The Travels of Marco Polo
The book was written in Old French by romance writer Rustichello da Pisa, who worked from accounts which he had heard from Marco Polo when they were imprisoned together in Genoa. From the beginning, there has been incredulity over Polos sometimes fabulous stories, some have questioned whether Marco had actually travelled to China or was just repeating stories that he had heard from other travellers. The source of the title Il Milione is debated, One view is it comes from the Polo familys use of the name Emilione to distinguish themselves from the numerous other Venetian families bearing the name Polo. A more common view is that the name refers to medieval reception of the travelog, modern assessments of the text usually consider it to be the record of an observant rather than imaginative or analytical traveller. Marco Polo emerges as being curious and tolerant, and devoted to Kublai Khan, the book is Polos account of his travels to China, which he calls Cathay and Manji. The Polo party left Venice in 1271, the journey took 3 years after which they arrived in Cathay as it was called and met the Grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan.
They left China in late 1290 or early 1291 and were back in Venice in 1295, the tradition is that Polo dictated the book to a romance writer, Rustichello da Pisa, while in prison in Genoa between 1298–1299. Rustichello may have worked up his first Franco-Italian version from Marcos notes, the book was named Devisement du Monde and Livres des Merveilles du Monde in French, and De Mirabilibus Mundi in Latin. The Travels is divided into four books, Book One describes the lands of the Middle East and Central Asia that Marco encountered on his way to China. Book Two describes China and the court of Kublai Khan, Book Three describes some of the coastal regions of the East, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and the east coast of Africa. Book Four describes some of the then-recent wars among the Mongols and some of the regions of the far north, Polos writings included descriptions of cannibals and spice growers. The Travels was a popular success in an era before printing. In the mid-fifteenth century the cartographer of Murano, Fra Mauro, Marco Polos description of the Far East and its riches inspired Christopher Columbuss decision to try to reach Asia by sea, in a westward route.
A heavily annotated copy of Polos book was among the belongings of Columbus, Marco Polo was accompanied on his trips by his father and uncle, though neither of them published any known works about their journeys. The book was translated into many European languages in Marco Polos own lifetime, other early important sources are R, and Z. Another Old French Polo manuscript, dating to around 1350, is held by the National Library of Sweden, a total of about 150 copies in various languages are known to exist. During copying and translating many errors were made, so there are differences between the various copies. The first English translation is the Elizabethan version by John Frampton, The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, the first attempt to collate manuscripts and provide a critical edition was in a volume of collected travel narratives printed at Venice in 1559
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya was a federation of 11 states that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957, and in 1963 Malaysia was formed with the Singapore, North Borneo, the combination of states that formerly made up the Federation of Malaya is currently known as Peninsular Malaysia. From 1946 to 1948, the 11 states formed a single British crown colony known as the Malayan Union, due to opposition from Malay nationalists, the Union was disbanded and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states. Within the Federation, while the Malay states were protectorates of the United Kingdom, like the Malayan Union before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, despite its traditional connections with Malaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957, Singapore separated from Malaysia to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965.
The Federation of Malaya Agreement was formulated by the British–Malay Pleno Conference between June and December 1946, at the end of the meeting, the Pleno Conference produced a 100-page Blue Book. The Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed on 1 April 1946 at King House by the Malay rulers, the Agreement superseded the Agreement creating the Malayan Union, and prepared for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948. The position of the Malay rulers was restored, as with the Malayan Union, the Federation excluded Singapore, despite its traditional links to Malaya. The Federation of Malaya Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members, additionally,9 State Council Yang Di Pertua, Chief Ministers and 2 representatives from the Straits Settlements became unofficial members. The Malay Conference of Rulers would advise the High Commissioner on immigration issues, the British Resident was replaced with a Chief Minister in each state of the federation. The conditions of citizenship of the Federation of Malaya were further tightened using law enforcement, the federation agreement set the powers of the federal and state governments.
Financial matters must be handled by the respective states, the Sultan was given full power on religious issues and Malay customs. Foreign policy and defence continued to be administered by the British government, the federation agreement was made the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya and officially declared on 1 February 1948. The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council held its first meeting in the Tuanku Abdul Rahman Hall and it was opened by the British High Commissioner Sir Edward Gent. Attendees included the British Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, Lord Listowel, the membership of the Council was structured to include, the British High Commissioner,3 ex officio members,11 State and Settlement Members 11 official members, and 34 appointed unofficial members. The unofficial members were required to be either Federation citizens or British subjects, at this first Council meeting, several minor committees were formed, the Standing Committee on Finance, the Election Committee, and the Committee of Privileges.
