Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Malanda Falls Swimming Pool
Malanda Falls Swimming Pool is a heritage-listed swimming pool at Malanda Falls Park, Tablelands Region, Australia. It was built in 1906 onwards, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 5 February 2010. Malanda Falls Swimming Pool is located on the North Johnstone River in the Malanda Falls Park, adjacent to the Malanda Falls Conservation Park on the Atherton Tableland. First developed as a local recreation area during the early 20th century, Malanda Falls became associated with organised tourism on the Atherton Tableland from the 1920s and has been important in the development of the Cairns hinterland as a major tourist region in Queensland. Despite the focus of early settlers and investors on economic exploitation of the landscape on the Atherton Tableland, a number of tourist attractions emerged based on the resources being exploited and were framed in Romantic terms. Early non-indigenous visitors to the Atherton Tableland were fascinated with waterfalls and their jungle backdrop, variously described and depicted as sublime and picturesque.
Timeless in their appeal, these natural features were and continue to be essential to the success of the region in attracting tourists. Due to its proximity to the township of Malanda, the Falls have always been popular for local recreation and have been adapted over the last century to meet the needs of the local community and to enhance its beauty and bush surrounds as a tourist attraction; the Malanda Falls was surveyed in 1906 when it was described as being "partly covered with water lilies, jungle stretched to the edge of the pool, with lots of fallen trees water". With the exception of the installation of hydraulic rams in 1911 to supply water to the Malanda Hotel and to steam trains, it would appear that the Falls remained undisturbed until 1918 when the local community cleared the underwater logs from the pool; the Falls became a popular venue for New Year's Day picnic day celebrations and by 1920 the Eacham Shire Council had erected a substantial wooden diving platform and signs warning against nude bathing.
Other modifications included a wire netting fence erected around an unspecified area of the Malanda Falls Reserve in 1924 to keep wandering animals from damaging the area. In 1925 when a retaining wall and a "narrow turning platform for swimmers, 25 yards from the bank" were built, Malanda's first swimming club was formed. Swimming carnivals were held between Malanda, Atherton and Cairns clubs in the pool until 1930. By 1934 the Malanda Swimming Club and the Eacham Shire Council had both contributed to and pool and surrounding reserve, with the Council's contribution amounting to £182/19/8 in 1933; the Department of Lands approved an additional advance of £50.00 for further enhancement works in 1934, the Council engineer was instructed to look into building a path to the bottom of the Falls, formed with terracing and gardens. A significant feature of early tourism in the Cairns region was its use of the sophisticated transport infrastructure to service the mining and agricultural industries.
Development in Far North Queensland like other regions in Queensland was hampered by a lack of basic infrastructure. The construction of the Tablelands railway from Cairns to Mareeba provided for the development of the Barron Falls into one of the most popular tourist attractions in Queensland in the 1890s. Malanda Falls was to benefit from this, when in 1910 the railway was extended to Malanda and a railway bridge erected spanning the Johnstone River just above the Falls allowing excursioners from other parts of the Atherton Tableland to visit the Falls more easily, it was not until the construction of the Gillies Highway in the 1920s that it became accessible to a greater number of people, notably tourists. Photographs of Malanda Falls appeared in tourism literature as early as 1920 and in 1925 the Falls were part of a day trip from either Herberton or Ravenshoe; this day trip was by car and included on the itinerary were visits to Lake Barrine, Lake Eacham and Millaa Millaa Falls. Whitecars, a local hire-car service, commenced day tours of the southern Tableland c. 1926 offered two tours to Malanda Falls: one including a visit to Glen Allyn Falls and the Malanda township, the other incorporating a tour of the Malanda Butter Factory and The Jungle, an attraction which featured Aboriginal culture and the wonders of the rainforest.
Established c. 1922, Whitecars was integral to the development of tourism on the Tablelands and the increased popularity of region's attractions. Whitecars owners, Les Battle and Norm Graham, developed a timetabled taxi service between Malanda and Atherton, between Malanda and Millaa Millaa, with three cars, they took advantage of the 1926 opening of the Gillies Highway, linking the southern Tableland with Cairns, to take Ned Williams into partnership as The Cairns Tableland Motor Service Ltd to capitalise on the expected influx of tourists. In 1927 the company won the tender to transport passengers between Cairns and the southern Tableland via the Gillies Highway, to operate day tours on the Tableland out of Yungaburra. In 1934 Whitecars introduced its first bus, capable of carrying 17 passengers to the area which, by this time, was being described in tourist guides featuring the Falls as "the land of waterfalls and cascades". In the 1950s and 1960s, the Malanda Falls were included in the Grand Tour/Tropical Wonderland Tour itineraries promoted by the Queensland Government Tourist Bureau.
