Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Kalakkathu Kunchan Nambiar was an early Malayalam poet, performer and the inventor of local art form of Ottamthullal. Along with Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan and Cherusseri Namboothiri, Nambiar completes the ancient triumvirate of Malayalam poetry, he is considered by many as the master of Malayalam satirist poetry. Nambiar is believed to have been born on May 5, 1705 at Kalakathu Veedu at Killikkurussimangalam in Palakkad district of the south Indian state of Kerala, he spent his early childhood at Killikkurussimangalam, his boyhood at Kudamalur and youth at Ambalappuzha, learnt Kalari Payattu and Sanskrit from such masters as Mathoor Panickar, Dronaballi Naicker and Nannikod Unni Ravi Kurup, before moving to the court of King Marttanda Varma of Travancore Kingdom in 1748. By the time he reached the royal court, he had established himself as a poet. Towards the part of his life, it is believed that Nambiar returned to Ambalapuzha where he died in 1770, at the age of 65 due to rabies. Kunchan Nambiar is considered by may as the master of Malayalam satirist poetry and is credited with the popularisation of a performing art known as Ottan Thullal.
The word, means'dance', but under this name Nambiar developed a new style of verse narration, interspersed with occasional background music and dance-like swaying movements. Popular belief is that Nambiar devised this art form for avenging the ridicule he had to suffer from a Chakkiyar Koothu performer who chastised Nambiar when he dozed of while accompanying the koothu performance on Mizhavu, he used pure Malayalam as opposed to the stylised and Sanskritized Malayalam language of Chakyar Koothu, adopted many elements from Padayani and Kolam Tullal as well as some of the other local folk arts. There are three kinds of Tullal distinguished on the basis of the performer's costume and the style of rendering, viz. Ottan and Parayan. Dravidian metres are used throughout. Kunchan Nambiar is known to have written 64 thullal stories, he developed new metres based on the vocal notation for various talas. The language is predominantly Malayalam with a large admixture of dialectal forms; the Government of Kerala observes May 5, as Kunchan Day.
A society, Kunjan Nambiar Memorial Society, has been established by the government overseas the management of various memorials which include Kunjan Nambiar Memorial in Ambalappuzha, Kalakathu Bhavanam, Nambiar's house in Killikkurussimangalam, Kunchan Memorial Library, Kunchan Memorial Arts Society, Kunchan Memorial Society. Kunchan Smarakam Fort is a fort built by the state government in honour of the poet and the monument houses an institution which promotes teaching of satirist art forms. Kunchan Nambiar's body of work is composed of at least 21 Otttan, 11 Seethankan and 9 Parayan compositions; the most important of Nambiar's Thullals are: Syamanthakam, Kiratham, Patracharitham, Karthaveeryarjunavijayam, Kalyana Saugandhikam, Hariniswayamvaram and Sabha Pravesham. Nambiar was critical of the social evils he saw around him and incorporated his satirical views in his compositions when the main story is from the Hindu Puranas. Ravana is speaking to Narada about his own prowess:The kingdom of the Gandharaka ruler Has turned into a mere desert.
The land of the Simhala King Is now filled with leopards. The lord of the Chera people Feeds himself on cheap vegetables; the Chola King has nothing to eat Except the maize of low quality The kings of the Kuru house Have nothing but jackfruit seeds. The lord of the land of Kashmir Is busy eating cucumbers; the ruler of the Champeya land Eats broken rice. The Konkan prince is about to die Thinking of his wives' breasts. Another passage from the same work:Tributes must be paid from time to time; the whole of pepper yield should be handed over Coconut, mango, jackfruit: All the trees should be confiscated. There will be no place in my country For the pomp of local barons. Double the seed crop should be given To me by houseowner; the Tamil Brahmins staying here Should give one fourth to me. The Nayars who stay at home Should take their bows and spears And stay at the residence of Ravana And do whatever chores are assigned. Nayars who drink toddy Would be beaten up, beware! Two poems by Nambiar Kerala Government site on Kunchan Nambiar at the Wayback Machine Terms UP Malayalam.