The first session passed the Kuala Lumpur City Bill, the Transfer of Power Bill, in 1950, the Federation of Malaya Government rejected the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya as a legitimate political party. PKMM had two wings, namely Angkatan Pemuda Insaf and Angkatan Wanita Sedar, initially, PKMM did not have communist leanings
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The areas importance largely results from one-third of the worlds shipping sailing through its waters, the sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea, the International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as South China Sea. The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period referred to the sea, Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature.
There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions, during the Eastern Han dynasty, Chinas rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became gradually widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham. The majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941. Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai South China Sea and this was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the South Sea, 南海 Nánhǎi, in Malaysia and the Philippines, it was long called the South China Sea, with the part within Philippine territorial waters often called the Luzon Sea, Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, a PAGASA spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea.
In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No, states and territories with borders on the sea include, the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Jiulong, Mekong, Pahang, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows, On the South. From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa to Kiushan Tao on to the South point of Haitan Tao, the Mainland, the Southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand and the East coast of the Malay Peninsula. The sea lies above a drowned continental shelf, during recent ice ages global sea level was hundreds of metres lower, the South China Sea opened around 45 million years ago when the Dangerous Ground rifted away from southern China. Extension culminated in seafloor spreading around 30 million years ago, a process that propagated to the SW resulting in the V-shaped basin we see today, extension ceased around 17 million years ago
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years, was a Portuguese colony. The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China, eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri the first King of Malacca in 1411. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509, although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however quickly ensued. The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat, Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships, the Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city.
The Sultan refused all the demands, conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad weighed down the Malaccan side. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca, as the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy and they endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital and he rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist.
Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless, the Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks, frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched and he was remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed to North. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the sultans forces must be silenced
The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c.1400 as the year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara who was known as Iskandar Shah. As a bustling trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination. The legacy of the political and cultural legacy remains to this day. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilisation, the series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious empire of Srivijaya. By the end of the 13th century, the already fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, in 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces successfully sacked Jambi and Palembang, the complete destruction of Srivijaya caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, the Orang Laut, famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya, eventually made him king of a new kingdom called Singapura.
In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and its wealth and success however, alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south. As a result, the fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was finally sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river. Legend has it that the king saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree. He thought this boded well, this place is excellent, even the mouse deer is formidable, tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the deer is part of modern Malaccas coat of arms. The name Malacca itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica, following establishment of his new city in Malacca, Parameswara initiated the development of the place and laid the foundation of a trade port.
The indigenous inhabitants of the straits, the Orang Laut, were employed to patrol the adjacent sea areas, to repel other petty pirates, within years, news about Malacca becoming a centre of trade and commerce began to spread all over the eastern part of the world. In 1405, Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty sent his envoy headed by Yin Qing to Malacca in 1403, Yin Qings visit opened the way for the establishment of friendly relations between Malacca and China. Two years later, the legendary Admiral Zheng He made his first of six visits to Malacca, Chinese merchants began calling at the port and pioneering foreign trading bases in Malacca
Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur
Brihadeeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is known as RajaRajeswara Temple Rajarajeswaram and Peruvudayar Temple and it is one of the largest temples in India and is an example of Dravidian architecture during the Chola period. Built by Raja Raja Chola I and completed in 1010 CE, the temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the Great Living Chola Temples, with the other two being the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram and Airavatesvara temple. The temple stands amidst fortified walls that were added in the 16th century. The vimanam is 198 ft high and is one of the tallest in the world, the Kumbam weighs around 80 tons. There is a big statue of Nandi, carved out of a single rock measuring about 16 ft long and 13 ft high at the entrance, the entire temple structure is made out of granite, the nearest sources of which are about 60 km to the west of temple. The temple is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Tamil Nadu, the temple was built to grace the throne of the Chola empire by the Tamil emperor Arulmozhivarman, popularly called Rajaraja Chola I, in compliance to a command given to him in a dream.
One of the first great Tamil Chola building projects, the foundations were laid out in 1002 CE. An axial and symmetrical geometry rules the temple layout, Temples from this period and the following two centuries are an expression of the Tamilars wealth and artistic expertise. The emergence of such features as the columns with projecting square capitals signal the arrival of the new Chola style. It is an architectural example showcasing the pure form of the Dravida type of architecture and representative of the Chola Empire ideology. The temple testifies the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, painting, the architect and engineer of the temple was Raja Raja Rama as stated in inscriptions found at the temple. The solid base of the temple raises about 5 metres, above which stone deities and representatives of Shiva dance. The big Nandi, weighing about 20 tonnes is made of a stone and is about 2 m in height,6 m in length and 2.5 m in width. The image of Nandi is a one and is the second largest in the country next only to the one at Lepakshi temple.
