Lower Hutt is a city in the Wellington Region of the North Island of New Zealand. Administered by the Hutt City Council, it is one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington metropolitan area, it is New Zealand's seventh most populous city, with a population of 105,900. The total area administered by the Council is 377 km2 around the lower half of the Hutt Valley and along the eastern shores of Wellington Harbour, of which 135 km2 is urban, it is separated from the city of Wellington by the harbour, from Upper Hutt by the Taita Gorge. Though the Hutt City Council administers the city, neither the New Zealand Geographic Board nor the Local Government Act recognises the name "Hutt City"; this name has led to confusion, as Upper Hutt is administered by a separate city council, the Upper Hutt City Council, which objects to the name "Hutt City". Before European settlement, thick forest covered most of the Hutt Valley, with areas of marshland close to the river's mouth. Māori inhabited the shoreline, with a pa at each end of Petone beach.
Māori welcomed the arrival of the New Zealand Company ship Tory in 1839, William Wakefield negotiated with local chiefs to allow settlement. The first immigrant ship, the Aurora, arrived on 22 January 1840, an event still commemorated every year on the Monday closest as Wellington's Anniversary Day. A settlement, grew up close to the mouth of the Hutt River, settlers set up New Zealand's first newspaper and bank; the city takes its name from the river, named after the founding member and chairman of the New Zealand Company, Sir William Hutt. Within weeks of settlement the Hutt River flooded, in March 1840 the majority of Britannia settlers decided to move to Thorndon, though some settlers remained at the north end of the harbour. In the 1840s an area on the west bank of the Hutt River formed the village known as Aglionby. In 1846 conflict arose between European settlers and Māori, which led to skirmishes in the Hutt Valley Campaign; the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake raised part of the lower valley, allowing reclamation of land from swamp.
The fault escarpment from the earthquake is still visible, notably at Hutt Central School. On New Year's Day 1859 the first permanent lighthouse to be built in New Zealand was lit at Pencarrow Head. New Zealand's only female lighthouse keeper, Mary Jane Bennett, became the inaugural operator of the lighthouse; the railway line from central Wellington reached Lower Hutt station in April 1874, with the line running north up the west side of the Hutt River to Silverstream opening two years later. Before the Second World War of 1939–1945, urban settlement in the lower Hutt Valley concentrated on Petone, central Lower Hutt and Eastbourne, with a total population of 30,000. In 1927 the Public Works Department completed the construction of a branch railway line to Waterloo on the east side of the river. Two years the railway workshops moved from Petone to a new larger site off the new branch at Woburn. In the late 1940s new suburbs of state housing developed along the eastern side of the Hutt Valley, from Waiwhetu to Taita, to alleviate nationwide housing shortages and to cater for the booming population.
Between 1946 and 1954 the railway line from Waterloo extended through these new suburbs to Haywards, becoming the main line in 1954 when the existing main line between Haywards and Melling closed. By the end of the 1950s, Lower Hutt had a population of 80,000; the Hutt City Council comprises 12 councillors. Ray Wallace first won election as Lower Hutt mayor in 2010; the city's six electoral wards each elect two councillors. Officers elected in the 2016 local-body elections: Wainuiomata Community Board: Richard Sinnott, Gabriel Tupou, Jodie Winterburn, Keri Brown, Terry Stallworth, Sisi Tuala-Le'afa, councilors Campbell Barry and Josh Briggs. Eastbourne Community Board: Virginia Horrocks, Murray Gibbons, Robert Ashe, Liz Knight, Anna Sutherland, councilors Michael Lulich and Tui Lewis. Petone Community Board: Pam Hanna, Mike Fisher, Mason Branch, Brady Dyer, Peter Foaese, Karen Yung, councilors Michael Lulich and Tui Lewis. Neighbouring councils are Wellington City Council, Porirua City Council to the north, Upper Hutt City Council to the north-east and South Wairarapa District Council to the east.
