World Food Programme
The World Food Programme is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security. According to the WFP, it provides food assistance to an average of 91.4 million people in 83 countries each year. From its headquarters in Rome and from more than 80 country offices around the world, the WFP works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families, it is part of its executive committee. WFP was first established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agriculture Organization Conference, when George McGovern, director of the US Food for Peace Programmes, proposed establishing a multilateral food aid programme; the WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis; the WFP strives to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, with the ultimate goal in mind of eliminating the need for food aid itself.
The objectives that the WFP hopes to achieve are to: "Save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies" "Support food security and nutrition and build livelihoods in fragile settings and following emergencies" "Reduce risk and enable people and countries to meet their own food and nutrition needs" "Reduce under-nutrition and break the inter-generational cycle of hunger" "Zero Hunger in 2030"WFP food aid is directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat disease, including HIV and AIDS. Food-for-work programmes help promote environmental and economic stability and agricultural production; the WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from governments of the world and private donors. The organization's administrative costs are only seven percent—one of the lowest and best among aid agencies. From 2008-2012, private voluntary donors donated around $500 million. In 2016, WFP received from donors in total US$5,933,529,247; the USA was the major donor of WFP with 2 billion US$, followed by the European Commission and Germany.
The WFP is governed by an executive board. David Beasley, from South Carolina, United States, is the current executive director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the director-general of the FAO for a five-year term, he heads the secretariat of the WFP. The European Union is a permanent observer in the WFP and, as a major donor, participates in the work of its executive board, its vision is a "world in which every man and child has access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life." The WFP has a staff of the majority of whom work in remote areas. The Logistics Cluster is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee humanitarian coordination mechanism whose primary role is supporting emergency responses. One of eleven sectoral coordination bodies, it was set by UN General Assembly resolution 46/182 in December 1991 and extended in the Humanitarian Reform of 2005, with new elements adopted to improve capacity, accountability and partnership; the Logistics Cluster provides coordination and information management services to support operational decision-making and improve the predictability and efficiency of humanitarian emergency responses.
Where necessary, the Logistics Cluster facilitates access to common logistics services. Due to its expertise in the field of humanitarian logistics, the World Food Programme was chosen by the IASC as the lead agency for the Logistics Cluster. WFP hosts the Global Logistics Cluster support team in its headquarters in Rome. WFP acts as a ‘provider of last resort’ offering common logistics services, when critical gaps hamper the humanitarian response. In 2013, the WFP reached 80.9 million people in 75 countries and provided 3.1 million tonnes of food, including nutritionally enriched Ready-to-use therapeutic foods. 7.8 million malnourished children received special nutritional support in 2013, 18.6 million children received school meals or take-home rations. In 2015, the WFP reached 76.7 million people in 81 countries. In emergencies, more than 50 million people were reached in order to improve their nutrition and food security. School meals were provided to 17.4 million children helping retain children in schools, supporting uninterrupted access to education.
The WFP has scaled up its use of cash and vouchers as food assistance tools. 7.9 million people received assistance through cash or voucher programmes in 2013. In the same year, the WFP purchased food in 91 countries. Among its other activities, the WFP has coordinated the five-year Purchase for Progress pilot project. Launched in September 2008, P4P assists smallholder farmers by offering them opportunities to access agricultural markets and to become competitive players in the marketplace; the project spanned across 20 countries in Africa and Latin America and trained 800,000 farmers in improved agricultural production, post-harvest handling, quality assurance, group marketing, agricultural finance and contracting with the WFP. The project resulted in 366,000 metric tons of food produced and generated more than $148 million in income for its smallholder farmers; the WFP focuses its food assistance on those who are most vulnerable to hunger, which most means women, the sick and the elderly. In fact, part of the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake consisted of distributing food aid only to women as experience built up over 5 decades of working in emergency situations has demonstrated that
United States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health & Human Services known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health and Welfare. HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate; the United States Public Health Service is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate; the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General, responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.
The Federal Security Agency was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P. L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health and social security; the first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt; the new agency consisted of the following major components: Office of the Administrator, Public Health Service, Office of Education, Civilian Conservation Corps, Social Security Board. By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. In accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health and Welfare.
The plan was approved April 1, 1953, became effective on April 11, 1953. Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code; the result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes. The Department of Health and Welfare was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913; the Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post.
Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953. The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, St. Elizabeth's Hospital; the Department was responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, the Columbia Institution for the Deaf. The Department of Health and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act. HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, Family Support Administration. In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.
The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system. The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators; as of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website. Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service. Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Chief of Staff The Executive Secretariat Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs Headquarters Staff Regional Offices Office of Human Resources Office of Health Reform Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration Office of the Assistant Secretary for F
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Hendrix College is a private liberal arts college in Conway, Arkansas. Over 1,400 students are enrolled undergraduates. While affiliated with the United Methodist Church, the college offers a secular curriculum and has a student body composed of people from many different religious backgrounds. Hendrix is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. Hendrix College was founded as a primary school called Central Institute in 1876 at Altus, Arkansas, by Rev. Isham L. Burrow. In 1881 it was renamed Central Collegiate Institute when secondary and collegiate departments were added; the next year the first graduating collegiate class, composed of three women, were awarded Mistress of English Literature degrees. In 1884, three conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South purchased the school; this began the school's relationship with the Methodist Episcopal Church and The Methodist Church and the United Methodist Church. The Central Collegiate Institute was renamed Hendrix College in 1889 in honor of Rev. Eugene Russell Hendrix, a presiding bishop over three Arkansas Methodist conferences.
This same year, the primary school was discontinued. Hendrix College was designated a male college, but by the time of the name change in 1889, the college allowed for the enrollment of women who were interested in the college's course of study. In 1890, after receiving bids from seven other Arkansas towns, the Hendrix Board of Trustees chose Conway as the new location for the college. College literary societies thrived at Hendrix from the 1890s through the 1930s, they included the Harlan Literary Society, its rival—the Franklin Literary Society, for women—the Hypatian Literary Society. Secondary education was discontinued in 1925. In 1929 the college merged with Henderson-Brown College, a private school in Arkadelphia, which created Hendrix-Henderson College. Two years the name reverted to Hendrix College; the merger resulted in Hendrix Bull Dogs becoming the Hendrix Warriors, the college newspaper, the Bull Dog, being renamed the College Profile. The newly expanded college planned to move to Little Rock, but the city of Conway was able to raise $150,000 to keep the school.
In 1930 the name was changed to Trinity College but reverted to Hendrix College after opposition by students and townspeople. The financially troubled Galloway Woman's College in Searcy, Arkansas was absorbed by Hendrix in 1933 during the Great Depression. On November 1, 2013, the college announced that William Tsutsui will become its 11th president beginning in June 2014. A delegation from BNU-HKBU United International College was invited by the Associated Colleges of the South, a consortium of 16 liberal arts colleges in the US, to explore collaborative ties. UIC visited three of the ACS member institutions between April 17 and 25; the delegates discussed exchange opportunities and collaborative projects with Hendrix College. 2014–Present: William M. Tsutsui 2001–2013: J. Timothy Cloyd 1992–2001: Ann H. Die 1981–1991: Joe B. Hatcher 1969–1981: Roy Shilling Jr. 1958–1969: Marshall T. Steel 1945–1958: Matt L. Ellis 1913–1945: John H. Reynolds 1902–1910: Stonewall Anderson 1887–1902, 1910–1913: Alexander C.
Millar 1884–1887: Isham L. Burrow Hendrix is a undergraduate institution with 34 majors and 38 minors, including a master's of accounting degree; the student body is about 1400, with students coming from most U. S. states and from over a dozen foreign countries. Notable are the Rwandan Presidential Scholars. Hendrix is the lead institution in a consortium of 19 private and public higher education institutions that together host over 220 students from Rwanda; the Student Senate is the governing body of the student association. It has officers that are elected campus-wide along with representatives from each class, residence hall and apartment building. Hendrix has no social sororities. There are 65 student organizations that offer a wide range of activities, funded by a student activity fee; the largest student organization is Social Committee, or SoCo, which plans the major events on campus. The Office of Student Activities organizes Wednesday evening events. Major social events are held in "The Brick Pit," an outdoor area in the center of the campus.
