Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Johann Moritz Rugendas
Johann Moritz Rugendas was a German painter, famous for his works depicting landscapes and ethnographic subjects in several countries in the Americas, in the first half of the 19th century. Rugendas is considered "by far the most varied and important of the European artists to visit Latin America" whom Alexander von Humboldt influenced. Rugendas is the subject of César Aira's 2000 novel, An Episode in the Life of a Landscape Painter. Rugendas was born in Augsburg part of the Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg in the Holy Roman Empire, into the seventh generation of a family of noted painters and engravers of Augsburg, studied drawing and engraving with his father, Johann Lorenz Rugendas II. From 1815-17, he studied with Albrecht Adam, in the Academy de Arts of Munich, with Lorenzo Quaglio II; when Rugendas was born, Augsburg was a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire, after the Napoleonic Wars, it became in 1806 a city in the newly created Kingdom of Bavaria. Inspired by the artistic work of Thomas Ender and the travel accounts in the tropics by German naturalists Johann Baptist von Spix and Carl von Martius, in the course of the Austrian Brazil Expedition, Rugendas arrived in Brazil in 1822, hired as an illustrator for Baron von Langsdorff's scientific expedition to Brazil.
Langsdorff was the consul-general of the Russian Empire in Brazil and had a farm in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro, where Rugendas went to live with other members of the expedition. In this capacity, Rugendas visited the Serra da Mantiqueira and the historical towns of Barbacena, São João del Rei, Ouro Preto, Caeté, Sabará and Santa Luzia. Just before the fluvial phase of the expedition started, he became alienated from von Langsdorff, left the expedition and was replaced by the artists Adrien Taunay and Hércules Florence. However, Rugendas remained on his own in Brazil until 1825, exploring and recording his many impressions of daily life in the provinces of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, the coastal provinces of Bahia and Pernambuco on his journey back to Europe, he produced drawings and watercolors. On his return to Europe between 1825 and 1828, Rugendas lived successively in Paris and Munich, with the aim of learning new art techniques, such as oil painting. There, he published from 1827 to 1835, with the help of Victor Aimé Huber, his monumental book Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil, with more than 500 illustrations, which became one of the most important documents about Brazil in the 19th century.
He studied in Italy, but re-inspired by explorer and naturalist, Alexander Humboldt, Rugendas sought financial support for a much more ambitious project of recording pictorially the life and nature of Latin America. In 1831 he traveled first to Haiti, to Mexico. In Mexico, he did drawings and watercolors of Morelia, Teotihuacan and Cuernavaca, he began to use oil painting, with excellent results. Rugendas was incarcerated and expelled from the country after he became involved in a failed coup against Mexico's president, Anastasio Bustamante, in 1834. From 1834 to 1844 he travelled to Chile, Uruguay and Bolivia, went back to Rio de Janeiro, in 1845. Well-accepted and feted by the court of Emperor Dom Pedro II, he executed portraits of several members of the royal court and participated in an artistic exposition. At the age of 44, in 1846, Rugendas departed for Europe. From 1822 to 1825, as part of the Langsdorff expedition, Johann Moritz Rugendas depicted black people living in Brazil. Along with other ethnographic artists who worked in Brazil, like Jean-Batiste Debret, François-August Biard, Rugendas is part of the tropical romanticism.
This movement challenged the dichotomy between nature and civilization and considered places like colonial Brazil a harmonious environment to racial mixing. Tropical romanticism was one of the elements that influenced the representations of black people made by Rugendas. According to Freitas, one type of illustration Rugendas used was the bust of black people of varied origins; this type of illustration details the physical characteristics of black men and women focusing on hairstyles, adornments and scars, types of nose and eyes, demonstrating the ethnographic purpose of these drawings. In the same lithograph, the artist depicts four or five busts of men and women to compare differences and similarities among nations of origin, but to identify different degrees of civilization, he identified more savage people depicting them with skin marks and deformities and without clothes. On the other hand, criollos were represented wearing clothes and jewelry which meant a step forward toward civilization if compared with black Africans.
