The pelagic thresher is a species of thresher shark, family Alopiidae. The pelagic thresher occurs in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans far from shore, but entering coastal habitats, it is confused with the common thresher in professional publications, but can be distinguished by the dark, rather than white, color over the bases of its pectoral fins. The smallest of the three thresher species, the pelagic thresher measures 3 m long; the diet of the pelagic thresher consists of small midwater fishes, which are stunned with whip-like strikes of its tail. Along with all other mackerel sharks, the pelagic thresher exhibits ovoviviparity and gives birth to litters of two; the developing embryos are oophagous. The young are born unusually large, up to 43% the length of the mother. Pelagic threshers are valued by commercial fisheries for their meat, liver oil, fins, are pursued by sport fishers; the International Union for Conservation of Nature assessed this species as vulnerable in 2007.
The pelagic thresher was described by Japanese ichthyologist Hiroshi Nakamura on the basis of three large specimens, none of, designated a type specimen. He illustrated one of the three specimens in his paper, "On the two species of the thresher shark from Formosan waters", published in August 1935. Nakamura separately illustrated and described a fetus, that Leonard Compagno concluded was of a common thresher. Several authors, including Gohar and Mazhar, Kato and Wagner, Fourmanoir and Laboute and Faughnan have published illustrations of "common threshers" that were in fact pelagic threshers. An allozyme analysis conducted by Blaise Eitner in 1995 showed that the closest relative of the pelagic thresher is the bigeye thresher, with which it forms a clade; the specific epithet pelagicus is from the Greek pelagios, meaning "of the sea". Another common name is the smalltooth thresher. Due to confusion with the common thresher, the distribution of the pelagic thresher may be wider than is known, it ranges extensively in the Indo-Pacific, with scattered records from South Africa, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, to China, southeastern Japan, northwestern Australia, New Caledonia, Tahiti, to the Hawaiian Islands, the Gulf of California, the Galapagos Islands.
The North Pacific population shifts northward during warm El Nino years. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA has shown extensive gene flow within the eastern and western Pacific pelagic thresher populations, but little flow between them; the pelagic thresher inhabits the open ocean, occurring from the surface to a depth of at least 150 m. However, it comes close to shore in regions with a narrow continental shelf, has been observed near coral reef dropoffs or seamounts in the Red Sea and the Gulf of California, off Indonesia and Micronesia, it has been known to enter large lagoons in the Tuamotu Islands. The pelagic thresher is the smallest of the thresher sharks 3 m in length and 69.5 kg in weight, not exceeding 3.3 m and 88.4 kg. Males and females attain known maximum lengths of 3.8 m, respectively. A record of 5 m may have resulted from confusion with other thresher species; this species has a fusiform body and a slender upper caudal fin lobe nearly as long as the rest of the shark. The pectoral fins are straight with broad, rounded tips.
The first dorsal fin is placed halfway between the pectoral and pelvic fins, is of comparable size to the pelvic fins. The second dorsal and anal fins are tiny; the head is narrow with a short, conical snout and a distinctive "pinched" profile when viewed from below. The eyes are large in juveniles and decrease in relative size with age. No furrows occur at the corners of the mouth; the teeth are small, numbering 21–22 rows on each side with a symphysial row in the upper jaw and 21 on each side without a symphysial row in the lower jaw. Five to 11 rows of posterior teeth are present; the teeth are smooth-edged, with lateral cusplets on the outside margins. The body is covered with small, smooth dermal denticles with flat crowns and cusps with parallel ridges; the coloration is an intense dark blue white below. The color fades to gray after death; the dark pigment above the pectoral fins, the rounded pectoral fin tips, the absence of labial furrows separate this shark from the common thresher. The pelagic thresher has been known to leap clear of the water.
Predators of the pelagic thresher include toothed whales. Known parasites of this species include the tapeworms Litobothrium amplifica, L. daileyi, L. nickoli, which inhabit the shark's spiral valve intestine, copepods of the genus Echthrogaleus, which infest the skin. At Malapascua Island in the Philippines, pelagic threshers have been observed visiting cleaning stations occupied by cleaner wrasses, during which they exhibit characteristic behaviors to facilitate the cleaning interaction; these visits occur
Mobula is a genus of rays in the family Mobulidae found worldwide in tropical and warm, temperate seas. Some authorities consider this to be a subfamily of the Myliobatidae, their appearance is similar to that of manta rays, which are in the same family, based on genetic and morphological evidence, the mantas belong in Mobula. Species of this genus are collectively referred to as "devil rays", "flying mobula", or "flying rays", due to their propensity for breaching, sometimes in a spectacular manner. Depending on the exact species, the devil rays can attain disc widths up to 1.1–5.2 m, the largest being second only to the manta rays in size, which can reach 5.5–7.0 m. Despite their size, little is known about the devil rays, much of it being from anecdotal accounts, whereas the manta rays are better-known. Most species lack a tail stinger or it is encased. Based on genetic and to a lesser degree morphological evidence, the genus was redefined in 2017. Under this arrangement, Manta is included in Mobula.
