Constitution of Brazil
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil is the supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government of Brazil, it provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, to all people within Brazil. The current Brazilian Constitution is the seventh enacted since the country's independence in 1822, the sixth since the proclamation of the republic in 1889, it was promulgated on 5 October 1988, after a two-year process. The current Constitution of Brazil was drafted as a reaction to the period of military dictatorship, sought to guarantee individual rights and restrict the state's ability to limit freedom, to punish offences and to regulate individual life. Among the new constitutional guarantees are the errand of the habeas data, it anticipated the existence of a Consumers' Defence Code, of a Children's and Youth Code and of a new Civil Code.
It was the first constitution to demand severe punishment for breaches of civil liberties and rights. Brazil approved a law making the propagation of prejudice against any minority or ethnic group an unbailable crime; this law provided legal remedy against those who spread hate speech or those who do not treat all citizens equally. This second aspect helped disabled people to have a reserved percentage of jobs in the public service and large companies, Afro-Brazilians to seek reparation for racism in court. Breaking with the authoritarian logic of the previous Constitution, it made unbailable crimes those of torture and of actions directed against the democratic state and the constitutional order, thus creating constitutional devices to block coups d'état of any kind; the Constitution established many forms of direct popular participation besides regular voting, such as plebiscite and the possibility of ordinary citizens proposing new laws. Examples of these democratic mechanisms were the 1993 plebiscite concerning the form of government, where the presidential system was confirmed, the firearms and ammunition referendum, 2005.
The mention of God in the preamble of the Constitution was opposed by most leftists as incompatible with freedom of religion because it does not recognise the rights of polytheists such as some indigenous peoples or of atheists. The Supreme Federal Court has ruled that this commission of the protection of God was not unconstitutional since the preamble of the constitution is an indication of principles that serves as an introduction to the constitutional text and reflects the ideological conceptions of the legislator, falling within the scope of political ideology and not of the Law; the Constitution of Brazil is composed of nine titles, subsequently divided into chapters and articles. The articles are in turn divided into short clauses called parágrafos; the Constitution refers to the country as "the Union". The preamble to the Federal Constitution is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document; the text reads: We, the representatives of the Brazilian People, assembled in the National Constituent Assembly to institute a Democratic State for the purpose of ensuring the exercise of social and individual rights, security, well being, development and justice as supreme values of a fraternal and unprejudiced society, based on social harmony and committed, in the internal and international spheres, to the peaceful solution of disputes, under the protection of God, this Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
Title 1 is devoted to the fundamental principles of the Union. It describes the States, the municipalities and the Federal District as the indissoluble constituents of the Union, it establishes three independent, harmonic government branches: the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary, lists the nation's main goals. One of the most important excerpts from this title is in Article 1, single paragraph, stating: All power emanates from the People, who exercise it through elected representatives or directly, under this Constitution. Title 2 states the Fundamental Safeguards, it ensures basic rights to all citizens and foreigners residing in the Country, prohibits capital punishment, defines citizenship requirements, political rights, among other regulations. Title 3 regulates the state organization, it establishes Brasília as the nation's capital, describes the rights and duties of the states, the municipalities, as well rules for the public staff. Title 4 is about the branches of government.
It describes the attributes for every government branch, the rules for amendments to the Constitution as well. Title 5 regulates the defense of its democratic institutions, it rules the deployment of the armed forces, the national security baselines, declaration of state of emergency. Title 6 comprises the nation's budget, it disposes on budget distribution among the Union's components and their competencies, the nation's budget. Title 7 rules the economic activities in the country, the agricultural and urban policies, as well the state monopolies; the Constitution allows the Brazilian government to "expropriate, for the purpose of agrarian reform, rural property, not performing its social function." According to Article 186, the social function is performed when rural property meets the following requirements: rational and adequa
Conservation in Brazil
Though progress has been made in conserving Brazil’s landscapes, the country still faces serious threats due to its historica land use. Amazonian forests influence regional and global climates and deforesting this region is both a regional and global driver of climate change due to the high amounts of deforestation and habitat fragmentation that have occurred this region. Brazil has established an extensive network of protected areas which covers more than 2 million km2 and is divided equally between protected natural areas or conservation units and indigenous land. Despite these measures, environmental protection is still a concern as indigenous tribes and Brazilian environmental activists contend with ranchers, illegal loggers and oil prospectors and drug traffickers who continue to illegally clear forests. More than one-fifth of the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil has been destroyed, more than 70 mammals are endangered; the threat of extinction comes from several sources, including poaching.