The most famous event is "Shirttails," a freshman dance-off that includes a serenade by the men's dorms. Hendrix College has its own radio station. Founded in 1971 and first broadcasting in 1973, KHDX-FM 93.1 is Hendrix College's student-run radio station, with a 10-watt broadcast that reaches Hendrix Campus and the surrounding Conway area. Additionally, as of 2017, KHDX Radio is a founding member of the Arkansas College Radio Association. Hendrix College teams participate as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III; the Warriors are a charter member of the new Southern Athletic Association, founded in 2011, after being a member of the Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country, golf, soccer, swimming & diving and track & field. In fall 2013, Hendrix was recognized as one of the country's top "Up and Coming" liberal arts colleges for the sixth consecutive year by US News and World Report; the 2014 US News Best Colleges guide lists Hendrix as #11 in a group of liberal arts colleges that demonstrate "A Strong Commitment to Teaching."
Hendrix is the only Arkansas institution to appear in the 2014 US News Best Colleges ranking of the top 100 private national liberal arts colleges. Hendrix was lis
African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance
The African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program the African Crisis Response Initiative, is a United States program to train military trainers and equip African national militaries to conduct peace support operations and humanitarian relief. The ACOTA program, which succeeded ACRI in 2004, aims to increase the capabilities of African military forces in areas such as human rights, interaction with civil society, international law, military staff skills, small unit operations. Over 40,000 African soldiers will be trained in peacekeeping over five years; the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance program has a record of supporting African military forces that have afterwards participated in peacekeeping or peace support activities in the continent. The program is funded by the US Department of State peacekeeping operations account. Mass murder and genocide have linked to the Belgian colonial occupation of the Congo in the 1890 during which ten million people were massacred as part of the initiative of pacification.
The controlling European powers that had defined their mission as the civilization of "uncivilized" peoples. The genocide and mass murder committed in the Congo paved the road for a century of mass slaughter throughout Africa, with the Herero and Namaqua Genocide in the German protectorate of Namibia serving as the dress rehearsal for the Holocaust during the Second World War, in which Nazi Germany's annihilation of six million European Jews brought the issue of genocide to the fore front of international attention. In October 1996, during the Clinton administration, The U. S. government established the African Crisis Response Initiative force, to enable timely response to humanitarian crises and empower peacekeeping missions on the African continent. The ACRI's immediate objective was to increase the number of African states with effective response capability for peace keeping and humanitarian relief challenges, thereby improving stability and peace within their own borders and their sub-regions The pressing reason for establishing the ACRI at the time had been the imminent possibility of a major genocide in Burundi, similar to the ethnic cleansing which had taken place in 1994 in Rwanda.
However, once the ACRI was formed, these murders continued yet the force never intervened. Until its replacement by ACOTA by the ACRI in 2004 and despite ongoing mass murders occurring in the Darfur province of the Sudan, the U. S. government never deployed the ACRI forces to put pause to genocide in Africa, despite the ACRI’s founding articles, which call for humanitarian intervention in Africa no action was taken. The harrowing losses of the U. S. military in Somalia were instrumental in the creation of the ACRI. In 1992, following the fall of the Siad Barre regime, the U. S. opted for a military intervention which it named Restore Hope but the operation soon escalated when the focus shifted from humanitarian aid to an attempt at restructuring Somalia’s government. By 1993 following the Battle of Mogadishu, portrayed in the book and movie Black Hawk Down, the mission in Somalia was considered a failure; the Clinton administration was criticised for the operation's outcome due to the decision to abandon the region before completing the operation's humanitarian and security objectives, for their failure to recognize the threat Al-Qaida elements posed in Somalia as well as to U.
S. security interests at home. This off-shot was that the U. S. State Department pressured the UN against intervening in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide Even as the graphic violence dominated the world press, the U. S. government was refusing to acknowledge. African leaders including South African President Nelson Mandela considered the formation of the ACRI as a cynical attempt by the U. S. to improve its image following the Rwandan Genocide. The United States, willing to mobilize the United Nations to stop ethnic cleansing in European Bosnia has ensured that the UN did not send troops to end the Rwandan genocide in 1994; the Organization of African Unity convened a panel of experts to investigate the genocide in Rwanda. They concluded that during the civil war, genocide had occurred, pointed to the tolerance for genocidal violence committed by African leaders. By naming their report "Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide", the panel pointed to the United States and UN as responsible for this tragedy. Regional leaders such as Michel Micombero of Burundi, Idi Amin of Uganda, Emperor Bokassa of the Central African Republic and Mobutu of Zaire directly and indirectly contributed to the commencement war and genocide by taking a stance of indifference toward state-implemented criminal recommendation which had exploited myths of Tutsi and Hutu origins.