FishBase recognizes eleven species: Mobula alfredi Mobula birostris Mobula eregoodootenkee Bleeker, 1859 Mobula hypostoma Bancroft, 1831 Mobula japanica J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 Mobula kuhlii J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841 Mobula mobular Bonnaterre, 1788 Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1987 Mobula rochebrunei Vaillant, 1879 Mobula tarapacana Philippi, 1892 Mobula thurstoni Lloyd, 1908 List of prehistoric cartilaginous fish Photo gallery of Mobulas — photographer: Michael Albert Videos and information about several Mobula species — ARKive.org
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs. The marine pelagic environment is the largest aquatic habitat on Earth, occupying 1,370 million cubic kilometres, is the habitat for 11% of known fish species; the oceans have a mean depth of 4000 metres. About 98% of the total water volume is below 100 metres, 75% is below 1,000 metres. Marine pelagic fish can be divided into oceanic pelagic fish. Coastal fish inhabit the shallow and sunlit waters above the continental shelf, while oceanic fish inhabit the vast and deep waters beyond the continental shelf. Pelagic fish range in size from small coastal forage fish, such as herrings and sardines, to large apex predator oceanic fishes, such as bluefin tuna and oceanic sharks, they are agile swimmers with streamlined bodies, capable of sustained cruising on long-distance migrations.
Many pelagic fish swim in schools weighing hundreds of tonnes. Others are solitary, like the large ocean sunfish weighing over 500 kilograms, which sometimes drift passively with ocean currents, eating jellyfish. Epipelagic fish inhabit the epipelagic zone; the epipelagic zone is the water from the surface of the sea down to 200 metres. It is referred to as the surface waters or the sunlit zone, includes the photic zone; the photic zone is defined as the surface waters down to the point where the sunlight has attenuated to 1% of the surface value. This depth depends on how turbid the water is, but in clear water can extend to 200 metres, coinciding with the epipelagic zone; the photic zone has sufficient light for phytoplankton to photosynthese. The epipelagic zone is vast, is the home for most pelagic fish; the zone is well lit so visual predators can use their eyesight, is well mixed and oxygenated from wave action, can be a good habitat for algae to grow. However, it is an featureless habitat.
This lack of habitat diversity results in a lack of species diversity, so the zone supports less than 2% of the world's known fish species. Much of the zone lacks nutrients for supporting fish, so epipelagic fish tend to be found in coastal water above the continental shelves, where land runoff can provide nutrients, or in those parts of the ocean where upwelling moves nutrients into the area. Epipelagic fish can be broadly divided into small forage fish and larger predator fish which feed on them. Forage fish school and filter feed on plankton. Most epipelagic fish have streamlined bodies capable of sustained cruising on migrations. In general and forage fish share the same morphological features. Predator fish are fusiform with large mouths, smooth bodies, forked tails. Many use vision to prey on smaller fish, while others filter feed on plankton. Most epipelagic predator fish and their smaller prey fish are countershaded with silvery colours which reduce visibility by scattering incoming light.
The silvering is achieved with reflective fish scales. This can give an effect of transparency. At medium depths at sea, light comes from above, so a mirror oriented vertically makes animals such as fish invisible from the side. In the shallower epipelagic waters, the mirrors must reflect a mixture of wavelengths, the fish accordingly has crystal stacks with a range of different spacings. A further complication for fish with bodies that are rounded in cross-section is that the mirrors would be ineffective if laid flat on the skin, as they would fail to reflect horizontally; the overall mirror effect is achieved with all oriented vertically. Though the number of species is limited, epipelagic fishes are abundant. What they lack in diversity they make up in numbers. Forage fish occur in huge numbers, large fish that prey on them are sought after as premier food fish; as a group, epipelagic fishes form the most valuable fisheries in the world. Many forage fish are facultative predators that can pick individual copepods or fish larvae out of the water column, change to filter feeding on phytoplankton when energetically that gives better results.
