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Malayan Union

The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948. Prior to World War II, British Malaya consisted of three groups of polities: the protectorate of the Federated Malay States, five protected Unfederated Malay States and the crown colony of the Strait Settlements. On 1 April 1946, the Malayan Union came into existence with Sir Edward Gent as its governor, combining the Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca under one administration; the capital of the Union was Kuala Lumpur. The former Straits Settlement of Singapore was administered as a separate crown colony; the idea of the Union was first expressed by the British on October 1945 in the aftermath of the Second World War by the British Military Administration.

Sir Harold MacMichael was assigned the task of gathering the Malay state rulers' approval for the Malayan Union in the same month. In a short period of time, he managed to obtain all the Malay rulers’ approval; the reasons for their agreement, despite the loss of political power that it entailed for the Malay rulers, has been much debated. Hence the approval was given; when it was unveiled, the Malayan Union gave equal rights to people who wished to apply for citizenship. It was automatically granted to people who were born in any state in British Malaya or Singapore and were living there before 15 February 1942, born outside British Malaya or the Straits Settlements only if their fathers were citizens of the Malayan Union and those who reached 18 years old and who had lived in British Malaya or Singapore "10 out of 15 years before 15 February 1942"; the group of people eligible for application of citizenship had to live in Singapore or British Malaya "for 5 out of 8 years preceding the application", had to be of good character and speak the English or Malay language and "had to take an oath of allegiance to the Malayan Union".

However, the citizenship proposal was never implemented. Due to opposition to the citizenship proposal, it was postponed modified, which made it harder for many Chinese and Indian residents to obtain Malayan citizenship; the Sultans, the traditional rulers of the Malay states, conceded all their powers to the British Crown except in religious matters. The Malayan Union was placed under the jurisdiction of a British Governor, signalling the formal inauguration of British colonial rule in the Malay peninsula. Moreover, while the State Councils were still kept functioning in the former Federated Malay States, they lost the limited autonomy that they enjoyed, left to administer only some less important local aspects of government, became an extended hand of the Federal government in Kuala Lumpur. British Residents replacing the Sultans as the head of the State Councils meant that the political status of the Sultans was reduced. A Supreme Court was established in 1946; the Malays opposed the creation of the Union.

The opposition was due to the methods Sir Harold MacMichael used to acquire the Sultans' approval, the reduction of the Sultans' powers, easy granting of citizenship to immigrants. The United Malays National Organisation or UMNO, a Malay political association formed by Dato' Onn bin Ja'afar on 1 March 1946, led the opposition against the Malayan Union. Malays wore white bands around their heads, signifying their mourning for the loss of the Sultans' political rights. After the inauguration of the Malayan Union, the Malays, under UMNO continued opposing the Malayan Union, they utilised civil disobedience as a means of protest by refusing to attend the installation ceremonies of the British governors. They had refused to participate in the meetings of the Advisory Councils, hence Malay participation in the government bureaucracy and the political process had stopped; the British had recognised this problem and took measures to consider the opinions of the major races in Malaya before making amendments to the constitution.

The Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948. Bumiputra Reports and proceedings of the Malayan Union are held by SOAS Archives. Zakaria Haji Ahmad. Government and Politics. P.p 30-21. ISBN 981-3018-55-0. Marissa Champion. Odyssey: Perspectives on Southeast AsiaMalaysia and Singapore 1870–1971. ISBN 9971-0-7213-0 Sejarah Malaysia

Little Hands (Jonathan Edwards album)

Little Hands is the seventh studio album released by the singer-songwriter Jonathan Edwards. It differs from his previous releases in being targeted for children. "Winkin, Blinkin And Nod" – 2:56 "Children, Go Where I Send Thee" – 4:09 "My Little Girl" – 2:21 "Red Light, Green Light" – 2:43 "Stewball" – 2:57 "Three Blind Mice" – 4:13 "Oh Susanna" – 2:36 "Little Hands" – 2:59 "Flies In The Buttermilk" – 3:55 "Give Us A Song" – 3:12 "Old Jim" – 2:39 "Graceful Lullabye" – 2:36

Angels F.C.