"Kunchan Nambiar Biography". Retrieved 2019-03-02
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, born Sambasivan but popularly known as Ulloor, was an Indian poet of Malayalam literature and a historian, he was one of the modern triumvirate poets of Kerala in the first half of the 20th century, along with Kumaran Asan and Vallathol Narayana Menon. Umakeralam, a mahakavya, Kerala Sahitya Charithram, a comprehensive history of Malayalam language, are two of his works. Ulloor was born on June 6, 1877 at Thamarassery Illam in Perunna, Changanassery in the south Indian state of Kerala to Subramania Iyer and Bhagavathi Ammal, his early schooling was at Changanassery but father died when he was young and in 1890, the family shifted to Thiruvanathapuram where his mother raised him. He graduated with Honors in Philosophy from Maharajas College in 1897 and joined the Travancore State Services, he continued his studies and took a graduate degree in Law and master's degrees in Malayalam and Tamil. He held various positions in the government service such as those of a Land revenue and Income Tax Commissioner before superannuating from service as the Chief Secretary of the State.
Iyer married Ananthalakshmi Ammal in 1892 when he was only 15 years old but his wife died in 1903. Subsequently, he married Subbammal in 1905, who died in 1930, he had five sons from his two marriages. He died on June 15, 1949, aged 72. Iyer assumed his name, after the place of his ancestral home. Unlike the other two members of the modern triumvirates, Kumaran Asan and Vallathol Narayana Menon, who were romanticists, Ulloor was known to be a classicist and his works were marked by Sanskrit words, mythological references, satirical undertones and scholarship. One of his most notable works was published in 1914, a mahakavya titled Umakeralam when the language had only one complete mahakavya until Rukmamgadacharitham of Pandalam Kerala Varma. Poet K. Ayyappa Paniker noted that Umakeralam was a work of great devotion: devotion to the land, to the language, to a poetic tradition, he wrote short narratives or khandakavyas and Karnabhooshanam and Pingala are two notable works in that genre. Some of his other best known works were Bhakthideepika, Chithrasala.
Uloor wrote quite a large number of lyrics and shorter pieces, now available in various collections. The most noted of his historical works was Kerala Sahitya Charithram, which narrates the history of Malayalam language and literature and the book was published by the University of Kerala after the writer's death in 1949, he did research on ancient literature and palm leaf manuscripts and was successful in discovering works such as Rama Charitham poem and Doothavakyam prose. Besides, he wrote a play and such other works in prose as Bashachampukkal, a study on Champu literature and Vijnana Deepika, a compilation of essays in four volumes, he wrote poems for children and the popular song, Kakke, Koodevide is one among them. The Government of Kerala established Mahakavi Ulloor Memorial Library and Research Centre in 1956, to honour the memory of the poet, it was shifted to a new premises in Jagathy, Thiruvananthapuram in 1966, inaugurated by S. Radhakrishnan, the president of India; the institution which houses a research centre and a public library, became the first open university in Kerala for non-formal education in 1978, offering courses in Sanskrit, Malayalam literature and telecasting.
It has instituted an annual literary award, Ulloor Award, to recognise excellence in Malayalam poetry. The India Post released a commemorative stamp in 1980. On May 15, 1981, the Indian President Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy unveiled a full size statue of Ulloor in the premises of the State Central Library, Kerala, at Palayam, Thiruvananthapuram. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Aruṇodayaṃ. Thiruvananthapuraṃ: B V Book Depot. OCLC 38510518. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Sharanopaharam: Sabarimala Sastāvineppaṭṭiyuḷḷa sthothr̲aṃ. Thiruvananthapuraṃ: R T Pillai and Sons. OCLC 38513938. Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer. Manimanjusha. Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer. Tharaharam. Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Chithrashala. Ulloor Publications. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Tharangini. Thiruvananthapuraṃ: Uḷḷoor Publishers. OCLC 5413640. Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Karna Bhooshanam. Ulloor: Ulloor Publishers. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Bhakthideepika: athavā, Cāttant̲e satgati. Trivandrum: Ullur Publishers. OCLC 5834716. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S..