ACOTA's 25 USA partners included Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mauritania, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Togo and Zambia. Africa Peacekeeping Program Campbell, Horace G.. "The U. S. Security Doctrine and the Africa Crisis Response Initiative. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa". Frazier, Jendayi. "The African Crisis Response Initiative: Self-Interested Humanitarianism". Brown Journal of World Affairs. IV. Henk, Dan. "The United States and the Transformation of African Security: The African Crisis Response Initiative and Beyond". Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: Strategic Studies Institute. Karis, Daniel G.. A Comparative Study of Two Pea
Natural resource management
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, soil and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact, it brings together land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, tourism and forestry. It recognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and productivity of our landscapes, their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health and productivity. Natural resource management focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. Environmental management is similar to natural resource management. In academic contexts, the sociology of natural resources is related to, but distinct from, natural resource management.
The emphasis on sustainability can be traced back to early attempts to understand the ecological nature of North American rangelands in the late 19th century, the resource conservation movement of the same time. This type of analysis coalesced in the 20th century with recognition that preservationist conservation strategies had not been effective in halting the decline of natural resources. A more integrated approach was implemented recognising the intertwined social, cultural and political aspects of resource management. A more holistic and global form evolved, from the Brundtland Commission and the advocacy of sustainable development. In 2005 the government of New South Wales, established a Standard for Quality Natural Resource Management, to improve the consistency of practice, based on an adaptive management approach. In the United States, the most active areas of natural resource management are wildlife management associated with ecotourism and rangeland management. In Australia, water sharing, such as the Murray Darling Basin Plan and catchment management are significant.
Natural resource management approaches can be categorised according to the kind and right of stakeholders, natural resources: State property: Ownership and control over the use of resources is in hands of the state. Individuals or groups may be able to make use of the resources, but only at the permission of the state. National forest, National parks and military reservations are some US examples. Private property: Any property owned by a defined individual or corporate entity. Both the benefit and duties to the resources fall to the owner. Private land is the most common example. Common property: It is a private property of a group; the group may vary in size and internal structure e.g. indigenous neighbours of village. Some examples of common property are community forests. Non-property: There is no definite owner of these properties; each potential user has equal ability to use it. These areas are the most exploited, it is said that "Everybody's property is nobody's property". An example is a lake fishery.
Common land may exist without ownership. Hybrid: Many ownership regimes governing natural resources will contain parts of more than one of the regimes described above, so natural resource managers need to consider the impact of hybrid regimes. An example of such a hybrid is native vegetation management in NSW, where legislation recognises a public interest in the preservation of native vegetation, but where most native vegetation exists on private land. Stakeholder analysis originated from business management practices and has been incorporated into natural resource management in growing popularity. Stakeholder analysis in the context of natural resource management identifies distinctive interest groups affected in the utilisation and conservation of natural resources. There is no definitive definition of a stakeholder. In natural resource management as it is difficult to determine who has a stake and this will differ according to each potential stakeholder. Different approaches to, a stakeholder: Therefore, it is dependent upon the circumstances of the stakeholders involved with natural resource as to which definition and subsequent theory is utilised.
Billgrena and Holme identified the aims of stakeholder analysis in natural resource management: Identify and categorise the stakeholders that may have influence Develop an understanding of why changes occur Establish who can make changes happen How to best manage natural resourcesThis gives transparency and clarity to policy making allowing stakeholders to recognise conflicts of interest and facilitate resolutions. There are numerous stakeholder theories such as Mitchell et al. however Grimble created a framework of stages for a Stakeholder Analysis in natural resource management. Grimble designed this framework to ensure that the analysis is specific to the essential aspects of natural resource management. Stages in Stakeholder analysis: Clarify objectives of the analysis Place issues in a systems context Identify decision-makers and stakeholders Investigate stakeholder interests and agendas Investigate patterns of inter-action and dependence Application: Grimble and Wellard established that Stakeholder analysis in natural resource management is most relevant where issued can be characterised as.