Angels F. C. is a football team from Gibraltar. They played in the Gibraltar Second Division and the Rock Cup until February 2018, when their license was revoked. Angels Football Club formed in 2014, after the rising interest in association football on the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. In July 2014 it was announced that the club would compete in the Gibraltar Second Division for its maiden season. After a slow start to the season the club climbed the table and after a tight title race with other new entries Gibraltar United and Europa Point, the side won promotion with a win over Mons Calpe on the final day of the season, overturning a 2–1 score at half-time; the club, despite finishing second, was awarded promotion due to the GFA's decision to expand the Gibraltar Premier Division to 10 teams. The side sacked Juanfran Fernandez Perez in July 2015, with Albert Ferry coming in as his replacement. On 7 November 2016, Lewis Fraser took over from Joel Richard Williams. Lewis comes with experience from youth academies in the UK.

As a result of the loss of a number of players, the side suffered a record 20-1 defeat to Gibraltar Phoenix on 16 November 2016, having only been able to field 9 players. They finished 8th in the table, ahead of only Hound Dogs, although they drew praise for their attitude on and off the pitch. On June 22, 2017, Fraser resigned as manager of Angels; the club started in the 2017–18 season, being in the title race by the winter break. However, on 2 February 2018, the Gibraltar Football Association found gross violations of player quota and home grown player rules at the club, revoked their license for the season, their record was expunged and the club was expelled from the league. They were not re-admitted to the league the following season. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Angels F. C. on Twitter

BBC Sessions and Other Polished Turds

BBC Sessions and Other Polished Turds is a compilation album by The Vandals, released August 12, 2008 by Kung Fu Records. It was released as a digital download through iTunes and the band's website, as well as on CD in Japan; the album collects rare songs by the band from compilations and out-of-print singles, as well as five songs recorded during various sessions at the BBC. It was promoted as "A collection of the band's most rare tracks all sharing one thing in common in that they were recorded when the band didn't give a crap, so they are fun and unpretentious". Included are cover versions of songs by the Ramones, Little Jimmy Osmond, the Falling Idols, Jilted John, Alice Cooper, Sublime, ZZ Top, Queen, as well as a cover of the song "Heigh-Ho" from the Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs which appeared on a Japanese Disney tribute album. In fact, only four of the album's sixteen songs were written by The Vandals. "Change the World with My Hockey Stick" appeared on the soundtrack album to the film Glory Daze.

The BBC sessions include performances of "My Neck, My Back" from the band's album Hollywood Potato Chip and "Canine Euthanasia" from The Quickening. The album's final track is a remix of "You're Not the Boss of Me" from the album Look What I Almost Stepped In... The band described the album in typical tongue-in-cheek fashion: Some may think this is a joke, or a hoax, but over the years the Vandals have indeed recorded over a dozen songs for the BBC for BBC 1’s Lock-Up Sessions with Mike Davis. Here are some of the best from those sessions featuring some ZZ Top, Queen, a tear jerking piano version of the dead pet lament "Canine Euthanasia." The cover songs come from ancient Ramones tributes, lame Alice Cooper tribute albums, a Japanese Disney tribute. The gayest of the gay, has to be the Vandals version of the song 9 year-old Jimmy Osmond topped the U. K. pop charts with for 6 weeks in 1972 "Long Haired Lover From Liver Pool." Think of this release as 20 years of people asking for extra songs and the Vandals delivering in their own special way.

Dave Quackenbush – lead vocals Warren Fitzgeraldguitar, backing vocals, lead vocals on "Long Haired Lover from Liverpool" and "Don't Stop Me Now" Joe Escalantebass guitar, backing vocals Josh Freese – drum kit, lead vocals on "Costa Mesa Hates Me" Scott Aukerman – backing vocals on "Heigh-Ho"

Saturday Night Live parodies of Hillary Clinton

The sketch comedy television show Saturday Night Live has for three decades aired a number of sketches parodying Hillary Clinton, from her time as First Lady, during both her presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2016. A total of nine different performers have played Hillary Clinton on SNL; the array of SNL cast members portraying Clinton has included Jan Hooks, Janeane Garofalo, Vanessa Bayer, Ana Gasteyer, Amy Poehler, Kate McKinnon. Guest stars playing Clinton have included Drew Barrymore and Rachel Dratch. One sketch featured Miley Cyrus in a guest appearance as Clinton, rapping: "What's up y'all? I'm like Hillary Clint, I wanna be president one day." Jan Hooks was the first to portray Hillary Clinton, after Hooks left the show in 1991, she returned to make several subsequent guest appearances as Hillary, with Phil Hartman as Hillary's husband Bill Clinton. One of the earliest Jan Hooks sketches, which aired in May 1993, features her interpretation of Hillary eager to be a "co-president" with Bill, now the newly elected President.

