The Dutch Wikipedia is the Dutch-language edition of the free online encyclopedia, Wikipedia. It was started in June 2001; as of April 2019, the Dutch Wikipedia is the sixth-largest Wikipedia edition, with 1,963,438 articles. It was the fourth Wikipedia edition to exceed 1 million articles, after the English and French editions. In April 2016, 1154 active editors made at least five edits in that month; the Dutch Wikipedia was started on 19 June 2001, reached 100,000 articles on 14 October 2005. It surpassed the Polish Wikipedia as the sixth-largest edition of Wikipedia, but fell back to the eighth position. On 1 March 2006, it overtook the Swedish and Italian editions in one day to rise back to the sixth position; the edition's 500,000th article was created on 30 November 2008. In a 2006 Multiscope research study, the Dutch Wikipedia was rated the third-best Dutch-language website, after Google and Gmail, with a score of 8.1. The Dutch language Wikipedia has the largest ratio of Wikipedia pages per native speaker of all of the top 10 largest Wikipedia editions.
Its rate of daily article creations spiked in March 2006 growing to an average of 1,000 a day in early May 2006. After this number was reached, growth dropped to an average of only about 250 a day, comparable to the averages around December 2005. Since there have been more article-creation surges, one of the largest peaking at 2,000 new articles per day in September 2007, but the growth rate has always returned to the lowest average of around 250. In 2008, Dutch businessman Bob Sijthoff attempted to sue "the Vereniging Wikimedia Nederland" and "the Stichting Wikimedia Nederland" to force the removal of his Dutch Wikipedia article, which he stated contained "false and abusive" information. On December 10, 2008, the court rejected his request; the judge ruled that he had sued the wrong entity and that legal responsibility for the content of the articles would not lie in the Netherlands, but with the American Wikimedia Foundation. The majority of articles in Dutch Wikipedia were created by internet bots.
In October 2011, several bots created 80,000 articles in only 11 days. The Dutch Wikipedia's one-millionth article was created in December 2011, after another surge of bot activity saw 100,000 added articles in only 10 days. In late March 2013, the Dutch Wikipedia surpassed the French Wikipedia to become the third-largest edition of Wikipedia. In June 2013, it overtook the German Wikipedia to become the second-largest Wikipedia edition; the depth or editing depth of Wikipedia is a rough indicator of the encyclopedia's collaborative quality, showing how its articles are updated. The depth is measured by taking the average number of edits per article multiplied by the extent in which articles are supported by discussion. Among the nine language editions with one million articles, the Dutch and Polish Wikipedias in that order have depth parameters much lower than the other six; as of March 2012, for the English version the article depth is 666, for the German 88, for the French 153, for the Spanish 160, for the Dutch only 18.
Compared to most other Wikipedia editions with a similar number of articles, articles on the Dutch Wikipedia have less content with an average of 1,598 bytes per article. This is 40% of that of the French, Italian and Spanish editions. De Smits, Ap. "Dat zoeken we op! Wikipedia vs. de Britannica en Encarta". Personal Computer Magazine. April 2008. Dutch Wikipedia Dutch Wikipedia mobile version
The Serbian Wikipedia is the Serbian-language version of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Created on 16 February 2003, it reached its 100,000th article on 20 November 2009 before getting to another milestone with the 200,000th article on 6 July 2013, another milestone with the 500,000th article on 13 January 2018, it has 223,604 registered users and about 619,000 articles, making it the largest Wikipedia written in a South Slavic language and the 18th largest Wikipedia overall. The Serbian Wikipedia uses ZhengZhu's character mapping program to convert between Cyrillic and Latin scripts. Serbian Wikipedia was created on 16 February 2003 along with the Croatian Wikipedia when both split off from the joint Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia; the main page was translated from English into Serbian on 22 April 2003 by an unknown user with IP address 22.214.171.124, user Nikola Smolenski finished the translation on 24 May. During September 2003, Smolenski prepared the main page along with creating some basic article stubs.