Ulloorinte Padya Krithikal - Pt 1. Sahithya pravarthaka Saha. Sangam: Sahithya pravarthaka Saha. Sangam.0 Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Umaakeralam. Thiruvananthapuram: Ullur Publishers. Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Pingala. Trivandram: Ulloor Publishers. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Sree Andal Kavithakal. DC Books. ASIN B007E4WO40. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Ulloor Kavithakal Sampoornam. DC Books. ASIN 8126428015. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Deshadanakili. Lipi Publications. ISBN 978-8188012329. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Padyamanjari. DC Books. ISBN 978-8126442034. Parameswara Iyer, Uḷḷoor S.. Dhoothavakyam. Public Domain Books. Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Hīra: Savyākhyānaṃ. Thiruvananthapuraṃ: Uḷḷoor Publishers. OCLC 31063558. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Parameswara Iyer, Ulloor S.. Trivandrum: Ullur Publishers. OCLC 31433537. CS1 maint
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Vallathol Narayana Menon was a poet in the Malayalam language, spoken in the south Indian state of Kerala. He was one of the triumvirate poets of modern Malayalam, along with Kumaran Asan and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer; the honorific Mahakavi was applied to him in 1913 after the publication of his Mahakavya Chitrayogam. He was a nationalist poet and wrote a series of poems on various aspects of the Indian freedom movement, he wrote against caste restriction and orthodoxies. He founded the Kerala Kalamandalam and is credited with revitalising the traditional Keralite dance form known as Kathakali. Vallathol was born in Chenara, Tirur, in Malappuram District, Kerala, as the son of Kadungotte Mallisseri Damodaran Elayathu and Kuttipparu Amma, he did not receive any formal education but was trained in Sanskrit language, first under the Sanskrit scholar Variyam Parambil Kunjan Nair and under his own uncle Ramunni Menon, who introduced him into the world of Sanskrit poetry. Ramunni Menon taught him Ashtanga Hridayam, a medical treatise, young Narayana Menon soon began helping his uncle in medical practice and teaching.
He trained for a year under Parakkulam Subrahmanya Sastri and Kaikkulangara Rama Variar in Philosophy and Logic. He married Vanneri Chittazhiveettil Madhavi Amma in November 1901 and shifted to Thrissur, the cultural capital of Kerala, he worked as manager in the Kalpadrumam Press in Thrissur from 1905 to 1910. During this period, his hearing began to deteriorate. From 1915, he started working in Keralodayam newspaper and joined Amrit Ritesh, a journal published from Thrissur, he started writing poems from the age of twelve. Kiratha Satakam and Vyasavataram were his earliest published works, he won Bhashaposhini magazine's poetry award in 1894. His poems began appearing in Kerala Sanchari and Vijnana Chintamani magazines, his first major literary ventures was a rendition of Valmiki's Ramayana into Malayalam, the work of which started in 1905 and took two years to complete. Unlike some of his contemporaries, Vallathol did not have any acquaintance with English language, he earned the title Mahakavi after the publication of the Mahakavya Chitrayogam in 1913.
