Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms that include fever, tiredness and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, coma, or death. Symptoms begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have survived an infection, reinfection causes milder symptoms; this partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria. It is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group; the disease is most spread by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood; the parasites travel to the liver where they reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae cause a milder form of malaria. The species P. knowlesi causes disease in humans.
Malaria is diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite's DNA have been developed, but are not used in areas where malaria is common due to their cost and complexity; the risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water. Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the disease is common. Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine are recommended in infants and after the first trimester of pregnancy in areas with high rates of malaria. Despite a need, no effective vaccine exists; the recommended treatment for malaria is a combination of antimalarial medications that includes an artemisinin. The second medication may be either lumefantrine, or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.
Quinine along with doxycycline may be used. It is recommended that in areas where the disease is common, malaria is confirmed if possible before treatment is started due to concerns of increasing drug resistance. Resistance among the parasites has developed to several antimalarial medications; the disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator. This includes much of Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. In 2018 there were 228 million cases of malaria worldwide resulting in an estimated 405,000 deaths. 93% of the cases and 94% of deaths occurred in Africa. Rates of disease have decreased from 2010 to 2014, but increased from 2015 to 2017, during which there were 231 million cases. Malaria is associated with poverty and has a major negative effect on economic development. In Africa, it is estimated to result in losses of US$12 billion a year due to increased healthcare costs, lost ability to work, negative effects on tourism; the signs and symptoms of malaria begin 8–25 days following infection, but may occur in those who have taken antimalarial medications as prevention.
Initial manifestations of the disease—common to all malaria species—are similar to flu-like symptoms, can resemble other conditions such as sepsis and viral diseases. The presentation may include headache, shivering, joint pain, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobin in the urine, retinal damage, convulsions; the classic symptom of malaria is paroxysm—a cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by shivering and fever and sweating, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, every three days for P. malariae. P. falciparum infection can cause recurrent fever every 36–48 hours, or a less pronounced and continuous fever. Severe malaria is caused by P. falciparum. Symptoms of falciparum malaria arise 9–30 days after infection. Individuals with cerebral malaria exhibit neurological symptoms, including abnormal posturing, conjugate gaze palsy, seizures, or coma. Malaria has several serious complications. Among these is the development of respiratory distress, which occurs in up to 25% of adults and 40% of children with severe P. falciparum malaria.
Possible causes include respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis, noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, concomitant pneumonia, severe anaemia. Although rare in young children with severe malaria, acute respiratory distress syndrome occurs in 5–25% of adults and up to 29% of pregnant women. Coinfection of HIV with malaria increases mortality. Kidney failure is a feature of blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine. Infection with P. falciparum may result in cerebral malaria, a form of severe malaria that involves encephalopathy. It is associated with retinal whitening, which may be a useful clinical sign in distinguishing malaria from other causes of fever. Enlarged spleen, enlarged liver or both of these, severe headache, low blood sugar, hemoglobin in the urine with kidney failure may occur. Complications may include spontaneous bleeding and shock. Malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths, infant m
The Ovations were an American rhythm and blues vocal group who recorded in the 1960s and 1970s. Their biggest hit, a remake of Sam Cooke's "Having a Party", reached no.7 on the Billboard R&B chart in 1973. The group was formed by Memphis, natives Louis Williams Jr. Nathan "Pedro" Lewis, Elvin Lee Jones. Both lead singer Williams, who modeled his vocal style on that of his idol Sam Cooke, Lewis, had sung with the Del-Rios, who recorded for Stax Records in 1962 when they were fronted by William Bell. In 1964, songwriter Roosevelt Jamison recommended the Ovations to Quinton Claunch and Doc Russell at Goldwax Records, they were signed to record their first release, "Pretty Little Angel", it was not a hit, but their second record, "It's Wonderful To Be In Love", written by the group members, rose to no.22 on the Billboard R&B chart and no.61 on the pop chart. The Ovations toured with James Brown, James Carr, Gladys Knight & The Pips, Percy Sledge and others, before releasing their follow-up single, "I'm Living Good," written by Dan Penn and Spooner Oldham and recorded in Muscle Shoals.
However, it was not a commercial success. Jones was replaced by Billy Young, a member of the Avantis. Several records by the Ovations on Goldwax failed to chart, including "I Need A Lot Of Loving," written by Penn and Oldham, "I Believe I'll Go Back Home," co-written by George Jackson, before the group had their second hit with "Me And My Imagination," written by Claunch with Bill Cantrell, which reached no.40 on the R&B chart. The group continued to record for Goldwax, until a dispute over royalties was followed by the collapse of the label in 1969; the Ovations split up. In 1971 Williams formed a new version of the group, with singers Rochester Neal, Bill Davis, Quincy Billops, Jr. of The Nightingales. They recorded for the Sounds of Memphis label, an offshoot of MGM Records, had a no.19 hit in 1972 with "Touching Me", produced by Dan Greer. In late 1973, the group had their biggest hit with "Having a Party", a version of the Sam Cooke song, infused with a medley of other soul hits; the single, recorded by Williams together with backing vocalists, reached no.7 on the R&B chart and no.56 on the pop chart.
The group released an album, Having a Party, on MGM, but disbanded soon afterwards. In 2009 their recording of "They Say" was included on a Goldwax Northern soul compilation
Naval Air Station Whiting Field – South known as South Whiting Field, is located three miles north of the central business district of Milton, in Santa Rosa County, United States. This military airport is owned by the US Navy, it is one of two airfields located at Naval Air Station Whiting Field, the other airfield being NAS Whiting Field – North. This airport is assigned a three-letter location identifier of NDZ by the Federal Aviation Administration, but it does not have an International Air Transport Association airport code. Whiting Field NAS-South has two runways and 12 helipads: Runway 5/23: 5,997 x 200 ft. Surface: Asphalt Runway 14/32: 6,001 x 200 ft. Surface: Asphalt Helipads H1,H2,H3,H4,H5: 100 x 100 ft. Surface: Asphalt Helipad H6: 75 x 100 ft. Surface: Asphalt Helipads H-A,B,C,D,E,F: 100 x 100 ft. Surface: Asphalt Naval Air Station Whiting Field NAS Whiting Field – North NAS Whiting Field NAS Whiting Field page at Pensacola Chamber of Commerce NAS Whiting Field page at GlobalSecurity.org FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this U.
S. military airport: FAA airport information for NDZ AirNav airport information for KNDZ NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KNDZ