In the October 2003 issue of the Serbian IT magazine Svet kompjutera his article about wikis and Wikipedia got published, leading to a surge of new users, both registered and anonymous. Around the same time, Smolenski translated the user interface page into Serbian; the Serbian language uses two alphabets and Latin. It has two official accents: Ekavian and Ijekavian. Combining the scripts and accents give four written variants; when the Serbian Wikipedia was founded, it used only the Cyrillic alphabet, both standard dialects. However, since both alphabets are used by Serbian native speakers, an effort began to enable the parallel usage of both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets; the first attempt was to use a bot for dynamic transliteration of every article. About 1,000 articles were transliterated before the action was stopped due to technical difficulties; this concept was abandoned in favor of a model used by the Chinese Wikipedia. After a few months, the software was completed and now every visitor has the option to choose between two alphabets using tabs at the top of each article.
There are special tags used to indicate those words. Anti-transliteration tags in use are: --, that prevents transliteration of the article text, or __БЕЗКН__, that prevents transliteration of the article's name. Though there are still minor technical issues, Cyrillic-Latin transliteration is working successfully. Ekavian–Ijekavian conversion, however, is much more complicated, its implementation is not yet complete. However, despite the difficulties, this is the first successful attempt to develop the software which will allow parallel work on all four variants of the Serbian language. Since the inaugural meeting on Tuesday, 15 February 2005, members of the Serbian wiki community have been holding regular gatherings; as of September 2013, 253 meetings took place — in Belgrade, with about a dozen taking place in Novi Sad, along with a few in Niš, Pančevo, Pirot. At first congregating at each other's apartments, bars and public parks, by late 2005 community members began gathering at the Belgrade Youth Center, which provided meeting space free of charge.
At the first of these Youth Center meetings on Saturday, 3 December 2005, the community members founded the Wikimedia Foundation's local chapter for Serbia and Montenegro called Wikimedia Serbia and Montenegro. At the time, it was only the fifth local Wikimedia Foundation chapter anywhere in the world. Following the May 2006 Montenegrin referendum whose outcome led to the breakup of the Serbia and Montenegro state union, the local chapter modified its name to Wikimedia Serbia, it is registered as a non-governmental, non-partisan, non-profit organization and its stated goals include promotion of the creation and multiplication of free content in Serbian language as well as promotion of the idea that everyone should have equal access to knowledge and education. That year in December, the Serbian chapter hosted the first Wikimedia regional conference for Southeast Europe. Three more regional conferences were put together over the next several years, all of them hosted by Wikimedia Serbia. In February 2012, Wikimedia Serbia organized an event called Open Wiki GLAM of Serbia as part of the bigger project of the same name.
Standing for Galleries, Archives & Museums, GLAM is devoted to the topics of Serbian cultural and historical heritage as well as protection of intellectual property and copyright on the Internet. That year in December, Wikimedia Serbia got its own office space located in downtown Belgrade at the beginning of the King Aleksandar Boulevard where most of the Serbian wiki community meetings now began to take place. Serbian Wikipedia cooperates with the University of Belgrade's Faculty of Mathematics, Faculty of Physical Chemistry and Faculty of Philology as well as the University of Montenegro's Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Students of those faculties have made occasional contributions to the Serbian Wikipedia by editing its articles. Due to the similarity of the varieties of Serbo-Croatian, one of the features is copying and adapting articles from one language version of Wikipedia to another Another Serbian language project, Serbian Wikinews has more than 52,000 a
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. abbrv. or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. An abbreviation is a shortening by any method. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations, they are abbreviations that consist of the initial parts of words. Abbreviations have a long history, created; this might be done to save time and space, to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were used to represent words in specific applications.
In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context."Abbreviations in English were used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, y for since, so that "not much space is wasted"; the standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, sequences like ‹er› were replaced with ‹ɔ›, as in ‹mastɔ› for master and ‹exacɔbate› for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time. An example from the Oxford University Register, 1503: Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you.
And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ. The Early Modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for Þe, used for the word the: "hence, by misunderstanding, Ye Olde Tea Shoppe."During the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became fashionable. The use of abbreviation for the names of J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. A century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term OK credited as a remnant of its influence. After World War II, the British reduced the use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more kept such use until more and still maintain it more than Britons.
The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a British organisation of secret agents called the "Special Operations, Executive"—"S. O. E"—which is not found in histories written after about 1960, but before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Over the years, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not; the U. S. media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like United States, but not personal computer or television.