The Grand Tour operated during the winter months when a P&O ship would arrive at Cairns each week from Melbourne and Brisbane carrying around 200 passengers for a six-day stay in the region. Upon arrival passengers could
The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau, part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland, Australia. The Atherton Tablelands is a diverse region, covering an area of 64,768 square kilometres and home to 45,243 people; the main population centres on the Atherton Tablelands are Atherton. Smaller towns include Malanda, Kuranda, Millaa Millaa, Dimbulah, Mt Garnet, Mt Molloy and Yungaburra; the principal river flowing across the plateau is the Barron River. It was dammed to form an irrigation reservoir named Lake Tinaroo. Tinaroo Hydro, a small 1.6 MW Hydroelectric power station is located near the spillway. This area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger North Queensland Highlands province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division. South of the Tablelands is the Bellenden Ker Range. About 100 million years ago, the eastern edge of the Australian continent extended much further to the east, before tectonic forces fractured the eastern margin, pulling it apart.
At the same time rising mantle material caused a doming up of the continental crust. As the eastern part of the continent broke away, it sank below sea level. Since that time, the uplifted western portion has been eroding westwards, creating the abrupt Great Escarpment, which separates the coastal plain to the east from the uplifted tablelands to the west. From over 4 million to less than 10,000 years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions occurred over the Atherton Tablelands; the oldest eruptions created large sloping “shield volcanoes” that produced extensive basalt flows. These flows filled the pre-existing valleys, producing a flat tableland surface, instead of the more dissected landscape that would have existed previously. About one million years ago, the style of eruption changed; the lavas became more gas-charged, throwing fragmented lava into the air which built the numerous, small scoria cones, such as the Seven Sisters, near Yungaburra. Some of the rising magma interacted with groundwater, producing violent eruptions that led to the formation of maar volcanoes, such as Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine.
Although all the volcanoes in the Atherton Basalt Province are regarded as being extinct and volcanism has been waning over time, given the recent activity, it is possible that further eruptions could occur in the future. The Atherton Tableland Region has a long history of indigenous occupation. Aspects of traditional Aboriginal land use and culture have been documented from the period of first contact to the present. Aboriginal people with ties to the region seek to maintain their culture today, despite a long period of forced removal from their lands following European occupation in the late 19th-early 20th century. Atherton was explored by a European, J. V. Mulligan, in 1875. In 1877, John Atherton settled near the town; the area was explored for its mining potential where deposits of tin and gold were found. A pioneering pastoralist, John Atherton was the first to find tin deposits in Northern Queensland. Local legend has it that Tinaroo Creek received its name from Atherton who shouted, "Tin!
Hurroo!" when he first made his discovery. Atherton and his friends, William Jack and John Newell, discovered the famous lode, which became the Great Northern Tin Mine. A rush of miners from the Hodgkinson’s Goldfields followed; the construction of a dray road through the Tableland brought a secondary rush, this time timber cutters to mine the red gold of the rainforest. Redcedar cutters camps were Prior Pocket, Oonda Swamp & Ziggenbein's Pocket. Although tin was a major part in the Tablelands, timber is what Atherton owes its existence to with large areas of red cedar, maple, black bean, white beech and red tulip oak being milled for buildings. Before the town of Atherton developed, a full-blown Chinatown sprang into existence; the Chinese had moved from the Palmer River Goldfields to the Atherton area, where the big timber stands had been cleared to make way for farming. The Chinese were considered pioneers of agriculture in North Queensland as 80% of crop production on the Tablelands was grown by them and they played a vital role in opening up the area for settlement.