Rugendas celebrated black people born in Brazil, who were more polished and benevolent than Africans. The second type of representation in which Rugendas depicted black people was the painting of scenes; these images presented activities of urban work such as street commerce, water transportation, laundry. The main focus was in the activity and the landscape rather than in detailing variation between blacks of different origins. For this reason, a generic type of black was represented in these scenes. In other words, the differential traces that were highlighted in the busts were neutralized in the pictures of scenes; the work performed by black people was represented by Rugendas as a civilizing element that allow
Rehue or rewe is the sacred altar used by the Mapuche of Chile in many of their ceremonies. It is a tree trunk set in the ground and surrounded by canes of colihue placed in a row and adorned with white, blue or yellow flags and branches of coihues, maitén, lengas and other trees of the area. At its summit it has a representation of a human face with seven steps rising up from the earth to this summit, it symbolizes the connection with the cosmos. This rehue is a symbol of great importance, used in important celebrations or ceremonies like the Machitún, Guillatún, We Tripantu and others. Called "rehue" or "regua" in colonial chronicles, the word referred to the grouping of various Mapuche families who occupied the same locality and shared the same rehue altar. Nine of these rehue would form an Aillarehue, a small confederation that would gather for war or other common purposes and formed a region or province. Juan Ignatius Molina, The Geographical and Civil History of Chili, Hurst and Orme, London, 1809 EL REHUE, AXIS MUNDI DE LA COSMOVISIÓN MAPUCHE
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
Juan Ignacio Molina
Fr. Juan Ignacio Molina was a Spanish Chilean, Jesuit priest, historian, botanist and geographer, he is referred to as Abate Molina, is sometimes known by the Italian form of his name, Giovanni Ignazio Molina. Molina was born at Guaraculén, a big farm located near Villa Alegre, in the current province of Linares, in the Maule Region of Chile, his parents were Francisca González Bruna. He was educated at the Jesuit College at Concepción, he was forced to leave Chile in 1768. He settled in Bologna and became professor of natural sciences there, he wrote Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili, the first account of the natural history of that country, in which he described many species new to science. As a scientist native to the Americas Molina was critical of the work of Cornelius de Pauw, in Europe regarded as an expert on the Americas, accused him of "always attempting to degrade and discredit the Americas"; some of De Pauw's statements on the poor aspects of the mineral wealth of the Americas were countered by Molina as well as De Pauw's claims on the shorter lives of people that inhabited the Americas.
Molina expressed support for a sedimentary origin of basalt in Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile where he pointed out the fact that basalt occurred both in the Andes and in coast of Chiloé where there were no sign of eruption and believed basalt to be a sort of compacted slate with vesicles. As early as 1787 Molina mentioned the possibility of South America being populated from south Asia through the "infinite island chains" of the Pacific while North America could have been populated from Siberia. Ruiz and Pavón dedicated to him the plant genus Molina considered a subgenus of Baccharis by Wilhelm Heering, recreated as Neomolina by F. H. ranked as genus. Other authors dedicated a genus of Gramineae, as a synonym of Molinia Schrank. Molina has been linked to the naming of the genus Maytenus. A species of Chilean lizard, Liolaemus molinai, is named in his honor. Miguel de Olivares Alonso de Ovalle List of Jesuit scientists List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics "Juan Ignacio Molina," in Tom Taylor and Michael Taylor, Aves: A Survey of the Literature of Neotropical Ornithology, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Libraries, 2011.
Ronan, Charles. Juan Ignacio Molina: The World's Window on Chile. Series: American University Studies. Peter Lang Inc. International Academic Publishers. Juan Ignacio Molina. Polymath Virtual Library, Fundación Ignacio Larramendi
The Pampas are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than 750,000 km2 and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba. The vast plains are a natural region, interrupted only by the low Ventana and Tandil hills, near Bahía Blanca and Tandil, with a height of 1,300 m and 500 m, respectively; the climate is temperate, with precipitation of 600 to 1,200 mm, more or less evenly distributed through the year, making the soils appropriate for agriculture. The area is one of the distinct physiography provinces of the larger Paraná-Paraguay Plain division; the climate of the Pampas is temperate giving away to a more subtropical climate in the north and to a semiarid climate on the western fringes. Summer temperatures are more uniform than winter temperatures ranging from 28 to 33 °C during the day. However, most cities in the Pampas have high temperatures that push 38 °C, as occurs when a warm, northerly wind blows from southern Brazil. Autumn arrives in March, peaks in April and May.