Hooks' Hillary tells her husband about her big plans for his health care bill, gets into a fistfight with Senator Bob Dole. Beginning with the 1994 season, Janeane Garofalo played Hillary as First Lady, with Michael McKean portraying the president. Ana Gasteyer played Hillary during the Lewinsky scandal of the late 1990s, as well as during her run for the U. S. Senate in New York, with Darrell Hammond playing the role of her husband. In one Gasteyer sketch, set in the Clintons' Chappaqua kitchen, with Hillary making an attempt to appear more personable for the cameras during her Senate campaign, she says, "I can't wait to prepare some food dishes in this kitchen, such as salads and toast." SNL cast member Amy Poehler had the longest-running role as Clinton, playing the role from 2003 to 2008. In a sketch in the 2007–08 season, Poehler as Clinton hosts a Halloween party for the entire field of then-Democratic candidates for the 2008 presidential primary election. Poehler's Clinton tells rival candidate John Edwards, played by SNL's Will Forte, "come next November, we all have to support the Democratic nominee, no matter who she may be."Near the end of the party, a man walks in wearing an Obama mask, which he removes to reveal the real then-Senator Barack Obama, making a cameo appearance.

"I have nothing to hide," he tells Clinton. "I enjoy being myself. I'm not going to change who I am just because it's Halloween."During the 2008–09 season, the show aired several critically acclaimed sketches featuring Poehler as Clinton, Tina Fey as Sarah Palin. The first sketch, "A Nonpartisan Message from Governor Sarah Palin & Senator Hillary Clinton" aired during the thirty-fourth season premiere of SNL in September 2008. Poehler and Fey are featured giving fictional speeches by New York Senator Clinton as an unsuccessful contender for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential nomination, Alaska Governor Palin, the Republican Party's vice-presidential nominee; the two discuss sexism in the presidential election campaign: Poehler: Sarah, one thing we can agree on is that sexism can never be allowed to permeate an American election. Fey: So, stop photo-shopping my head on sexy bikini pictures! Poehler: And stop saying I have cankles! Fey: Don't refer to me as a MILF! Poehler: Don't refer to me as a "flurge"!

I Googled what it stands for, I do not like it! In the same skit, Poehler as Clinton says to Fey's Palin: "I didn't want a woman to be president, I wanted to be president, I just happened to be a woman. I scratched and clawed through mud and barbed wire! And you just glided in on a dogsled, wearing your pageant sash, your stupid Tina Fey glasses!"It was during the 2008–09 season, while Poehler was playing Clinton, that Hillary Clinton herself first made an appearance on the show and faced off with Poehler as her doppelgänger. The real Sarah Palin made a guest appearance during season 34. Kate McKinnon has portrayed Clinton since March 2015; as of December 2016, she is the most-frequently appearing Hillary with 20 performances in the role, ahead of Amy Poehler at 19 performances, Ana Gasteyer, despite having played it for less than half as long as either. Darrell Hammond has stated that he only agreed to reprise his role as Bill Clinton because he felt McKinnon was so good in her role, calling her a "virtuoso".

McKinnon appeared as Clinton alongside Amy Poehler's Clinton when the duo returned to host in 2015, with the premise that 2008 Hillary had come to congratulate 2016 Hillary in a dream. In the 2014–2015 season, SNL began airing another series of Hillary Clinton sketches, on the occasion of Clinton's announcement of her candidacy for the 2016 presidential campaign, with Kate McKinnon now as Clinton. In one McKinnon sketch, set in SNL's version of the living room of the Clintons' house in Chappaqua, New York, McKinnon's Clinton, sitting on a flowered print sofa, wrestles with her decision of whether or not to run for the presidency. In another, McKinnon as Clinton tries to film a video of herself to kick-off her campaign using her smartphone; when it doesn't turn out well, her aide suggests that she delete it. McKinnon's Clinton says, "I know a thing or two about that, right?", chuckles, referring to the controversy surrounding Clinton's emails. She rather than asking for a high five, tells her assistant, "Meet my hand in the air."In one sketch, she looks straight into the camera and says, "Those emails are clean as

Mount Wellington Tin Mine

Mount Wellington Tin mine, two miles east of the village of St Day in Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, opened in 1976 and was the first new mine in the region in many years. With the fall of tin prices and the withdrawal of pumping subsidies, the mine closed in 1991. An attempt to revive the mine occurred when an individual tried to transform it into a visitor attraction, but his endeavour failed; the site was bought by Mount Wellington Mine Ltd in early 2007, who removed the remaining headgear stump, have proceeded to renovate the site. There are a number of tenants who operate in the renewable energy sector such as Kensa Heat Pumps, R-Eco and Geoquip Marine. Further works on site are planned. During the 1920s, three brothers called Wellington worked the old Wheal Andrew lodes close to surface; the brothers were mining in a small way, working with primitive plant and operations, taking ore to a Cornish stamps down the valley to be treated for its tin content. Captain Josiah Paull, of the Mines and Metallurgical Club in London, reported that the ore the Wellingtons were breaking was yielding an average of 30 lb. of black tin per ton.