Extinction is more problematic in the Atlantic Forest, where nearly 93% of the forest has been cleared. Of the 202 endangered animals in Brazil, 171 are in the Atlantic Forest; the Amazon rainforest has been under direct threat of deforestation since the 1970s because of rapid economic and demographic expansion. Extensive legal and illegal logging destroy forests the size of a small country per year, with it a diverse series of species through habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation. Since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers of the Amazon Rainforest have been cleared by logging. From the mid 1960s to 1970s the devaluation of the Brazilian real against the dollar resulted in doubling the price of beef in reals and gave ranchers a lucrative incentive to increase the size of their cattle ranches. During the same time period plans to expand infrastructure to facilitate greater trade within the Amazon region manifested itself in the building of the Trans-Amazonian Highway. A 2,000-mile wide highway would connect the entire Amazon and would create huge opportunities for cattle ranching to expand into untouched parts of the forest.
Widespread use of ethanol, a cheaper gas, gave cattle ranchers every economic incentive to take maximized profits no matter the environmental repercussions. The cattle industry struggled to meet domestic demand but soon became export driven. According to the Center for International Forestry Research, "between 1990 and 2001 the percentage of Europe's processed meat imports that came from Brazil rose from 40 to 74 percent" and by 2003 "for the first time the growth in Brazilian cattle production, 80 percent of, in the Amazon, was export driven." After the United States, Brazil is the second largest produce of soybeans. Soybean production, like cattle ranching, requires ample land and because of its profitability and importance as an export, receives large governmental support; as stated in the Constitution of Brazil, clearing land for crops or fields is considered an ‘effective use’ of land and has resulted in massive expansions of infrastructure aimed at providing greater access to unused land.
In an effort to address increasing demand of ranching, soybean production and timber, two highways were constructed: the Rodovia Belém-Brasília and the Cuiaba-Porto Velho. These were the only federal highways in the Legal Amazon to be paved and passable year-round before the late 1990s and contributed to the high rates of deforestation. With greater infrastructural support and economic incentive, Brazilian soybean production has skyrocketed. Land clearing for greater mechanized farming now contributes more extensively to deforestation because of the change in land use. Whereas the land was either unused or uninhabited and could function as a CO² absorber, mechanized farming could drastically change local climate and effect the rainforest's ability to absorb carbon emissions. Both cattle ranching and soybean production rely on expansive land to operate efficiently. Large parts of the Amazon rainforest have been cleared to provide for these sectors and the excess timber produced is profitable.
The removal of large swaths of trees from this area negatively impacts the environment in significant ways yet only account for trees killed, not harvested. For example, near Paragominas, Pará, for every tree harvested, 27 trees have been reported killed or damaged. With fewer trees the Amazon rainforest cannot absorb as much carbon emissions and expedite the process of Global Warming. In 2007 Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva announced at the International Conference on Biofuels in Brussels that Brazil's deforestation rate had slowed due to efficient fuel production and setting aside over 20 million hectares of forest. Since 2004 Brazil has established more than 200,000 square kilometres of parks, nature reserves, national forests in the Amazon rainforest; these protected areas, if enforced, will prevent an estimated one billion tons of carbon emissions from being transferred to the atmosphere through deforestation by the year 2015. According to a 2001 report by Rede, or RENC, wildlife smuggling is Brazil's third most profitable illegal activity, after arms dealing and drug smuggling.
RENCTAS believes that the poachers are taking an estimated 38 million birds and other animals from the wild each year. The same report claims that police only intercept.5% of smuggled animal wildlife and that it is easy to smuggle animals throughout Brazil. Nati
Geography of Brazil
The country of Brazil occupies half of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil covers a total area of 8,514,215 km2 which includes 8,456,510 km2 of land and 55,455 km2 of water; the highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 m. Brazil is bordered by the countries of Argentina, Colombia, Paraguay, Suriname, Uruguay and France. Much of the climate is tropical, with the south being temperate; the largest river in Brazil, the second longest in the world, is the Amazon. Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean; the only countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada and the United States. The national territory extends 4,395 kilometers from north to south, 4,319 kilometers from east to west, it spans three time zones, the westernmost of, one hour ahead of Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital and of the most populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except when it is on its own daylight saving time, from October to February.