Many British publications have done away with the use of periods in abbreviations. Minimization of punctuation in typewritten material became economically desirable in the 1960s and 1970s for the many users of carbon-film ribbons since a period or comma consumed the same length of non-reusable expensive ribbon as did a capital letter. Widespread use of electronic communication through mobile phones and the Internet during the 1990s allowed for a marked rise in colloquial abbreviation; this was due to increasing popularity of textual communication services such as instant- and text messaging. SMS, for instance, supports message lengths of 160 characters at most; this brevity gave rise to an informal abbreviation scheme sometimes called Textese, with which 10% or more of the words in a typical SMS message are abbreviated. More Twitter, a popular social networking service, began driving abbreviation use with 140 character message limits. In modern English, there are several conventions for abbreviations, the choice may be confusing.
The only rule universally accepted is th
The Swedish Wikipedia is the Swedish-language edition of Wikipedia and was started on 23 May 2001. It is the third largest Wikipedia by article-count with its 3,748,693 current articles, where a majority are generated by a bot, or software application, has a Wikipedia article depth of 5.6. The administrators on the Swedish Wikipedia are elected for a fixed-term period of one year and have to be re-elected after that time. Swedish Wikipedia rivalled susning.nu, a wiki created by Lars Aronsson in 2001. Susning.nu was by 28 May 2003 the world's second largest wiki. Due to several controversies involving the authority of the founder, objections to Aronsson's decision to allow advertisement on the site, several prolific Susning writers switched over to Swedish Wikipedia in 2002, more followed. Two of its pioneers were Johan Dahlin and Dan Köhl, the latter one introduced "Tinget" in November 2002; this was the first conflict handling organ at Swedish Wikipedia. In April 2004, Susning.nu's editing features were closed down to all but a handful of users, which further increased the flow to Swedish Wikipedia.
On 14 January 2005, Wikipedia's article count surpassed that of Susning.nu. In March 2006, the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet published a comparative evaluation of Swedish Wikipedia, Susning.nu and the online version of Nationalencyklopedin. The evaluation was done by giving a selection of articles to independent subject matter experts for grading. While Nationalencyklopedin came out on top with respect to factuality and neutrality, Swedish Wikipedia received a good overall grade and came out on top with respect to being up to date and having a broad coverage including popular culture subjects. On 27 September 2012 it reached 500,000 articles. On 15 June 2013 it rose from 8th to 5th place; this meant that during 2013 the number of articles on Swedish Wikipedia more than doubled. This is in large part due to a community project where bots were used in producing articles for all existing species of plants and animals; when finished, this project alone created more than a million articles, most short and sourced through available online databases on the subject.
In 2014 about half of its articles were created by a single bot. Danish Wikipedia Norwegian Wikipedia Nationalencyklopedin Swedish Wikipedia Swedish Wikipedia mobile version
The Basque Wikipedia is the Basque language edition of Wikipedia. Founded on December 6, 2001, although its main page was created in November 2003, it reached 58,124 articles by August 19, 2010, making it the 45th-largest Wikipedia; as of April 2019, it has 713 active contributors, of which 11 are administrators, has about 333,000 articles. In an August 2007 interview, Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, used the Basque Wikipedia as an example of the rationale for having Wikipedias in smaller languages: "Certainly within Wikipedia right now we are seeing some successful projects in small European languages. You don't need a Welsh language Wikipedia, perhaps; the number of people who speak Welsh who don't speak English is small and getting smaller every year. So why do we have a Welsh Wikipedia? Well, people wanted it, and language preservation is the main motive. It is their mother tongue and they want to keep it alive, keep its literature alive; some of the larger small languages like Basque and Catalan have successful projects.