Chitrayogam conformed to all the principles of a traditional Mahakavya and was divided into 18 Sargas. The story of Chandrasena and Taravali, taken from Kathasaritsagara, was the theme of this poetry work. Vallathol portrayed the protest of Parvati against Siva in the work Gangapati and of Usha defying her father for the sake of her love in Bandhanasthanaya Anirudhan. In 1917, the first of his eleven-volume work Sahitya Manjari was published; these volumes, published from 1917 to 1970, contain his collected short romantic poems dealing with a variety of themes. Many of these poems earlier appeared in P. V. Krishna Variar's Kavanakaumudi magazine, his khanda kavya on Mary Magdalene titled Magdalana Mariam paved the way for a new tradition in of Christian symbolism in Malayalam. The poet's own struggle with deafness from his early twenties features in the work Badhiravilapam. Other celebrated short poems of Vallathol include Sishyanum Makanum, Achanum Makalum and Ente Gurukulam. In addition to subjects from nature and the lives of ordinary people, Vallathol's opposition to the indignities of the caste system and the injustices suffered by the poor form the themes of many of his poems.
He is regarded as the greatest nationalist poet of the language. He was one of the triumvirate poets of modern Malayalam, along with Kumaran Asan and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer. Literary critic K. M. George has noted that, together with Kumaran Asan, Vallathol was "responsible for bringing about a revolutionary change in Malayalam poetry in the -twenties. Asan concentrated on social themes and Vallathol championed the national movement. Vallathol is credited with revitalising the traditional Keralite dance form known as Kathakali, he played a prominent role in setting up the Kerala Kalamandalam at Cheruthuruthy, near the banks of Bharathapuzha River. The revival of the art of Kathakali in modern Kerala was due to the efforts of Vallathol and the Kerala Kalamandalam, he stimulated the world's interest in this art during his tours abroad between 1950 and 1953. Vallathol is regarded as the greatest nationalist poet of the language, he participated in the Nationalist movement. He attended the all India Conferences of the Indian Congress in 1922 and 1927 and rejected a royal honour bestowed upon him by the Prince of Wales during his India visit in 1922.
Vallathol remained a great admirer of Mahatma Gandhi and wrote the poem "Ente Gurunathan" in his praise. At the same time, he felt attracted by the Communist ideology and wrote poems praising the achievements of the Soviet Union, he wrote several patriotic poems hailing India's nationalist movement. Vallathol Award Lokame Tharavadu – A documentary about his life, directed by Rifa Shalees Chennara Biographical sketch, Portrait and Books of Vallathol – Kerala Sahitya Akademi
N. Kumaran Asan was an Indian social reformer and poet of Malayalam literature, he is known to have initiated a revolution in Malayalam poetry in the first quarter of the 20th century, transforming it from the metaphysical to the lyrical and his poetry is charecterised by its moral and spiritual content, poetic concentration and dramatic contextualisation. He is one of a disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. Kumaran Asan was born on April 12, 1873 in a merchant family belonging to the Ezhava community in Kayikkara village, Chirayinkeezhu taluk, Anchuthengu Grama Panchaayath in Travancore to Narayanan Perungudi, a polyglot well versed in Malayalam and Tamil languages, Kochupennu as the second of their nine children, his early schooling was at a local school by a teacher by name, Udayankeezhil Kochuraman Vaidyar, who taught him elementary Sanskrit after which he continued his studies at the government school in Kayikkara until he was thirteen. Subsequently, he joined the school as a teacher in 1889 but had to quit as he was not old enough to hold a government job.
It was during this time, he studied the plays of Sanskrit literature. He started working as an accountant at a local wholesale grocer in 1890, the same year he met Shree Narayana Guru and became the spiritual leader's disciple. Narayana Guru's influence led Asan to spiritual pursuits and he spent some time at a local temple, in prayers and teaching Sanskrit. Soon, he joined Guru at his Aruvippuram hermitage. In 1895, he studied for law, staying with Padmanabhan Palpu, he stayed there only until 1898 as Palpu went to England and a plague epidemic spread over Bangalore and Asan spent the next few months in Madras before proceeding to Calcutta to continue his Sanskrit studies. At Calcutta, he studied at Tarka sastra at the Central Hindu College, studying English and got involved with the Indian Renaissance, but his stay was again cut short due to plague epidemic, he returned to Aruvippuram in 1900. Asan was involved with the activities of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam and became its secretary in 1904.