Filter feeding fish use long fine gill rakers to strain small organisms from the water column. Some of the largest epipelagic fishes, such as the basking shark and whale shark, are filter feeders, so are some of the smallest, such as adult sprats and anchovies. Ocean waters that are exceptionally clear contain little food. Areas of high productivity tend to be somewhat turbid from plankton blooms; these attract the filter feeding plankton eaters. Tuna fishing tends to be optimum when water turbidity, measured by the maximum depth a secchi disc can be seen during a sunny day, is 15 to 35 metres. Epipelagic fish are fascinated with floating objects, they aggregate in considerable numbers around objects such as drifting flotsam, rafts and floating seaweed. The objects appear to provide a "visual stimulus in an optical void". Floating objects can offer refuge for juvenile fish from predators. An abundance of drifting seaweed or jellyfish can result in significant increases in the survival rates of some juvenile species.
Many coastal juveniles use seaweed for the shelter and the food, available from invertebrates and other fish associated with it. Drifting seaweed the pelagic Sargassum, provide a niche habitat with its own shelter and food, supports its own unique fauna, such as the sargassum fish. One study, off Florida, found 54 species from 23 families living in flotsam from Sargassum m
Daanbantayan the Municipality of Daanbantayan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 84,430 people. Located at the northern tip of Cebu island, Daanbantayan celebrates its annual fiesta along with the Haladaya Festival which starts 21 August and ends with street-dancing on 30 August, in honor of Datu Daya, the legendary founder of the town. Daanbantayan is bordered on the north by the Visayan Sea, to the west by Bantayan Island, on the east by the Camotes Sea, on the south by the town of Medellin; the name Daanbantayan was derived from two words: the word "daan", which means "old" in Cebuano, the word "bantayan", which refers to a place that served as a look out for Moro raiders during the Pre-Hispanic Philippines. The original site of the town might have been at an elevated vantage point in Tapilon. On 8 November 2013, 9 people were killed and 50 injured when Super Typhoon Haiyan passed over Daanbantayan. There are several small islands / islets and diving spots, with the list below arranged by latitude from nearest to farthest from Cebu island: Chocolate Monad Shoal Malapascua 600 ha Gato cave & islet 4.5 ha Maria 1.5 ha Carnaza 175 ha Daanbantayan comprises 20 barangays: Ceres Liner, White Stallion Express and Cebu Autobus are among the bus companies with regular service to and from Cebu city.
Jeepneys and trisikads are the main modes of transportation within the town. Daanbantayan is now known for its pristine, white powder-like sandy beaches – one of, Malapascua Island. With its vast and rich marine resources, it hosts a long string of dive sites offering unique marine life and beauty; as a tourist destination, Daanbantayan stages the Haladaya Festival every year as an added attraction to local vacationers, Filipino expatriates, foreign tourists from as far away as North America, South America, Europe. Attractions Municipal hall – built in 1916. Sta. Rosa de Lima parish church – inaugurated on 10 April 1858 and finished in 1886, its façade is still intact with its original design. Town plaza – site of a battle between the so-called Daanbantayan Volunteers and 19 well-armed bandits led by Capitan Berinoin 1898. San Pedro River - its northern bank has an abandoned Muslim settlement founded by Datu Daya during the pre-Spanish era. Tapilon point – site of the watchtower of Kandaya, called "daang bantayanan".
But there are no remains of the watchtower. Malapascua Island – is situated across a shallow strait from the northernmost tip of Cebu; this small island is known for Bounty Beach. Gato Cave and Islet – a small sharp rocky island rising in the middle of the Visayan Sea, about 15 kilometres from Malapascua; the 83-metre-high island is home to nesting seabirds, a colony of flying foxes, soft coral canyons, rare and unusual nudibranchs. Monad Shoal – a 20-metre-deep seamount known for its thresher sharks, making the shoal popular for recreational divers; the common thresher shark and pelagic thresher shark live in depths as deep as 350 metres, but the shoal offers opportunities to see them in less than 20 metres of water
Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta. The larger species, M. birostris, reaches 7 m in width, while the smaller, M. alfredi, reaches 5.5 m. Both have horn-shaped cephalic fins and large, forward-facing mouths, they are placed in the family Myliobatidae. Mantas are found in warm temperate and tropical waters. Both species are pelagic, they are filter feeders and eat large quantities of zooplankton, which they gather with their open mouths as they swim. However, research suggests that the majority of their diet comes from mesopelagic sources. Gestation lasts over a year, mantas give birth to live pups. Mantas may visit cleaning stations for the removal of parasites. Like whales, they breach for unknown reasons. Both species are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Anthropogenic threats include pollution, entanglement in fishing nets, direct harvesting for their gill rakers for use in Chinese medicine, their slow reproductive rate exacerbates these threats.