The boundaries of the Lower Hutt city local body have evolved from a series of amalgamations and boundary changes over the years. The Hutt County Council, established in 1877, covered the region from Wellington's south coast up to Waikanae, excluding the Wellington City Council area; as the region grew, urban parts of the Hutt County became autonomous boroughs: Petone in 1888, Lower Hutt in 1891, Eastbourne in 1906, Johnsonville in 1908, Upper Hutt in 1908, Porirua in 1962 and Kapiti in 1974. In 1941 Lower Hutt became a city, it incorporated Normandale in 1957. In 1987/1989 the New Zealand Government forced local authorities to consolidate, which led to Lower Hutt amalgamating with the adjacent Boroughs of Petone and Eastbourne and with the Wainuiomata District, to the abolition of the Hutt County Council; the area of Lower Hutt is covered by two general elect
In the culture of the Māori of New Zealand, a tohunga is an expert practitioner of any skill or art, either religious or otherwise. Tohunga include expert priests, navigators, builders and advisors. "A tohunga may have been the head of a whanau but quite was a rangatira and an ariki". The equivalent and cognate in Hawaiian culture is kahuna. There are many classes of tohunga including: Tohunga ahurewa: highest class of priest Tohunga matakite: foretellers of the future Tohunga whakairo: expert carvers Tohunga tātai arorangi: experts at reading the stars Tohunga kōkōrangi: expert in the study of celestial bodies Tohunga tārai waka: expert canoe builders Tohunga wetereo: expert in the language Tohunga tā moko: expert in tā moko Tohunga mahi toi: expert artist Tohunga tikanga tangata: expert in the study of humans Tohunga o Tumatauenga: expert in weapons or war party chaplain Tohunga kiato: lowest class of priestEach tohunga was a gifted spiritual leader and possessed the natural ability of communicating between the spiritual and temporal realms through karakia, pātere or performing waiata, passed down to them by tohunga before them.
However, their rites were in the specific fields in which they practiced, as outlined above. Tohunga held knowledge of most spiritual and temporal rites and knowledge in general were passed down through many generations by oral communication at wananga. Tools they used were taonga pūoro for the purpose of calling on divine intervention or assistance from the gods. Although Māori had high respect for the knowledge and skills of tohunga, there was a darker side too, European settlers held a poor opinion of them, something which led to the Tohunga Suppression Act 1907. Many tohunga declined to pass on their oral traditions after the Act was enforced in New Zealand, leaving Māori people bereft of much of their traditional base and practices; the Act was repealed in 1962, but by this time, much of the language and traditions had been either corrupted or lost, but a few kaumatua and kuia continued to orally communicate their knowledge through the generations. One observation to the survival of tohungatanga was the insignificance of the "female tohunga‟ perspective and yet women were the "most powerful tohunga" as they had a direct lineage and link to Te Ira Atua and are a class that have been ignored in any literature until now.
Tapu was one of the most ingrained beliefs and religious customs of the Māori. The word tapu may be translated as sacred or forbidden. There was a personal local tapu, it served a purpose similar to some of the Jewish laws of prohibition and quarantine. Tohunga were imbued with the mysterious essences of the tapu because of their knowledge of ancient and potent karakia, religious ceremonies and their office as mediums of communication with the dread atua. All ariki had a strong personal tapu which prevented any common person eating out of the same food basket or using anything belonging to the chief; the remains of the sacred dead and all connected therewith were tapu and anyone, engaged in handling the dead or bones of the dead would be tapu and would not dare to touch food with the hands. Such persons had to be fed in the manner shown in the painting here; this was painted from life at an old-time pa in the Wanganui district. The outer pallisaded fence of the pa, with its carved posts totara, is shown in the background.
The tohunga is kneeling on mats in front of a raupo whare in a remote corner of the settlement. Tohunga Suppression Act 1907 Best, Elsdon, Māori Religion and Mythology. Dominion Museum, Bull. 10, 1924 T. R. Hiroa, The Coming of the Māori. Second Edition. First published 1949. Wellington: Whitcombe and Tombs 1974
Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided. The rituals and the world view of Māori society were based on an elaborate mythology, inherited from a Polynesian homeland and adapted and developed in the new setting. Few records survive of the extensive body of Māori mythology and tradition from the early years of European contact; the missionaries had the best opportunity to get the information, but failed to do so at first, in part because their knowledge of the language was imperfect. Most of the missionaries who did master the language were unsympathetic to Māori beliefs, regarding them as'puerile beliefs', or even'works of the devil'. Exceptions to this general rule were J. F. Wohlers of the South Island, Richard Taylor, who worked in the Taranaki and Wanganui River areas, William Colenso who lived at the Bay of Islands and in Hawke's Bay. "The writings of these men are among our best sources for the legends of the areas in which they worked".