The presiding deity of lingam is 3. 7m tall, the prakaram measures 240m by 125m. The outer wall of the upper storey is carved with 108 dance karanas – postures of Bharathanatyam, the shrine of Goddess was added by Pandyas during the 13th century, Subramanya Shrine by Vijayanagara rulers and the Vinayaka shrine was renovated by Maratha rulers. There were significant additions from the Thanjavur Nayaks, the temple complex sits on the banks of a river that was channelled to make a moat around the complexs outer walls, the walls being built like a fortress
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South East Asia bordered by Bangladesh, China and Thailand. About one third of Myanmars total perimeter of 5,876 km, forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal, the countrys 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size and its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city and former capital city is Yangon. Early civilizations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma, the Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur. The British invaded Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the became a British colony.
Myanmar became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a nation and then, following a coup détat in 1962. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife, during this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, there is, continuing criticism of the governments treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyis party won a majority in both houses, Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at US$56.7 billion, the income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government.
As of 2016, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar had a level of human development. The renaming remains a contested issue, many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. The countrys official name is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form Union of Burma instead, in English, the country is popularly known as either Burma or Myanmar /ˈmjɑːnˌmɑːr/. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group, Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from Bamar, the colloquial form of the groups name
Peninsular Malaysia, known as West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. Its area is 130,598 square kilometres and it shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore, across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra. East Malaysia is to the east across the South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia accounts for the majority of Malaysias population and economy, as of 2015 its population is roughly 25 million. In 1963, the name Malaysia was adopted by the new federation uniting the Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, at the time, the Philippines had contemplated adopting the name. Peninsular Malaysia is known as West Malaysia or Malaya, in current everyday usage the word Malaya is almost always used jocularly, e. g. Gempar satu Malaya. Which roughly means shakes the whole of Malaya, the term Malaya generally included Singapore until 1946, when Singapore was excluded from the formation of Malayan Union.
In Singapore law, Malaya includes Singapore, whereas the term States of Malaya does not, the majority of people on Peninsular Malaysia are ethnic Malays, predominantly Muslim. Large Chinese and Indian populations exist, the Orang Asli are the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia, they numbered around 140,000 and mostly lived in inland parts of the region. Unlike the East Coast, the West Coast is partitioned further into three regions, The Northern Region, Kedah and Perak, the Central Region and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The Southern Region, Negeri Sembilan and Johor Even though Johor has a coastline facing the South China Sea and these rights were granted as part of Sarawaks 18-point agreement and Sabahs 20-point agreement with Federation of Malaya in forming the Federation of Malaysia. Malaya Malayan dollar Peninsular Malaysia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca or Straits of Malacca is a narrow,550 mi stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Strait of Malacca as follows, On the West. A line joining Pedropunt, the Northernmost point of Sumatra and Lem Voalan the Southern extremity of Goh Puket in Siam, a line joining Tanjong Piai, the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula and The Brothers and thence to Klein Karimoen. The Southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula, the Northeastern coast of Sumatra as far to the eastward as Tanjong Kedabu thence to Klein Karimoen. From an economic and strategic perspective, the Strait of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. The strait is the shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, Japan, Taiwan.
Over 94,000 vessels pass through the strait each year, carrying about one-fourth of the traded goods, including oil, Chinese manufactured products. About a quarter of all oil carried by sea passes through the Strait, in 2007, an estimated 13.7 million barrels per day were transported through the strait, increasing to an estimated 15.2 million barrels per day in 2011. In addition, it is one of the worlds most congested shipping choke points because it narrows to only 2.8 km wide at the Phillips Channel. The maximum size of a vessel that can pass through the Strait is referred to as Malaccamax, for some of the worlds largest ships, the Straits minimum depth isnt deep enough. In addition, the next closest passageway is even more shallow and narrow than Malacca, these large ships must detour several thousand miles/kilometers and use the Lombok Strait, Makassar Strait, Sibutu Passage, or Mindoro Strait instead. Piracy has been a problem in the strait, piracy had been high in the 2000s, with additional increase after the events of September 11,2001.