The same year, he founded Vivekodayam, a literary journal in Malayalam, assumed its editorship. Under his leadership, the magazine became a monthly from a bi-monthly. In 1913, he was elected to the Sree Moolam Popular Assembly, the first popularly elected legislature in the history of India, he relinquished the position at SNDP in 1919 and a year took over the editorship of Pratibha, another literary magazine In 1921, he started a clay tile factory, Union Tile Works, in Aluva but when it was found that the factory was polluting the nearby palace pond, he shifted the project to a site near Aluva river and handed over the land to SNDP for building an Advaitashramam. He moved to Thonnakkal, a village in the periphery of Thiruvananthapuram, where he settled with his wife. In 1923, He lost to Sankara Menon. Asan married Bhanumathiamma, the daughter of Thachakudy Kumaran Writer, a cousin of Padmanabhan Palpu in 1917. On January 16, 1924, he died by drowning, when Redeemer, the boat he was traveling capsized in River Pallana.
His body was recovered after two days and the place where his mortal remains were cremated is known as Kumarakodi. Kumaran Asan was one of the triumvirate poets of modern Malayalam, along with Vallathol Narayana Menon and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer; some of the earlier works of the poet were Subramanya Sathakam and Sankara Sathakam, which were devotional in content but his poems were marked by social commentary. He published Veena Poovu in December 1907 in Mithavadi of Moorkoth Kumaran which went on to become a literary classic in Malayalam. Prarodanam, an elegy, mourning the death of his contemporary and grammarian, A. R. Raja Raja Varma, Khanda Kavyas such as Nalini, Karuna, Chandaalabhikshuki, Chinthaavishtayaaya Seetha, Duravastha are some of his other major works. Besides, he wrote Buddha Charitha in 5 volumes and Balaramayanam, a three-volume work. In 1958, when Joseph Mundassery was the Minister of Education, the Government of Kerala acquired Asan's house in Thonnakkal and established the Kumaran Asan National Institute of Culture, as a memorial for the poet, the first instance in Kerala history when the government took over a poet's property to convert it into a memorial.
It houses a museum and a publications division. Asan Memorial Association, a Chennai-based organization, has built a memorial at Kayikkara, the birth place of the poet, they have instituted an annual award, Asan Smaraka Kavitha Puraskaram, for recognising excellence in Malayalam poetry. The award carries a cash prize of ₹30,000 and Sugathakumari, O. N. V. Kurup, K. Ayyappa Panicker and K. Satchidanandan are some of the recipients of the award. Asan Memorial Senior Secondary School is a CBSE affiliated higher secondary school run by Asan Memorial Association; the India Post issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting Asan's portrait in 1973, in connection with his birth centenary. Kumaran Asan wrote many other poems; some of these poems are listed in the book Asante Padyakrthikal under the name "Mattu Krthikal": Sadaachaarasathakam Sariyaaya Parishkaranam Bhaashaaposhinisabhayodu Saamaanyadharmangal Subrahmanyapanchakam Mrthyanjayam Pravaasakaalaththu Naattile OrmakalThis is another collection of poems that come from various lette
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan was a Malayalam devotional poet and linguist from around the 16th century. Today he is known as the father of modern Malayalam language – the principal language of the Indian state Kerala and the union territory of Lakshadweep – and its literature. Ezhuthachan was born near the present day Tirur municipality. After the birth of his daughter, Ezhuthachan became a monk and wandered throughout southern India before building his monastery at modern day Chittoor, Palghat, but at the same time another group believe. Ezhuthachan's contribution to the Malayalam language is considered as unparalleled, he brought massive standardisation in the language through his works. He translated the two Hindu epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, to Malayalam for the common man with the mingling of the Sanskrit and Dravidian languages. According to historians and linguists, Ezhuthachan refined the "style" of Malayalam language and it was during his period that Malayalam literature attained its "individuality" and Malayalam became a "fully fledged" independent language.
