ruler, al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founded a line of such imams, a theocratic form of government which survived until the second half of the 20th century. Ruhollah Khomeini is referred to as Imam in Iran. Several Iranian places and institutions are named "Imam Khomeini", including a city, an international airport, a hospital, a university.
Mufti Women as imams Imamah Imam of Friday Prayer Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4. Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Sherrard, Liadain. London. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1. Momen, Moojan. TAn Introduction to Shi`i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4. Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein; the Just Ruler in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0. Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn. Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. SUNY press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic philosophy. London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 9780710304162. A brief
Hafiz meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has memorized the Qur'an. Hafiza is the female equivalent; the final Islamic prophet Muhammad lived in the 7th century CE, in Arabia in a time when few people were literate. The Arabs preserved their histories and poetry by memory alone. Muslims believe that when Prophet Muhammad proclaimed the verses of the Qur'an, his followers preserved the words by memorizing them. Muslims further believe that, after the death of Muhammad, anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 had it memorized at the time of its inscription, according to Muslim belief, the authenticity of al-Qur'an; the Arabic writing of the time was a non-marked script, that did not include vowel markings or other diacritics needed to distinguish between words. Hence if there was any question as to the pronunciation of a verse, the memorized verses were a better source than the written ones; the huffaz were highly appreciated as reciters, whose intoned words were accessible to the illiterate.
Memorization required no expensive materials. Muslims believe that after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan collected and organized the Qur'an circa 650–656 CE, recitation of the Qur'an was still honored and encouraged. There are numerous traditions of recitation. Most huffaz know only one version; however this does not change the meaning of the content. The Qur ` an is divided into 114 Surahs. If you memorize 20 ayah a day, it can be completed in 1 year. Most huffaz have studied as children in special Islamic schools or madrasahs, being instructed in tajwid and vocalisation as well as committing the Qur'an to memory. Huffaz are respected within the Islamic community, they are privileged to use the title "Hafiz" before their names. They are tested on their knowledge. For example, in one test they are asked to continue the recitation of a passage taken randomly from the Qur'an; as they do not know which passage will be chosen, they must know the whole text in order to be sure of passing. In another test, a would-be hafiz might be asked to recite verses containing a specific word or phrase.
In the classical Arabic lexicon, the word hafiz was not traditionally used to refer to one who had memorized the Qur'an. Instead, the word used was hamil Hafiz was used for the scholars of hadith one who had committed 100,000 hadiths to memory; the Quran is distinct from the recorded sayings and deeds which have traditionally been ascribed to Muhammad, which are instead preserved in a separate set of literature collectively called the "Ahadeeth". Hifz is memorization of the Quran. Muslims believe that whoever memorizes Qur'an and acts upon it, Allah will reward him and honour him for that, so that he will rise in status in Paradise to a level commensurate with what he memorized of the Book of Allah. Abdullah ibn Amr narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Hafiz-e-Quran will be said on the day of Judgment: Recite and rise in status, recite as you used to recite in the world, for your status will be at the last verse that you recite.” Hadith Having memorised the Qur'an, the hafiz or hafiza must ensure they do not forget it.
To ensure perfect recall of all the learned verses requires constant practice. The memorisation of the Qur'an was important to Muslims in the past and is in the present. Yearly, thousands of students master the Qur'an and complete the book with interpretation and memorisation; the Quran is the only book, religious or secular, memorized by millions of people. For Muslims who are attempting to memorize certain suras but are unfamiliar with the Arabic script, the ulema have made various elucidations. There are mixed opinions on the usage of romanization of Arabic due to concerns about mispronunciations, higher approval of writing systems with close consonantal and vocalic equivalents to classical Arabic or relevant and effective diacritics, a preference for Quran tutors or recorded recitations from qaris or any device with clear audible sound storage technology, such as CDs or cassettes; the most important sura to memorize is Al-Fatiha. Ali, the cousin of Muhammad, is considered one of the first Hafiz in Islamic history because he was known to have memorized the entire Qur'an while other Sahabah including'ibn Masud and Hudhayfah knew only portions.
With regard to notable leaders, Mughal emperor Aurangzeb was one of the few powerful Indians to have been Hafiz. List of Hafiz Qari' What is islam? How Hifz works on internet? How to Memorize Quran. Preservation of the Quran: Memorization Web Application for Hifz Students and Teachers Qur'an and Hafidh Number on islam101.com Qur'an recitation on YouTube Qur'an recitation by a Muslim child on YouTube How Hifz Works
Ayatollah or ayatullah is a high-ranking Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah cleric. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, Quran reading, philosophy and teach in Islamic seminaries; the next lower clerical rank is Hujjat al-Islam. The name "ayatullah" originates from a passage in the Quran which the Shi'a, unlike the Sunni, interpret to mean human beings can be regarded as'signs' or'evidence' of God. Passage 51:20–21 of the Quran states: On the earth are signs for those of assured Faith,As in your own selves: Will ye not see? The term was not used as a title until the early twentieth century; the title of Ayatollah became popularized with the creation of Qom Seminary in 1922. The title is granted to top Shia mujtahid, after completing sat'h and kharij studies in the hawza. By the mujtahid would be able to issue his own edicts from the sources of Islamic religious laws: the Qur'an, the Sunnah, ijmāʻ, and'aql. Most of the time this is attested by an issued certificate from his teachers.
The ayatollah can teach in hawzas according to his speciality, can act as a reference for their religious questions, act as a judge. There are a few women who are equal in ranking to the ayatollahs but are not ayatollahs, are known as Lady Mujtahideh. A Mujtahid cannot have a congregation; the most outstanding in recent history was Nosrat Amin known as Banu Isfahani. Current examples of the Lady Mujtahidehs are Zohreh Sefati and Lady Ayatollah Aatieh Hassani known as Imam'ah Al-Hassani, daughter of Grand Ayatollah Gholamreza Hassani. There have been several Mujtahidehs in Shi'ism, most famously the women in the family of Allama Hilli, as well as the Baraghani family of 19th-century Qazvin. Only a few of the most important ayatollahs are accorded the rank of Grand Ayatollah; when an ayatollah gains a significant following and they are recognized for religiously correct views, they are considered a Marja'-e-Taqlid, which in common parlence is "grand ayatollah". As a prelude to such status, a mujtahid is asked to publish a juristic treatise in which he answers questions about the application of Islam to present-time daily affairs.
Risalah is the word for treatise, such a juritic work is called a risalah-yi'amaliyyah or "practical law treatise", it is a reinvention of the book Al-Urwatu l-Wuthqah. There are 86 Maraji living worldwide as of 2017 based in Najaf and Qom; the most prominent of these include Ali al-Sistani, Seyyed Ali Khamenei, Muhammad al-Fayadh, Muhammad Saeed al-Hakim, Bashir al-Najafi in Najaf. List of Ayatollahs List of Grand Ayatollahs Allamah Clericalism in Iran Mullah