In the 1840s Edward Shortland, Sir George Grey, other non-missionaries began to collect the myths and traditions. At that time many Māori were literate in their own language and the material collected was, in general, written by Māori themselves in the same style as they spoke; the new medium seems to have had minimal effect on the content of the stories. Genealogies and narratives were written out in full, just as if they were being recited or sung. Many of these early manuscripts have been published, as of 2012 scholars have access to a great body of material containing multiple versions of the great myth cycles known in the rest of Polynesia, as well as of the local traditions pertaining only to New Zealand. A great deal of the best material is found in two books, Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna, collected by Sir George Grey and translated as Polynesian Mythology; the three forms of expression prominent in Māori and Polynesian oral literature are genealogical recital and narrative prose. The reciting of genealogies was well developed in Māori oral literature, where it served several functions in the recounting of tradition.
Firstly it served to provide a kind of time scale which unified all Māori myth and history, from the distant past to the present. It linked living people to the legendary heroes. By quoting appropriate genealogical lines, a narrator emphasised his or her connection with the characters whose deeds were being described, that connection proved that the narrator had the right to speak of them. "In the cosmogonic genealogies, to be described genealogical recital is revealed as a true literary form. What appears at first sight to be a mere listing of names is in fact a cryptic account of the evolution of the universe"'. Māori poetry was always chanted. Rhyme or assonance were not devices used by the Māori; the lines are indicated by features of the music. The language of poetry tends to differ stylistically from prose. Typical features of poetic diction are the use of synonyms or contrastive opposites, the repetition of key words. "Archaic words are common, including many which have lost any specific meaning and acquired a religious mystique.
Abbreviated, sometimes cryptic utterances and the use of certain grammatical constructions not found in prose are common". Prose narrative forms the great bulk of Māori legendary material; some appears to have been sacred or esoteric, but many of the legends were well-known stories told as entertainment in the long nights of winter. "Nevertheless, they should not be regarded as fairy tales to be enjoyed only as stories. The Māui myth, for example, was important not only as entertainment but because it embodied the beliefs of the people concerning such things as the origin of fire, of death, of the land in which they lived; the ritual chants concerning firemaking, death, so on made reference to Māui and derived their power from such reference". Myths are set in the remote past and their content have to do with the supernatural, they present Māori ideas of people. The mythology accounts for natural phenomena, the weather, the stars and the moon, the fish of the sea, the birds of the forest, the forests themselves.
Much of the culturally institutioned behaviour of the people finds its sanctions in myth. "Perhaps the most distinctive feature of myth, as distinct from tradition, is its universality. Each of the major myths is known in some version not only throughout New Zealand but over much of Polynesia as well"; the Māori understanding of the development of the universe was expressed in genealogical form. These genealogies appear in many versions, in which several symbolic themes recur. "Evolution may be likened to a series of periods of darkness or voids, each numbered in sequence or qualified by some descriptive term. In some cases the periods of darkness are succeeded by periods of light. In other versions the evolution of the universe is likened to a tree, with its base, tap roots, branching roots, root hairs. Another theme likens evolution to the development of a child in the womb, as in the sequence “the seeking, the searching, the conception, the growth, the feeling, the thought, the mi
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Dominion Post (Wellington)
The Dominion Post is a metropolitan morning newspaper published in Wellington, New Zealand, owned by the Australian Fairfax group, publishers of The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald. Weekday issues are now in tabloid format, its Saturday edition is in broadsheet format; the Dominion Post was created in July 2002 when Independent Newspapers Limited amalgamated two Wellington printed and published metropolitan broadsheet newspapers, The Evening Post, an evening paper first published on 8 February 1865, The Dominion, a morning paper first published on Dominion Day, 26 September 1907. The Dominion was distributed throughout the lower half of the North Island, as far as Taupo, where it met with Auckland's ambitiously-named The New Zealand Herald; the Evening Post was not so distributed, but had a much greater circulation than The Dominion. The Dominion Post became the only pay-and-read newspaper in Wellington City. Wellington has many free community newspapers, albeit these may be owned by The Dominion Post or affiliated/owning companies.