I see that preserving parts of your language and culture through collaborative projects makes a lot of sense."On January 25, 2008, the Basque Wikipedia was awarded the Argia Saria granted by the magazine Argia in the category of Internet. On May 21, 2011, Basque Wikipedia published its 100,000 article, an article about the prohibition of using Basque language throughout history called Euskararen debekua. In December 2011, around 11,000 new articles were added to Basque Wikipedia by the Culture Ministry of the Basque Government; as of February 2012, the Basque Wikipedia has the second greatest number of articles per speaker among Wikipedias with over 100,000 articles, ranks sixth overall. These figures were based on Ethnologue's estimate of 665,800 Basque speakers. November 8, 2010: 456 articles December 20, 2009: 239 articles October 8, 2009: 219 articles August 30, 2009: 141 articles October 7, 2009: 134 articles October 11, 2009: 125 articles October 9, 2009: 118 articles October 13, 2009: 115 articles Basque Wikipedia Basque Wikipedia mobile version
The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia. Founded in March 2001, it is the second-oldest, after the English Wikipedia, with 2,291,320 articles, at present the fourth-largest edition of Wikipedia by number of articles, behind the English Wikipedia and the bot-generated Swedish Wikipedia and Cebuano Wikipedia, it has the second-largest number of over 260,000 disambiguation pages. On 7 November 2011, it became the second edition of Wikipedia, after the English edition, to exceed 100 million page edits. On 21 March 2019 the German Wikipedia went offline to inform users about the situation of the European Union's copyright law reformation, the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which will be voted on in the European Parliament on 27 March 2019. Opponents of the reformation are concerned about the restriction of fundamental rights including a free press and the freedom of speech and arts; the German edition of Wikipedia was the first non-English Wikipedia subdomain, was named deutsche.wikipedia.com.
Its creation was announced by Jimmy Wales on 16 March 2001. One of the earliest snapshots of the home page, dated 21 March 2001, can be seen at the Wayback Machine site. Aside from the home page, creation of articles in the German Wikipedia started as early as April 2001 with translations of Nupedia articles; the earliest article still available on Wikipedia's site is Polymerase-Kettenreaktion, dated May 2001. Andrew Lih wrote that the hacker culture in Germany and the verein concept solidified the German Wikipedia's culture; the geography of Europe facilitated face-to-face meetups among German Wikipedians. On 27 December 2009, the German Wikipedia edition exceeded 1,000,000 articles, becoming the first edition after the English-language Wikipedia to do so; the millionth article was Ernie Wasson. In November 2008, 90% of the edition's articles had more than 512 bytes, 49% had more than 2 kilobytes, the average article size was 3,476 bytes. In the middle of 2009 this edition had nearly 250,000 biographies and in December 2006 more than 48,500 disambiguations.
Compared to the English Wikipedia, the German edition tends to be more selective in its coverage rejecting small stubs, articles about individual fictional characters and similar materials. Instead, there is one article about all the characters from a specific fictional setting only when the setting is considered important enough. A dedicated article about a single fictional entity exists only if the character in question has a significant impact on popular culture. Andrew Lih wrote that German Wikipedia users believe that "having no article at all is better than a bad article." Therefore, growth on the German Wikipedia leveled before it did for the English Wikipedia, with accelerating growth in article count shifting to constant growth in mid-2006. The number of users signing up for accounts began to decline in 2007 through 2008; the January 2005, Google Zeitgeist announced that "Wikipedia" was the eighth most-searched query on Google.de. In February 2005, Wikipedia reached third place behind Valentine's Day.
In June 2005, Wikipedia ranked first. Separate Wikipedias have been created for several other varieties of German, including Alemannic German, Pennsylvania German, Low German and Bavarian; these however, have less popularity than the German Wikipedia. The German Wikipedia is different from the English Wikipedia in a number of aspects. Compared to the English Wikipedia, different criteria of encyclopedic notability are expressed through the judgments of the editors for deciding if an article about a topic should be allowed; the criteria for notability are more specific, each field has its own specific guidelines. There are no fair use provisions. Images and other media that are accepted on the English Wikipedia as fair use may not be suitable for the German Wikipedia. However, the threshold of originality for works of applied art is set much higher, which allows the use of company logos and similar icons, too; the use of scholarly sources, in preference over journalistic and other types of sources, is more encouraged.