After the crops, they turned to dairying. As the population of Chinatown increased, small shops appeared, wells were sunk to supply water, there were cooks, herbalists and merchants etc; the rough straw huts were replaced by sawn timber houses with corrugated iron roofs. By 1909, Chinatown had become the largest concentration of Chinese on the Tablelands with a population of 1100. Today, the Hou Wang Temple remains as one of the few reminders of the former Chinese population of the Atherton Tablelands. In the Second World War, Australian troops were camped around the district prior to being sent to the front and again on their return. Many soldiers were interred at the war cemetery in Atherton. Crops grown in and around Atherton include banana, corn/maize, strawberries, macadamia nuts and mangoes and citrus. Tobacco was grown until October 2006 when it was ended by a Government buyout. Dairying and poultry are present on the Tableland. Tourism is the second largest economic driver to the Atherton Tablelands economy, with Tinaroo Dam and extensive trail network being the focal point.
Atherton and Mareeba are the largest towns in the area. Herberton, Kuranda, Millaa Millaa, Tolga, Chillagoe and Ravenshoe are located on the Atherton Tablelands; the tableland contains several small remnants of the rainforest which once covered it
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, is the largest town on the Cape. At the 2011 census, Weipa had a population of 3,334, it exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is involved in exports of bauxite. Over the last decade or so there have been occasional shipments of live cattle from the port. Weipa is just south of Duyfken Point, a location now agreed to be the first recorded point of European contact with the Australian continent. Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon, on his ship the Duyfken, sighted the coast here in 1606; this was 164 years. In 1895 Presbyterian missionary Reverend Nicholas John Hey established a mission at the junction of Embley River and Spring Creek which he called Weipa, believed to derive from the Anhathangayth word meaning fighting ground. In 1932 the mission relocated 28 kilometres to Jessica Point continuing under the same name. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, making the Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience.
It gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was given by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate to its present site, at Jessica Point now called Napranum because of malaria, it is about 12 kilometres south of the present town of Weipa. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite – the ore from which aluminium is made – and to a lesser extent tungsten; the "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere.
The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa has a tropical savanna climate, with hot temperatures above 30 °C throughout the year. Three distinct seasons exist; the wet season, which runs from January to April, is characterised by heavy downpours on an daily basis. Monsoon lows and tropical cyclones cause more extreme rainfall, up to 200 mm in 24 hours; the dry season, running from May to September, features dry days. The build-up season, running from October to December, is oppressively hot and humid, with frequent days over 35 °C. Dewpoints in the wet season average 24 °C. Rainfall during the build-up is infrequent, but when it does occur, it falls in brief, heavy downpours associated with severe thunderstorms; these seasons are not always set, however. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 10.2 °C to 38.4 °C. The highest daily rainfall recorded was 327.8 mm during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013. The present town was constructed by Comalco, a large aluminium company, which began making trial shipments of bauxite to Japan in 1962.
A railway was constructed to transport the ore from the mine at Andoom to the dump of the export facility at Lorim Point. The bauxite mine is the world's largest with planned expansions increasing the margin over other mines in 2010. There are two schools in Weipa; the Western Cape College is a government co-educational school. It is on the corner of Eastern Avenues in Rocky Point. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 1,073 students with 93 teachers. St Joseph's Parish School is a Roman Catholic co-educational primary school at 2 Boundary Road, Rocky Point. Opened in 2016, the school only offered enrolment in years P-3 but expects in 2018 to be able to offer enrolment across all primary levels. Weipa has a visitor's centre, swimming pool, bowling green, golf club and squash courts. There are basketball courts as well as football fields. Weipa Town Authority operates a public library at Hibberd Drive in Weipa. At Nanum the shopping precinct has a Woolworths supermarket, coffee shop, travel agent, clothing shop, post office, newsagency / sports shop and butchers.
There is a chemist and fishing store and within walking distance is a gift shop and whitegoods store, credit union and government social security office. At Evans Landing there are a
Mackay is a city and its centre suburb in the Mackay Region on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. It is located about 970 kilometres north on the Pioneer River. Mackay is nicknamed the sugar capital of Australia because its region produces more than a third of Australia's sugar. There is controversy about the location of the region for administrative purposes, with most people referring to it as a part of either Central Queensland or North Queensland. Indeed, much confusion lies within the Queensland Government, with government services being provided through both Townsville and Rockhampton; the area is known as the Mackay–Whitsunday Region. The city was named after John Mackay. In 1860, he was the leader of an expedition into the Pioneer Valley. Mackay proposed to name the river Mackay River after his father George Mackay. Thomas Henry Fitzgerald surveyed the township and proposed it was called Alexandra after Princess Alexandra of Denmark, who married Prince Edward. However, in 1862 the river was renamed to be the Pioneer River, after HMS Pioneer in which Queensland Governor George Bowen travelled to the area, the township name was changed to be Mackay in honour of John Mackay.