In April, highs range from 20 to 25 °C and lows from 9 to 13 °C. The first frosts arrive in mid-April in the south, in late May or early June in the north. Winters are mild, but cold waves still occur. Normal temperatures range from 12 to 19 °C during the day, from 1 to 6 °C at night. With strong northerly winds, days of over 25 °C can be recorded everywhere, during cold waves, high temperatures can be only 6 °C. Frost occurs everywhere in the Pampas, but it is much more frequent in the southwest than around the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Temperatures under −5 °C can occur everywhere, but values of −10 °C or lower are confined to the south and west. Snow never falls in the northernmost third and is rare and light elsewhere, except for exceptional events in which depths have reached 30 cm. Springs are variable. Violent storms are more common as well as wide temperature variations: days of 35 °C can give way to nights of under 5 °C or frost, all within only a few days. Precipitation ranges from 1,200 mm in the northeast, to about 500 mm in the southern and western edges.
In the west, it is seasonal, with some places recording averages of 120 mm monthly in the summer, only 20 millimetres monthly in the winter. The eastern areas have small peaks in the fall and in the spring, with rainy summers and winters that are only drier. However, where summer rain falls as short, heavy storms, winter rain falls as cold drizzle and so the amount of rainy days is constant. Intense thunderstorms are common in the spring and summer, it has among the most frequent lightning and highest convective cloud tops in the world; the severe thunderstorms produce intense hailstorms, both floods and flash floods, as well as the most active tornado region outside the central and southeastern US. Herbivores of the pampas are the pampas deer, gray brocket, dwarf mara, plains viscacha, Brazilian guinea pig, southern mountain cavy and coypu; the biggest predator of the region is the puma followed by the maned wolf, pampas fox, geoffroy's cat, lesser grison as well as the omnivorous white-eared opossum and molinas hog-nosed skunk.
Bird species of the pampas are ruddy-headed goose, pampas meadowlark, hudsonian godwit, maguari stork, white-faced ibis, white-winged coot, southern screamer, dot-winged crake, curve-billed reedhaunter, burrowing owl and the rhea. Frequent wildfires ensure that only small plants such as grasses flourish, trees are less common; the dominant vegetation types are grassy prairie and grass steppe in which numerous species of the grass genus Stipa are conspicuous. "Pampas grass" is an iconic species of the Pampas. Vegetation includes perennial grasses and herbs. Different strata of grasses occur because of gradients of water availability; the World Wildlife Fund divides the Pampas into three distinct ecoregions. The Uruguayan Savanna lies east of the Parana River, includes all of Uruguay, most of Entre Ríos and Corrientes provinces in Argentina, the southern portion of Brazil's state of Rio Grande do Sul; the Humid Pampas include eastern Buenos Aires Province, southern Entre Ríos Province. The Semiarid Pampas includes western Buenos Aires Province and adjacent portions of Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Pampa provinces.
The Pampas are bounded by the drier Argentine espinal grasslands, which form a semicircle around the north and south of the Humid Pampas. Winters are cool to mild and summers are warm and humid. Rainfall is uniform throughout the year, but is a little heavier during the summer. Annual rainfall is heaviest near the coast and decreases further inland. Rain during the late spring and summer arrives in the form of brief heavy showers and thunderstorms. More general rainfall occurs the remainder of the year as cold fronts and storm systems move through. Although cold spells during the winter send nighttime temperatures below freezing, snow is quite rare. In most winters, a few light snowfalls occur over inland areas. Central Argentina boasts a successful agricultural business, with crops grown on the Pampas south and west of Buenos Aires. Much of the area is used for
A hacienda, in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa. Some haciendas were mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these activities; the word is derived from the Spanish word "hacer" or "haciendo", which means: to make or be making, respectively. The term hacienda is imprecise, but refers to landed estates of significant size. Smaller holdings were termed estancias or ranchos that were owned exclusively by Spaniards and criollos and in rare cases by mixed-race individuals. In Argentina, the term estancia is used for large estates. In recent decades, the term has been used in the United States to refer to an architectural style associated with the earlier estate manor houses; the hacienda system of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, New Granada, Peru was a system of large land holdings. A similar system existed on a smaller scale in the Philippines and Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, haciendas were larger than estancias, ordinarily grew either sugar cane, coffee, or cotton, exported their crops outside Puerto Rico.