After attacks rose again in the first half of 2004, regional navies stepped up their patrols of the area in July 2004, attacks on ships in the Strait of Malacca dropped, to 79 in 2005 and 50 in 2006. Recent reports indicate that attacks have dropped to levels in recent years. There are 34 shipwrecks, some dating to the 1880s, in the Traffic Separation Scheme and these pose a collision hazard in the narrow and shallow strait. Another risk is the annual haze due to raging bush fires in Sumatra and it may reduce visibility to 200 metres, forcing ships to slow down in the busy strait. The strait is used by Ships longer than 350 metres. Thailand has developed plans to diminish the economic significance of the strait
Straits of Johor
The Johore Strait, is an international strait in Southeast Asia, between Singapore and mainland Malaysia. The strait separates the Malaysian state of Johor on the mainland Malay Peninsula to the north, from Singapore and it connects to the Strait of Malacca on the west, and the Singapore Strait on the southeast. The mouth and delta of the Johur River is on its northeast side in Malaysia, there are currently two bridges crossing the strait. The Johor-Singapore Causeway, known simply as The Causeway, links Johor Bahru, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link bridge is further west over the strait, links Gelang Patah in Malaysia and Tuas in Singapore. In 2003, Malaysia wanted to build a bridge across the strait to replace the existing causeway, but negotiations with Singapore were not successful. The main reasons cited for the change were, a bridge would allow flow of water across both sides of the strait which were artificially cut in two with the building of the causeway before. A bridge would help ease congestion in Johor Bahru, in August 2003, Malaysia announced that it was going ahead with a plan to build a gently sloping, curved bridge that would join up with Singapores half of the existing causeway.
The plans included a bridge for the railway line. However, plans to build the bridge have been called off as of 2006, major tributaries which empty into the Strait of Johore include, In the Malay language, Sungai is the word for river. Pollution along the Johore Strait is notable, the area is a source of environmental contention between Malaysia and Singapore, due to land reclamation projects on both sides of the Causeway. There have been suggestions that the land reclamation projects may impact the maritime boundary, shipping lanes. Environmental Impact Assessments are requested before any reclamation is carried out such as the Forest City project, reclamation projects may endanger the habitat and food source of dugongs, which are native to the strait. The Johore Strait is the location of two Victoria Cross deeds, the award was for Lieutenant Ian Edward Fraser and Acting Leading Seaman James Joseph Magennis for the sinking of the 9, 850-tonne Japanese cruiser Takao on 31 July 1945. Former Wakefield professional heavyweight boxer Paul Sykes claims to be the person to have swum across the straits to avoid arrest.
A well known tourist attraction of the Strait of Johores is Lido Beach, visitors can walk or cycle along the 2 km stretch of the beach. There are numerous restaurants and food stalls
Austronesians, Austronesian peoples or Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Asia and Africa that speak languages of the Austronesian family. The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia, most Austronesians bare similar features such as the light brown to brown skin with curly or wavy hair. Before the Southward expansion of the Han dynasty and of Vietnam and it has been argued that these patterns are best explained by dispersal of an agricultural people from Taiwan into insular Southeast Asia, and, the remote Pacific. Although this model—termed the “express train to Polynesia” – is broadly consistent with available data, alternatives to this model posit an indigenous origin for the Austronesian languages in Melanesia or Southeast Asia. Genomic analysis of cultivated coconut has shed light on the movements of Austronesian peoples, by examining 10 microsatelite loci, researchers found that there are 2 genetically distinct subpopulations of coconut – one originating in the Indian Ocean, the other in the Pacific Ocean.
However, there is evidence of admixture, the transfer of genetic material, given that coconuts are ideally suited for ocean dispersal, it seems possible that individuals from one population could have floated to the other. However, the locations of the events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa. This pattern coincides with the trade routes of Austronesian sailors. Other research has suggested that, according to dates, Austronesians may have migrated from mainland China to Taiwan as late as 4000 BC. Before Taiwan, Austronesian speakers are thought to have descended from the neolithic cultures of Southeastern China. According to the mainstream model, a large-scale Austronesian expansion began around 5000–2500 BC. Population growth primarily fuelled this migration, over the next thousand years, Austronesian peoples migrated southeast to the rest of the Philippines, and into the islands of the Celebes Sea and Indonesia. The Austronesian peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia sailed eastward, and spread to the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia between 1200 BC and 500 AD respectively, the Austronesian inhabitants that spread westward through Maritime Southeast Asia had reached some parts of mainland Southeast Asia, and on Madagascar.
Sailing from Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Austronesian peoples discovered Polynesia by 1000 BC and these people settled most of the Pacific Islands. They had settled Rapa Nui by 300 AD, Hawaii by 400 AD, there is evidence, based in the spreading of the sweet potato, that they reached South America where they traded with the Native Americans. In the Indian Ocean they sailed west from Maritime Southeast Asia and this out of Taiwan model has been recently challenged by a 2008 study. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia for a period than previously believed. Population dispersals occurred at the time as sea levels rose