The Atlantic islands are in the easternmost time zone. Brazil possesses the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, located 350 kilometers northeast of its "horn", several small islands and atolls in the Atlantic - Abrolhos, Atol das Rocas, Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo and Martim Vaz. In the early 1970s, Brazil claimed a territorial sea extending 362 kilometers from the country's shores, including those of the islands. On Brazil's east coast, the Atlantic coastline extends 7,367 kilometers. In the west, in clockwise order from the south, Brazil has 15,719 kilometers of borders with Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, Guyana and French Guiana; the only South American countries with which Brazil does not share borders are Ecuador. A few short sections are in question, but there are no true major boundary controversies with any of the neighboring countries. Brazil has six major ecosystems: a tropical rainforest system. In contrast to the Andes, which rose to elevations of nearly 7,000 meters in a recent epoch and inverted the Amazon's direction of flow from westward to eastward, Brazil's geological formation is old.
Precambrian crystalline shields cover 36% of the territory its central area. The dramatic granite sugarloaf mountains in the city of Rio de Janeiro are an example of the terrain of the Brazilian shield regions, where continental basement rock has been sculpted into towering domes and columns by tens of millions of years of erosion, untouched by mountain-building events; the principal mountain ranges average elevations just under 2,000 meters. The Serra do Mar Range hugs the Atlantic coast, the Serra do Espinhaço Range, the largest in area, extends through the south-central part of the country; the highest mountains are in the Tumucumaque and Imeri ranges, among others, which traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela. In addition to mountain ranges, Brazil's Central Highlands include a vast central plateau; the plateau's uneven terrain has an average elevation of 1,000 meters. The rest of the territory is made up of sedimentary basins, the largest of, drained by the Amazon and its tributaries.
Of the total territory, 41% averages less than 200 meters in elevation. The coastal zone is noted for thousands of kilometers of tropical beaches interspersed with mangroves and dunes, as well as numerous coral reefs; the Parcel de Manuel Luís Marine State Park off the coast of Maranhão protects the largest coral reef in South America. Brazil has one of the world's most extensive river systems, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Two of these basins — the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia account for more than half the total drainage area; the largest river system in Brazil is the Amazon, which originates in the Andes and receives tributaries from a basin that covers 45.7% of the country, principally the north and west. The main Amazon river system is the Amazonas-Solimões-Ucayali axis. Through the Amazon Basin flows one-fifth of the world's fresh water. A total of 3,615 kilometers of the Amazon are in Brazilian territory. Over this distance, the waters decline only about 100 meters.
The major tributaries on the southern side are, from west to east, the Javari, Juruá, Madeira, Tapajós, Tocantins. On the northern side, the largest tributaries are the Branco, Japurá, Rio Negro; the above-mentioned tributaries carry more water than the Mississippi. The Amazon and some of its tributaries, call
A Bohemian is a resident of Bohemia, a region of the Czech Republic or the former Kingdom of Bohemia, a region of the former Crown of Bohemia. In English, the word "Bohemian" was used to denote the Czech people as well as the Czech language before the word "Czech" became prevalent in the early 20th century. In a separate meaning, "Bohemian" may denote "a unconventional person one, involved in the arts" according to Oxford Dictionaries Online.. The name "Bohemia" derives from the name of the Boii, a Celtic tribe who inhabited that area towards the latter La Tène period; the toponym Boiohaemum, first attested by Tacitus, is taken to mean "home of the Boii". The word "Bohemian" has never been used by the local Czech population. In Czech, the region since the early Middle Ages has been called Čechy but especially during the period of restoration/emancipation of the Czech language and nation, as Čechie. Another term, stressing the importance of the state/nation, is Království české in Czech, or Böhmen in German.
Its Czech-speaking inhabitants were called Čechové. In most other Western European vernaculars and in Latin, the word "Bohemian" or a derivate was used. If the Czech ethnic origin was to be stressed, combinations such as "Bohemian of Bohemian language", "a real Bohemian", etc. were used. It was not until the 19th century that other European languages began to use words related to "Czechs" in a deliberate attempt to distinguish between ethnic Slavic-speaking Bohemians and other inhabitants of Bohemia; the latter were ethnic Germans, who identified as "German Bohemians" or as "Bohemians". In many parts of Europe, state citizenship was not identical with ethnicity and language, the various peoples were identified by their language. Ethnic boundaries in Bohemia were not always sharp, people often were bilingual. Intermarriages across language borders were common. Native Czech speakers spoke German and many native German speakers spoke Czech with varying fluency in areas with many Czech speakers; the word "Bohemians" is sometimes used when speaking about persons from Bohemia of all ethnic origins before the year 1918, when the Kingdom of Bohemia ceased to exist.