They are protected in international waters by the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, but are more vulnerable closer to shore. Areas where mantas congregate are popular with tourists. Only a few public aquariums are large enough to house them; the name "manta" is Portuguese and Spanish for mantle, a type of blanket-shaped trap traditionally used to catch rays. Mantas are known as "devilfish" because of their horn-shaped cephalic fins, which are imagined to give them an "evil" appearance. Manta rays are members of the order Myliobatiformes which consists of their relatives; the genus Manta is part of the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, where it is grouped in the subfamily Mobulinae along with the Mobula devil rays. In 2017, an analysis of DNA, to a lesser degree, found that Mobula was paraphyletic with respect to the manta rays, they recommended treating Manta as a junior synonym of Mobula. Mantas evolved from bottom-dwelling stingrays developing more wing-like pectoral fins. M. birostris still has a vestigial remnant of a sting barb in the form of a caudal spine.
The mouths of most rays lie on the underside of the head, while in mantas, they are right at the front. Manta rays and devil rays are the only ray species; the scientific naming of mantas has had a convoluted history, during which several names were used for both the genus and species. All were treated as synonyms of the single species Manta birostris; the genus name Manta was first published in 1829 by Dr Edward Nathaniel Bancroft of Jamaica. The specific name birostris is ascribed to Johann Julius Walbaum by some authorities and to Johann August Donndorff by others; the specific name alfredi was first used by Australian zoologist Gerard Krefft, who named the manta after Prince Alfred. Authorities were still not in agreement and some argued that the black color morph was a different species from the white morph; this proposal was discounted by a 2001 study of the mitochondrial DNA of both. A 2009 study analyzed the differences in morphology, including color, meristic variation, dermal denticles, teeth of different populations.
Two distinct species emerged: the smaller M. alfredi found in the Indo-Pacific and tropical east Atlantic, the larger M. birostris found throughout tropical and warm temperate oceans. The former is more coastal, while the latter is more migratory. A 2010 study on mantas around Japan confirmed the morphological and genetic differences between M. birostris and M. alfredi. A third possible species, preliminarily called Manta sp. cf. birostris, reaches at least 6 m in width, inhabits the tropical west Atlantic, including the Caribbean. M. birostris and it occur in sympatry. While some small teeth have been found, few fossilized skeletons of manta rays have been discovered, their cartilaginous skeletons do not preserve well. Only three sedimentary beds bearing manta ray fossils are known, one from the Oligocene in South Carolina and two from the Miocene and Pliocene in North Carolina. Remains of an extinct species have been found in the Chandler Bridge Formation of South Carolina; these were described as Manta fragilis, but were reclassified as Paramobula fragilis.
Manta rays have broad heads, triangular pectoral fins, horn-shaped cephalic fins located on either side of their mouths. They have horizontally flattened bodies with eyes on the sides of their heads behind the cephalic fins, gill slits on their ventral surfaces, their tails are shorter than their disc-like bodies. The dorsal fins are small and at the base of the tail; the largest mantas can reach 1,350 kg. In both species, the width is about 2.2 times the length of the body. Dorsally, mantas are black or dark in color with pale markings on their "shoulders". Ventrally, they are white or pale with distinctive dark markings by which individual mantas can be recognized. All-black color morphs are known to exist; the skin is covered in mucus which prote
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 81 genera, which are divided into 9 subgroups or tribes, they are small fish, most of them less than 20 cm long, although the largest, the humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 m. They are efficient carnivores. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing. Juveniles of some representatives of the genera Bodianus, Cirrhilabrus and Paracheilinus hide among the tentacles of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis; the word "wrasse" comes from the Cornish word wragh, a lenited form of gwragh, meaning an old woman or hag, via Cornish dialect wrath. It is related to the Welsh gwrach and Breton gwrac'h. Most wrasses inhabit the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, though some species live in temperate waters: the Ballan wrasse is found as far north as Norway.