Haciendas were developed as profit-making, economic enterprises linked to regional or international markets. Although the hacienda is not directly linked to the early grants of indigenous American labor, the encomienda, many Spanish holders of encomiendas did acquire land or develop enterprises where they had access to that forced labor. Though the private landed estates that constituted most haciendas did not have a direct tie to the encomienda, they are nonetheless linked. Encomenderos were in a position to retain their prominence economically via the hacienda. Since the encomienda was a grant from the crown, holders were dependent on the crown for its continuation; as the crown moved to eliminate the encomienda with its labor supply, Spaniards consolidated private landholdings and recruited free labor on a permanent or casual basis. The long term trend was the creation of the hacienda as secure private property, which survived the colonial period and into the 20th century. Estates were integrated into a market-based economy aimed at the Hispanic sector and cultivated crops such as sugar, wheat and vegetables and produced animal products such as meat, wool and tallow.
Haciendas originated in Spanish land grants, made to many conquistadors and crown officials, but many ordinary Spaniards could petition for land grants from the crown. The system is considered to have started in present-day Mexico, when the Spanish Crown granted to Hernán Cortés the title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca in 1529, it gave him a tract of land. Cortés was granted encomiendas, that gave him access to a vast pool of indigenous labor. In Spanish America, the owner of an hacienda was called the patrón. Most owners of large and profitable haciendas preferred to live in Spanish cities near the hacienda, but in Mexico, the richest owners lived in Mexico City, visiting their haciendas at intervals. Onsite management of the rural estates was by a paid administrator or manager, similar to the arrangement with the encomienda. Administrators were hired for a fixed term of employment, receiving a salary and at times some share of the profits of the estate; some administrators acquired landholdings themselves in the area of the estate they were managing.
The work force on haciendas varied, depending on the type of hacienda. In central Mexico near indigenous communities and growing crops to supply urban markets, there was a small, permanent workforce resident on the hacienda. Labor could be recruited from nearby indigenous communities on an as-needed basis, such as planting and harvest time; the permanent and temporary hacienda employees worked land that belonged to the patrón and under the supervision of local labor bosses. In some places small scale cultivators or campesinos worked small holdings belonging to the hacendado, owed a portion of their crops to him. In a number of places, the economy of the 18th century was a barter system, with little specie circulated on the hacienda. Stock raising was central to ranching haciendas, the largest of which were in areas without dense indigenous populations, such as northern Mexico, but as indigenous populations declined in central areas, more land became available for grazing. Livestock were animals imported from Spain, including cattle, horses and goats were part of the Columbian Exchange and produced significant ecological changes.
Sheep in particular had a devastating impact on the environment due to overgrazing. Mounted ranch hands variously called vaqueros and gauchos, among other terms worked for pastoral haciendas. Where the hacienda included working mines, as in Mexico, the patrón might gain immense wealth; the unusually large and profitable Jesuit hacienda Santa Lucía, near Mexico City, established in 1576 and lasting to the expulsion in 1767, has been reconstructed by Herman Konrad from archival sources. This reconstruction has revealed the nature and operation of the hacienda system in Mexico, its labor force, its systems of land tenure and its relationship to larger Hispanic society in Mexico; the Catholic Church and orders the Jesuits, acquired vast hacienda holdings or preferentially loaned money to the hacendados. As the hacienda owners' mortgage holders, the Church's interests were connected with the landholding class. In the history of Mexico and other Latin American countries, the