It is used to distinguish between inhabitants of the western part of the state, the eastern or north-eastern parts. The different term "Bohemianism" was associated with "a unconventional person one, involved in the arts", that comes from the French word bohémien. Name of the Czech Republic Bohemistics Notes
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 6,300,000 km2, or about 35.5 percent that of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world; the Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 metres. With a length of about 6,400 km before it drains into the Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the two longest rivers in the world; the Amazon system transports the largest volume of water of any river system, accounting for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field.
The Amazon basin flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants; the ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit other plants to get closer to the sunlight, they grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents.
Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin; the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an daily basis, the exception being rainy days; the green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs and weapons. More than 1,500 species of amphibians are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are limited to habitats near the water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor.
The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters; the differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist; this is more than any other river basin on Earth, Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes. About 45% of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin; the remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.
By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes and Siluriformes, but other groups with many species include Cichlidae and Gymnotiformes. In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size; the largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m or more in length and up to 200 kg in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world. The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and seen in marine waters. In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm long; the smallest are the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm and are among the smallest fish in the world. The Amazon supports large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform l
Capoeira is an Afro-Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance and music. It was developed by African slaves in Brazil at the beginning of the 16th century, it is known for its quick and complex maneuvers, predominantly using power and leverage across a wide variety of kicks and other techniques. The most accepted origin of the word capoeira comes from the Tupi words ka'a e pûer, referring to the areas of low vegetation in the Brazilian interior where fugitive slaves would hide. A practitioner of the art is called a capoeirista. On 26 November 2014, capoeira was granted a special protected status as "intangible cultural heritage" by UNESCO. Capoeira's history begins with the beginning of African slavery in Brazil. Since the 16th century, Portuguese colonists began exporting enslaved Africans to their colonies, coming from Angola. Brazil, with its vast territory, received most of the enslaved Africans 40% of all enslaved Afrricans sent through the Atlantic Ocean; the early history of capoeira is recorded by historians such as Dr. Desch-Obi.
The ancestor tradition originated from Angola and was called N'golo/Engolo. The purpose was religious as it both provided a link to the afterlife and enabled a person to channel their ancestors into their dance. For example, during the dance, a person might become possessed by an ancestor in the past, talented at N'golo; this could be applied to a martial setting in both combat and warfare, called N'singa/ensinga. During the Atlantic slave trade, this tradition transferred around the Americas. A large amount of Angolans were sent to Madagascar during the slave trade and it still survives today as Moringue/ Moring. In the 16th century, Portugal had claimed one of the largest territories of the colonial empires, but lacked people to colonize it workers. In the Brazilian colony, the Portuguese, like many European colonists, chose to use slavery to build their economy. In its first century, the main economic activity in the colony was the production and processing of sugar cane. Portuguese colonists created large sugarcane farms called "engenhos" "engines", which depended on the labor of slaves.
Slaves, living in inhumane conditions, were forced to work hard and suffered physical punishment for small misbehaviors. Although slaves outnumbered colonists, rebellions were rare because of the lack of weapons, harsh colonial law, disagreement between slaves coming from different African cultures, lack of knowledge about the new land and its surroundings. Capoeira originated within as a product of the Angolan tradition of "Engolo" but became applied as a method of survival, known to slaves, it was a tool with which an escaped slave unequipped, could survive in the hostile, unknown land and face the hunt of the capitães-do-mato, the armed and mounted colonial agents who were charged with finding and capturing escapees. As Brazil became more urbanised in the 17th and 18th century, the nature of capoeira stayed the same, however compared to the United States, the nature of slavery differed. Since many slaves worked in the cities and were most of the time outside the master's supervision, they would be tasked with finding work to do and in return they would pay the master any money they made.
It is here where capoeira was common as it created opportunities for slaves to practice during and after work. Though tolerated until the 1800s, this became criminalised after due to its association with being African, as well as a threat to the current ruling regime. Soon several groups of enslaved persons who liberated themselves gathered and established settlements, known as quilombos, in far and hard to reach places; some quilombos would soon increase in size, attracting more fugitive slaves, Brazilian natives and Europeans escaping the law or Christian extremism. Some quilombos would grow to an enormous size. Everyday life in a quilombo offered freedom and the opportunity to revive traditional cultures away from colonial oppression. In this kind of multi-ethnic community threatened by Portuguese colonial troops, capoeira evolved from a survival tool to a martial art focused on war; the biggest quilombo, the Quilombo dos Palmares, consisted of many villages which lasted more than a century, resisting at least 24 small attacks and 18 colonial invasions.