Fitzgerald decided to use the name Alexandra for his sugar cane plantation and sugar mill, which provided the name to the Mackay suburb of Alexandra today. There has always been much contention over the pronunciation of the name Mackay. Correspondence received by Mackay City Library in 2007, from descendants of John Mackay, confirms that the correct pronunciation is, from the Gaelic name "MacAoidh", pronounced "ɑɪ" not "eɪ"; the area, now Mackay City was inhabited by the local Yuibera people. One of the first white settlers to travel through the Mackay region was Captain James Cook, who reached the Mackay coast on 1 June 1770 and named several local landmarks, including Cape Palmerston, Slade Point and Cape Hillsborough, it was during this trip that the Endeavour's botanist, Sir Joseph Banks recorded seeing Aboriginal people. In 1860, John Mackay led an expedition to the Pioneer Valley and was the first European to visit the area now named after him. In 1918, Mackay was hit by a major tropical cyclone causing severe damage and loss of life with hurricane-force winds and a large storm surge.
The resulting death toll was further increased by an outbreak of bubonic plague. The foundation stone of the Mackay War Memorial was laid on the river bank on 18 November 1928 by the mayor George Albert Milton, it was unveiled on 1 May 1929 by the mayor. Due to flooding, the memorial was relocated to Jubilee Park in 1945. Due to the construction of the Civic Centre, it was relocated to another part of the park in March 1973; the largest loss of life in an Australian aircraft accident was a B17 aircraft, with 40 of 41 people on board perishing, on 14 June 1943, after departing from Mackay Aerodrome, crashing in the Bakers Creek area. The Rats of Tobruk Memorial commemorates those who died since the Battle of Tobruk; the memorial was dedicated on 4 March 2001. On 18 February 1958, Mackay was hit with massive flooding caused by heavy rainfall upstream with 878 mm of rain falling at Finch Hatton in 24 hours; the flood peaked at 9.14 metres. The water flooded Mackay within hours. Residents were taken to emergency accommodation.
The flood broke Australian records. On 15 February 2008 exactly 50 years from the last major flood, Mackay was devastated by severe flooding caused by over 600 mm of rain in 6 hours with around 2000 homes affected. Mackay was battered by Tropical Cyclone Ului, a category three cyclone which crossed the coast at nearby Airlie Beach, around 1:30 am on Sunday 21 March 2010. Over 60,000 homes lost power and some phone services failed during the storm, but no deaths were reported; the Dudley Denny City Library opened in 2016. Mackay has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Alfred Street: Mackay Technical College Alfred Street: World War I Cenotaph 251 Alfred Street: Mackay Central State School Cemetery Road: Mackay General Cemetery Cowleys Road: Selwyn House, Mackay 38 East Gordon Street: East Gordon Street Sewerage Works 39 Gordon Street: Holy Trinity Church Habana Road: Richmond Mill Ruins 21 MacAlister Street: St Pauls Uniting Church 10 River Street: WH Paxton & Co buildings 31 River Street: Mackay Customs House 239 Nebo Road: Sugar Research Institute 63 Sydney Street: Mackay Town Hall Victoria Street: Mackay Court House and Police Station 63 Victoria Street: Commonwealth Bank Building 79 Victoria Street: Queensland National Bank 1 Wood Street: Pioneer Shire Council Building 57 Wood Street: Mackay Masonic Temple Mackay is situated on the 21st parallel south on the banks of the Pioneer River.
The Clarke Range lies to the west of the city. The city is expanding to accommodate for growth with most of the expansion happening in the Beachside, Southern and Pioneer Valley suburbs. Suburbs to the North of the city such as Midge Point are fast growing with residential estates in demand. Mackay has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. Average maximum temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 23 °C in winter, while minimums range from 23 °C to 11 °C. Winters are sunny and dry, with minimum temperatures around 10 °C, but any lower than 5 °C. Days are warm. Frost is rare in Mackay however may be recorded to the west of the city some winters. Mackay gets around 110.0 clear days annually. Spring is dry, but hotter and more humid than winter, with temperatures