Market failure Subtractability and temporal trade-offs Unclear or open-access property rights Untraded products and serv
University of Malawi
The University of Malawi is an educational institution established in 1965 and composed of five constituent colleges located in Zomba and Lilongwe. Of the five colleges, the largest is Chancellor College in Zomba, it is part of the Malawian government educational system. The present Vice Chancellor is Professor John Kalenga Saka. UNIMA celebrated its golden jubilee from the 24 to the 26 September 2015; the vision of the University of Malawi is to provide "relevant, world-class education and services for the sustainable development of Malawi and the world." The university is the center of knowledge, development of skills values and attitudes for engaging developmental challenges in the country. The University of Malawi was founded a few months after Malawi Independence; the first enrollment consisted of 90 students in Blantyre. Teaching began in 1965 in Blantyre, within two years the Institute of Public Administration at Mpemba, the Soche Hill College of Education and the Polytechnic in Blantyre, Bunda College in Lilongwe became colleges of the university.
In 1973, all the constituents of the university apart from the polytechnic and Bunda College moved to Zomba and were merged into Chancellor College. In 1979, Kamuzu College of Nursing became a college of the university, in 1991 the College of Medicine in Blantyre was formed as a further constituent college. During the movement towards multiparty rule, UNIMA students participated in a protest, organized by themselves as a part of fighting for their educational freedom. In March 1992, when Catholic Bishops in Malawi issued a Lenten Pastoral Letter that criticized Banda and his government, students of the University of Malawi at Chancellor College and the Polytechnic joined in through protests and demonstrations in support of the letter; this forced the authorities to close the campuses. Youth for Freedom and Democracy is a student political pressure group on campus, they publish the "Weekly Political Update", circulated to students on campus. They have been critical of Malawi's governance, of the Paladin Energy mining company.
In mid September, Malawian police arrested several members of the group. They arrested 21-year-old Black Moses, president of the YFD and interrogated him. A week 25-year-old Robert Chasowa, a fourth-year engineering student at the Malawi Polytechnic was found dead. Police ruled this critics believe that he was murdered. Bunda College of Agriculture offers BSc's, MSc's and PhD degrees in Agriculture, Environmental Sciences and Development Studies, its mission is to advance and promote knowledge,skills,self-reliance and sound character for "sustainable food production and utilization. It is situated in Lilongwe 35.2 km from the capital city center. Nearby is the College farm serving commercial, practical and research purposes. Following the restructuring of universities in Malawi in 2012 by President Bingu wa Muthalika, Bunda college is no longer part of the University of Malawi. Now Bunda College forms part of Lilongwe University of Natural Resources; the University has i.e. Bunda campus, City campus and NRC campus.
Chancellor College is the largest college of the constituent colleges of the University of Malawi. It is known as'Chanco'; the college has five faculties: Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Social Science and Faculty of Education. Departments service each faculty as follows: Education: Curriculum and Teaching Studies and Educational Foundations Humanities: African Languages and Linguistics, English and Performing Arts, French and Communication Skills and Theology and Religious Studies. Science: Biology, Computer Science and Earth Sciences, Home Economics, Mathematical Sciences. Social Science: Economics, Psychology and Administrative studies and Sociology; the University of Malawi houses a medical school, the College of Medicine, which trains Malawian doctors that work both in Malawi and internationally. Candidates to be considered for medical training either enter after a one-year premedical training following their MSCE or after completing two years of a science course at Chancellor College.
Out of about 250 doctors that had graduated from the University of Malawi-College of Medicine between 1992 and 2005, 25 were reported to be registered with the UK General Medical Council which has contributed to a healthcare worker brain drain in Malawi. The College of Medicine has seen tremendous advancement in its board of administrators and infrastructure since its introduction in 1992; the college now has Four undergraduate courses which include the five-year-long Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, the four-year-long programs of Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Bachelor of Physiotherapy and Bachelor of Pharmacy. All the undergraduate students need to undergo a one-year premedical program at the college or must have finished their A-levels at recommended schools or must have attended a two-year science course at recommended college in order to be eligible for the programs offered at the College of Medicine. In addition, the college has a long stating relationship with the University of St Andrews School of Medicine in Scotland.
In 2011, 10 students from the University of St Andrews School of Medicine visited the college on exchange. Both schools run the Global Health Education Workshops/Module which seeks to provide a forum for discussion of pressing global health issues like climate change, overpopulation and the concept of good aid. En