INL sold The Dominion Post and all other New Zealand newspapers and most magazines in its catalogue to Fairfax Media in 2003. The Dominion Post homepage at stuff.co.nz Today's The Dominion Post front page at the Newseum website
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. The term had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being primitive and Other; the concept has been adopted by scholars in the study of religion and the social sciences, who have proposed various different—and mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. The term magic derives from the Old Persian magu, a word that applied to a form of religious functionary about which little is known. During the late sixth and early fifth centuries BCE, this term was adopted into Ancient Greek, where it was used with negative connotations, to apply to religious rites that were regarded as fraudulent and dangerous; this meaning of the term was adopted by Latin in the first century BCE. Via Latin, the concept was incorporated into Christian theology during the first century CE, where magic was associated with demons and thus defined against religion.
This concept was pervasive throughout the Middle Ages, when Christian authors categorised a diverse range of practices—such as enchantment, incantations, divination and astrology—under the label magic. In early modern Europe, Italian humanists reinterpreted the term in a positive sense to create the idea of natural magic. Both negative and positive understandings of the term were retained in Western culture over the following centuries, with the former influencing early academic usages of the word. Since the nineteenth century, academics in various disciplines have employed the term magic but have defined it in different ways and used it in reference to different things. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor and James G. Frazer, uses the term to describe beliefs in hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other. Defined in this way, magic is portrayed as the opposite to science. An alternative approach, associated with the sociologists Marcel Mauss and Émile Durkheim, employs the term to describe private rites and ceremonies and contrasts it with religion, which it defines as a communal and organised activity.
Many scholars of religion have rejected the utility of the term magic, arguing that it is arbitrary and ethnocentric. Throughout Western history, there have been examples of individuals who engaged in practices that their societies called magic and who sometimes referred to themselves as magicians. Within modern occultism, there are many self-described magicians and people who practice ritual activities that they term magic. In this environment, the concept of magic has again changed being defined as a technique for bringing about changes in the physical world through the force of one's will; this definition was pioneered by the influential British occultist Aleister Crowley. The historian Owen Davies stated that the word magic was "beyond simple definition"; the historian Michael D. Bailey characterised magic as "a contested category and a fraught label". Scholars have engaged in extensive debates as to how to define magic, with such debates resulting in intense dispute. Throughout such debates, the scholarly community has failed to agree on a definition of magic, in a similar manner to how they have failed to agree on a definition of religion.
Among those throughout history who have described themselves as magicians, there has been no common understanding of what magic is. Concepts of magic serve to demarcate certain practices from other, otherwise similar practices in a given society. According to Bailey: "In many cultures and across various historical periods, categories of magic define and maintain the limits of and culturally acceptable actions in respect to numinous or occult entities or forces. More they serve to delineate arenas of appropriate belief." In this, he noted that "drawing these distinctions is an exercise in power". The scholar of religion Randall Styers noted that attempting to define magic represents "an act of demarcation" by which it is juxtaposed against "other social practices and modes of knowledge" such as "religion" and "science"; the historian Karen Louise Jolly described magic as "a category of exclusion, used to define an unacceptable way of thinking as either the opposite of religion or of science".