Portuguese soldiers sometimes said that it took more than one dragoon to capture a quilombo warrior since they would defend themselves with a strangely moving fighting technique. The provincial governor declared "it is harder to defeat a quilombo than the Dutch invaders." In 1808, the prince and future king Dom João VI, along with the Portuguese court, escaped to Brazil from the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon's troops. Exploited only for its natural resources and commodity crops, the colony began to develop as a nation; the Portuguese monopoly came to an end when Brazilian ports opened for trade with friendly foreign nations. Those cities grew in importance and Brazilians got permission to manufacture common products once required to be imported from Portugal, such as glass. Registries of capoeira practices existed since the 18th century in Rio de Janeiro, Salv
Politics of Brazil
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. The political and administrative organization of Brazil comprises the federal government, the 26 states and a federal district, the municipalities; the federal government exercises control over the central government and is divided into three independent branches: executive and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, advised by a cabinet. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the Regional Federal Courts; the states are autonomous sub-national entities with their own governments that, together with the other federal units, form the Federative Republic of Brazil.
Brazil is divided politically and administratively into 27 federal units, being 26 states and one federal district. The executive power is exercised by a governor elected to a four-year term; the judiciary is exercised by courts of second instance addressing the common justice. Each State has a unicameral legislature with deputies; the Constitution of Brazil knows two elements of direct democracy, stated in Article 14. The legislative assemblies supervise the activities of the Executive power of the states and municipalities; the municipalities are minor federal units of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor, directly elected by the people to a four-year term, a legislative body directly elected by the people. Due to a mix of proportional voting, the lack of election threshold and the cultural aspects of Latin American caudillismo-coronelismo, party politics in Brazil tends to be fragmented; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Brazil as "flawed democracy" in 2016.
Brazil has had seven constitutions: Constitution of 1824 – the first Brazilian constitution, enacted by Emperor Pedro I. It was monarchic and centralized, permitting suffrage only to property-holders. Constitution of 1891 – the republic was proclaimed in 1889, but a new constitution was not promulgated until 1891; this federalist, democratic constitution was influenced by the U. S. model. However and illiterates were not permitted to vote. Constitution of 1934 – when Getúlio Vargas came to power in 1930, he canceled the 1891 constitution and did not permit a new one until 1934; the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 forced Vargas to enact a new democratic constitution that permitted women's suffrage. Getúlio Vargas was indirectly elected president by the Constitutional Assembly to a four-year term, beginning in 1933. Constitution of 1937 – Getúlio Vargas suppressed a Communist uprising in 1935 and two years used it as a pretext to establish autocratic rule, he instituted a corporatist constitution nicknamed the Polish, written by Francisco Campos.
Constitution of 1946 – in October, 1945, with World War II over, a civil-military coup ousted dictatorial Getúlio Vargas, an Assembly wrote a democratic constitution. Constitution of 1967 – after the 1964 coup d'État against João Goulart, the military dictatorship passed the Institutional Acts, a supraconstitutional law; this undemocratic constitution incorporated these Acts. Constitution of 1988 – the progressive redemocratization culminated in the current constitution. Democratic, it is more expansive than a typical constitution – many statutory acts in other countries are written into this constitution, like Social Security and taxes. According to sociologist Marcelo Ridenti, Brazilian politics is divided between internationalist liberals and statist nationalists; the first group consists of politicians arguing that internationalization of the economy is essential for the development of the country, while the latter rely on interventionism, protection of state enterprises. According to Ridenti, who cites the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration as an example of the first group and the Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva administration as an example of the second, "we have it cyclically".
Lula's Workers' Party tended to the statist nationalist side, although there are privatizing forces within his party and government, while Cardoso's Social Democratic Party tended to favor the international private market side by taking neoliberal policies. Lula compares himself with Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitscheck and João Goulart, presidents seen as statist nationalists; as of May 2017, 16,668,589 Brazilians were affiliated with a political party. The largest parties are MDB, the PT, PSDB. Sources: Chamber Senate Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on representative democracy; the federal government has three independent branches: executive and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the executive branch, advised by a Cabinet; the President is both the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court