Wrasses are found in shallow-water habitats such as coral reefs and rocky shores, where they live close to the substrate. Wrasses have protractile mouths with separate jaw teeth that jut outwards. Many species can be recognized by their thick lips, the inside of, sometimes curiously folded, a peculiarity which gave rise the German name of "lip-fishes" and the Dutch name of lipvissen; the dorsal fin has eight to 21 spines and six to 21 soft rays running most of the length of the back. Wrasse are sexually dimorphic. Many species are capable of changing sex. Juveniles are a mix of males and females; the wrasses have become a primary study species in fish-feeding biomechanics due to their jaw structures. The nasal and mandibular bones are connected at their posterior ends to the rigid neurocranium, the superior and inferior articulations of the maxilla are joined to the anterior tips of these two bones creating a loop of four rigid bones connected by moving joints; this "four-bar linkage" has the property of allowing numerous arrangements to achieve a given mechanical result, thus decoupling morphology from function.
The actual morphology of wrasses reflects this, with many lineages displaying different jaw morphology that results in the same functional output in a similar or identical ecological niche. Most labroids are protogynous hermaphrodites within a haremic mating system. A good example of this reproductive behavior is seen in the California sheephead. Hermaphroditism allows for complex mating systems. Labroids exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, promiscuous. Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems; the type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size. Labroids exhibit broadcast spawning, releasing high numbers of planktonic eggs, which are broadcast by tidal currents. Wrasses of a particular subgroup of the family Labridae, Labrini, do not exhibit broadcast spawning. Sex change in wrasses is female-to-male, but experimental conditions have allowed for male-to-female sex change. Placing two male Labroides dimidiatus wrasses in the same tank will result in the smaller of the two becoming female again.
Additionally, while the individual to change sex is the largest female, evidence exists of the largest female instead "choosing" to remain female in situations in which she can maximize her evolutionary fitness by refraining from changing sex. The subgroup Labrini arose from a basal split within family Labridae during the Eocene period. Subgroup Labrini is composed of eight genera. Broodcare behavior ranges from simple to complex parental care of spawn. In species that express this behavior, eggs cannot survive without parental care. Species of Symphodus and Labrus genera exhibit broodcare behavior. Cleaner wrasses are the best-known of the cleaner fish, they live in a cleaning symbiosis with larger predatory, grooming them and benefiting by consuming what they remove. "Client" fish congregate at wrasse "cleaning stations" and wait for the cleaner fish to remove gnathiid parasites, the cleaners swimming into their open mouths and gill cavities to do so. A single wrasse works for around four hours a day, in that time, it can inspect more than 2,000 clients.
Cleaner wrasses are best known for feeding on dead tissue and scales and ectoparasites, although they are known to'cheat', consuming healthy tissue and mucus, energetically costly for the client fish to produce. The bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, is one of the most common cleaners found on tropical reefs. Few cleaner wrasses have been observed being eaten by predators because parasite removal is more important for predator survival than the short-term gain of eating the cleaner; when cleaner wrasses were experimentally removed, from a reef in Australia, the total number of fish species halved, their numbers fell by three-quarters. There's some evidence, from another Australian study, that cleaned fish are smarter than those not serviced by the wrasse. Cleaner wrasse have become the first fish to pass the mirror test. In the western Atlantic coastal region of North America, the most common food species for indigenous humans was the tautog, a species of wrasse. Wrasses today are found i
Cebu is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, politically independent from the provincial government; the Cebu Metropolitan Area or Metro Cebu is formed by 6 municipalities. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines with Metro Cebu being the second largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for business processing services, shipping, furniture-making, heavy industry. Mactan–Cebu International Airport, located on Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines; the name "Cebu" comes from a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit. It was applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others.
Sugbu, in turn, is derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire". The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, it was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a half-Malay, half-Tamil prince of the Chola dynasty who invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead; the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 began a period of Spanish exploration and colonization. Losing the favour of King Manuel I of Portugal for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a total complement of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean.
They reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and obtain provisions. Arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu, persuaded the natives to ally themselves with Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were baptized as Carlos and Juana; the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized. Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu, it was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred, where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan was killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels.
Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano, took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed the fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world. Survivors of the Magellan expedition returned to Spain with tales of a savage island in the East Indies. Several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, established a colony; the Spaniards fought the King, Rajah Tupas, occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús". Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its ports to foreign trade; the first printing house was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu began publishing in 1886.
In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on 24 February 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians. Cebu, being one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942; the 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 3 January 1942 to 30 June 1946 and the 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again from 28 October 1944 to 30 June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu city and Cebu province. They started the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helped Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces.
Three years in March 1945, combined Filipino and A