Within Western culture, the term "magic" has been linked to ideas of the Other and primitivism. In Styers' words, it has become "a powerful marker of cultural difference", it has been presented as the archetypally non-modern phenomenon. Among Western intellectuals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, magic was seen as a defining feature of "primitive" mentalities and was attributed to marginal groups and periods; the concept and term "magic" developed in European society and thus using it when discussing non-Western cultures or pre-modern forms of Western society raises problems, as it may impose Western categories that are alien to them. While "magic" remains an emic term in the history of Western societies, it remains an etic term when applied to non-Western societies. During the twentieth century, many scholars focusing on Asian and African societies rejected the term "magic", as well as related concepts like "witchcraft", in favour of the more precise terms and concepts that existed within these specific societie
Elsdon Best was an ethnographer who made important contributions to the study of the Māori of New Zealand. Elsdon Best was born 30 June 1856 at Tawa Flat, New Zealand, to William Best and the former Hannah Haynes Nibbs; when his father obtained a position at the Colonial Treasury, the family moved from its farmstead at Grasslees Farm to Wellington, where Best, now aged 9, went to school. After completing his formal education, he took and passed the Civil Service examination and became a clerk in 1873. Within a year he found the work uncongenial and moved to Poverty Bay, where he worked in farming and forestry. In 1881 Best joined the Armed Constabulary. Based in the Taranaki at a time of increased tensions between the Māori and the colonial settlers in the area, he became involved in the arrests of protesters. Through the influence of his brother-in-law, Walter Gudgeon, he transferred to a Māori contingent and that year he participated in the raid on Parihaka, he left the Armed Constabulary after two years of service to travel to the United States of America, where he worked for three years, first in Hawaii and in California, mustering cattle and doing forestry.
Best returned to New Zealand in 1886 and entered into a timber venture with his brother, using sawmilling equipment he had purchased in the United States. He came into increasing contact with the Māori and, encouraged by Gudgeon and other notable settlers from the Taranaki, including Percy Smith, studied their language and culture, his timber business Best moved to Wellington, where he found work as a storeman. When Smith established the Polynesian Society in 1892 with the intention of promoting interest in and discussion of Polynesian history and culture, Best became a foundation member. For the Society's first edition of its Journal he wrote an article on the people of the Philippines, he began a series of publications concerning the history of Wellington Harbour. In 1895, when the Urewera district began to be opened up for European settlement, Best took a position as quarter-master with the road works, beginning in Te Whaiti. For the next 15 years, he worked in the district, using his presence in the area to build up a relationship with many Tūhoe elders and record the facts of the culture and traditions of the Tūhoe, which were still intact.
He recorded his observations in field records and note books that he kept now for the rest of his life. His relationship with Tutakangahau is the subject of a recent book. Best's devotion to his study, together with his facility in Māori, allowed him to win the confidence of the Tūhoe, whose traditions he published in a series of articles in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute and the Journal of the Polynesian Society. In 1897, he published the monograph Waikaremoana, the Sea of Rippling Waters, With a Tramp through Tuhoe Land, in which he presented the lore of the district. In 1910, Best was appointed ethnologist at the Dominion Museum which allowed him to pursue his research in a more focused manner. In 1912, he published The Stone Implements of the Maori, followed four years by an accompanying bulletin on Māori storehouses. In 1919, his The Land of Tara appeared, a history of the Māori of Wellington Harbour. A systematic survey of traditional Māori culture, The Maori, appeared in two volumes in 1924, in 1925 Best's Tuhoe, the Children of the Mist.
This a monumental study in 1200 pages of the traditional history and culture of tribe with which he had spent so much of his life. In 1914, Best was awarded the Hector Medal of the New Zealand Institute, in 1919 he was made a fellow. Best died in 1931 in Wellington, survived by his widow Adelaide, they had no children. His ashes lay buried beneath a monument, erected in 1960, in his birth town of Tawa at Grasslees Reserve; the nearby suburb of Elsdon, Porirua was named in his memory. Encyclopedia of New Zealand, vol. 1, pp. 199–200. Journal of the Polynesian Society 41 Man of the Mist – a Biography of Elsdon Best by E. W. G. Craig Best of Both Worlds by Jeffrey Paparoa Holman Elsdon Best, l’ethnographe immémorial by Frederico Delgado Rosa Works by Elsdon Best Dictionary of NZ Biography entry Obituary by Te Rangi Hiroa in Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand Biography in 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand The Land of Tara in Wellington Public Library website Best of Tawa new book 1921 paper on Old Redoubts and Fortifications in Wellington