He brought the language to the level of the non-Brahmins's understanding. Ezhuthachan used Malayalam language to challenge the prevailing social conditions, he is known for using his literary works as a powerful tool against the rule of privileged. Ezhuthachan is considered as a significant voice of the Bhakti movement in Kerala. Ezhuthachan's other major contribution has been in establishing an alphabet system equivalent to Sanskrit instead of Vattezhuthu, the 30-letter script of Malayalam; the highest literary honour awarded presented by the Government of Kerala is known as the "Ezhuthachan Puraskaram". Sooranad Kunjan Pillai was its first recipient. Ezhuthachan is believed to have lived around 16th century. Although poet and turned historian Ulloor S Parameshwara Iyer has argued that he was born in 1495 AD and lived up to 1575 AD, a time frame similar to that proposed by C. Radhakrishnan, other scholars are not sure about it. Ezhuthachan was born near the modern-day municipal town of Tirur, in Malappuram.
His precise birthplace is now known as Thunchan Parambu. His parent's names are not known and there is some confusion about Ezhuthachan's actual name as well. After completing his education, he embraced sannyasa after the birth of a daughter, but at the same time another group believe. Leaving house he travelled to various places in the Andhra region and Tamil Nadu, learnt Telugu and Tamil; some scholars surmise that his Ramayana and Mahabharata were adopted from the Telugu versions of these Sanskrit epics. It is believed that Ezhuthachan on his way back from a pilgrimage to Tamil Nadu had a stopover at Chittur and settled down at Thekke Gramam near Anikkode with his disciples. A monastery called "Ramananda ashrama" and now known as the Chittur Gurumadhom, was constructed by him on a piece of land bought from the landlord of Chittur; the madhom is flanked by temples of Rama and Siva and the street has an array of Agraharas. At the madhom, some of the instruments used by Ezhuthachan are still preserved.
A Sri Chakra and a few idols worshipped by him, the stylus, the wooden slippers, a few old manuscripts are exhibited for visitors. Ezhuthachan's samadhi is situated there. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, the author of famous Narayaneeyam, was a friend of Ezhuthachan, it is said that when he sought the advice of Ezhuthachan about how to start his intended book, he gave him a cryptic advice to "start with fish", meaning to start with Matsya avatara - the fish avatar of god Vishnu. Bhattathiri started composing his poem in the Guruvayur Temple. Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan is thought to have belonged to the Ezhuthachan caste, a socioeconomic caste of village school teachers. Modern era historians still differ on their opinions about it. Following the period of Thunchaththu Ezuthachan, learned people from various other castes adopted and were known by this title, as they had been engaged with the vocation of village school teaching. William Logan's Malabar Manual, page 92 - States that Thunjath Ezhuthachan was a man of Sudra caste.
According to Arthur Coke Burnell in his book "Elements of South Indian Paleography" page 42 states Thunchath Ezhuthachan belonged to'Ezhuthachan' caste. Writer K. Balakrishna Kurup reports the same, in his book Viswasathinte Kanappurangal. E. P. Bhaskara Guptan a writer and independent researcher in local history from Kadampazhipuram. Historian Velayudhan Panikkassery expressing the same opinion. Other sources consider him as a Kaniyar by caste; this community of traditional astrologers were well versed in Malayalam. During the Middle Ages, when people, other than Brahmins, were denied the right of learning Sanskrit, only the Kaniyar community had been traditionally enjoying the privilege for accessing and acquiring knowledge in Sanskrit, through their hereditary system of pedagogy, they were learned people and had knowledge in astrology, mathematics and Ayurveda. They were assigned as preceptors of martial art and literacy. In addition to the common title Panicker, the members of Kaniyar from the South Travancore and Malabar region were known as, Aasaan/Ezhuthu Aasans/Ezhuthachans by virtue of their traditional avocational function