The German Verifiability guideline classifies scholarly sources as inherently more reliable than non-academic sources. In September 2005, Erik Möller voiced concern that "long term page protection is used excessively on the German Wikipedia": on 14 September 2005, 253 pages were protected for more than two weeks; this was the highest number of such blocks of all Wikipedias. As of May 2008, the German Wikipedia still had the highest percentage of semi-protected articles - 0.281% - among the ten largest Wikipedias, but with respect to the fraction of protected articles it ranks fourth, behind the Japanese and English Wikipedias. Vandalism and other abuse is handled in a less formal way. Vandals may get blocked on their first edit and without warning if their edit shows lack of interest for actual encyclopaedic work; this is true if the added text includes unlawful statements, such as holocaust denial. The Checkuser function is used to determine multiple accounts, as "suspicious" accounts are block
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement. Copyright infringement disputes are resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system. Shifting public expectations, advances in digital technology, the increasing reach of the Internet have led to such widespread, anonymous infringement that copyright-dependent industries now focus less on pursuing individuals who seek and share copyright-protected content online, more on expanding copyright law to recognize and penalize, as indirect infringers, the service providers and software distributors who are said to facilitate and encourage individual acts of infringement by others.
Estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary and depend on many factors. Copyright holders, industry representatives, legislators have long characterized copyright infringement as piracy or theft – language which some U. S. courts now regard otherwise contentious. The terms piracy and theft are associated with copyright infringement; the original meaning of piracy is "robbery or illegal violence at sea", but the term has been in use for centuries as a synonym for acts of copyright infringement. Theft, emphasizes the potential commercial harm of infringement to copyright holders. However, copyright is a type of intellectual property, an area of law distinct from that which covers robbery or theft, offenses related only to tangible property. Not all copyright infringement results in commercial loss, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in 1985 that infringement does not equate with theft; this was taken further in the case MPAA v. Hotfile, where Judge Kathleen M. Williams granted a motion to deny the MPAA the usage of words whose appearance was "pejorative".
This list included the word "piracy", the use of which, the motion by the defense stated, serves no court purpose but to misguide and inflame the jury. The term "piracy" has been used to refer to the unauthorized copying and selling of works in copyright; the practice of labelling the infringement of exclusive rights in creative works as "piracy" predates statutory copyright law. Prior to the Statute of Anne in 1710, the Stationers' Company of London in 1557, received a Royal Charter giving the company a monopoly on publication and tasking it with enforcing the charter; those who violated the charter were labelled pirates as early as 1603. Article 12 of the 1886 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works uses the term "piracy" in relation to copyright infringement, stating "Pirated works may be seized on importation into those countries of the Union where the original work enjoys legal protection." Article 61 of the 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights requires criminal procedures and penalties in cases of "willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale."
Piracy traditionally refers to acts of copyright infringement intentionally committed for financial gain, though more copyright holders have described online copyright infringement in relation to peer-to-peer file sharing networks, as "piracy". Richard Stallman and the GNU Project have criticized the use of the word "piracy" in these situations, saying that publishers use the word to refer to "copying they don't approve of" and that "they imply that it is ethically equivalent to attacking ships on the high seas and murdering the people on them." Copyright holders refer to copyright infringement as theft. In copyright law, infringement does not refer to theft of physical objects that take away the owner's possession, but an instance where a person exercises one of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder without authorization. Courts have distinguished between copyright theft. For instance, the United States Supreme Court held in Dowling v. United States that bootleg phonorecords did not constitute stolen property.
Instead, "interference with copyright does not equate with theft, conversion, or fraud. The Copyright Act employs a separate term of art to define one who misappropriates a copyright:' an infringer of the copyright.'" The court said that in the case of copyright infringement, the province guaranteed to the copyright holder by copyright law – certain exclusive rights – is invaded, but no control, physical or otherwise, is taken over the copyright, nor is the copyright holder wholly deprived of using the copyrighted work or exercising the exclusive rights held. A 1979 East German court ruling found that software was "neither a scientific work nor a creative achievement" and ineligible for copyright protection, legalizing software copying in the country; the term "freebooting" has been used to describe the unauthorized copying of online media videos, onto websites such as Facebook, YouTube or Twitter. The word itself had been in use since the 16th century, referring to pirates, meant "looting" or "plundering".
This form of the word – a portmanteau of "freeloading" and "bootlegging" – was suggested by YouTuber and podcaster Brad