The workings around the shaft they were working were crushed at a date, putting the shaft out of action, “being only ordinary Cornish miners”, the Wellingtons did not have the money to either open up the adit or put down another shaft. In 1935 Mount Wellington Ltd, backed by the British Non-ferrous Mining Corp Ltd, acquired the rights on United and Consolidated Mines, Wheal Clifford and Wheal Andrew. On 5 February shares in Mount Wellington Mine Ltd were advertised for sale. During the 1930s further shafts and mining buildings were built at Mount Wellington the mine acquired mining rights to the adjacent mines. However, by the end of the decade, milling was being suspended due to low tin prices, it faced difficulties extracting the ore at sufficient quantities to show a profit. On 16 December 1939 work stopped at Mount Wellington Mine due to lack of finance. In 1963 International Mine Services Ltd of Toronto became interested in the mineral potential of Cornwall. By 1967 exploratory drilling began at Mount Wellington Mine and by 1969 a contract to sink No.1 Wellington Shaft and erect buildings was awarded to Thyssen by Cornwall Tin & Mining Ltd.

In 1974 Mount Wellington mine, controlled by the Cornwall Tin and Mining Corporation, situated a few miles to the west of Truro on the opposite side of the Bissoe Valley, to the neighbouring Wheal Jane mine, was to go ahead with the proposed tin mining operation. It was the third new tin mine in Cornwall in three years; the erection of the concentrating plant commenced in preparation for receiving its first ore from underground in January 1976. The operation will cost some £4-25 million to finance and qualified for a 20% grant from the U. K. Government; the initial throughput was forecast to be 0'2 million tonnes/annum in an all-gravity plant to provide about 1,600 tonnes of tin metal and some copper and silver. The shaft was to be deepened from 210m to 310m; the mine was planned to have a life of some 25 years, the workforce planned was up to 300. However, on 20 April 1978 Mount Wellington Mine closed. No more ore came up Wellington's No.1 shaft after this date. No. 1 shaft was retained for machinery access.

The Wellington site was sold by the Administrators of Cornwall Tin & Mining Ltd to a Falmouth-based scrap dealer. In August 1979 Carnon Consolidated, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Zinc, acquired Wheal Jane from Consolidated Gold Fields Ltd. RTZ used William Press to renovate Wheal Jane's mill. Carnon bought the freehold of Wellington's No.1 shaft area, together with Wellington's Engineering Building from the scrap dealer. £10m was allocated to renovate both mines. In 1979, Billiton Minerals Ltd, a Shell subsidiary, bought Hydraulic Tin of Bissoe, who worked alluvial tin and mine waste tailings. Billiton bought the rest of buildings, including the Mill at Mount Wellington Mine, they bought the Wheal Maid valley and the tailings dam and lagoon. Wellington's offices, some land for storage of plant, were leased from Billiton by Thyssens. Thyssens used Wellington as a base for their work at South Crofty and Geevor mine. In June 1980 production at Jane recommenced; the following year, a new 7” MDPE pipeline was laid between Wellington and the Tailings Dam at Wheal Maid.

Old mine waste was sluffified and pumped into Wellington's Mill, where it was re-processed to obtain minerals. In 1982 Carnon Consolidated purchased Billiton's freehold interest in the Mount Wellington, Wheal Maid and Hydraulic Tin sites. By 1984 100% of South Crofty had been purchased by Carnon Consolidated, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Zinc, the three mines of Crofty, Mount Wellington and Wheal Jane operated as one unit. Production at Wheal Jane had restarted in 1980 reaching 1499 tonnes of tin in 1981 and 1863 tonnes in 1984; the Wheal Maid Decline was started, on land owned by Mount Wellington Mine. 1984 operations produced an estimated 35,000 tons of ore. The length of the Decline is 655 meters, reached over towards Cornwall County Council's waste dump at United Downs; the Decline suffered from ingress of Methane gas from the dump, which gave rise to safety concerns over possible underground fires or explosion. In March 1991 Wheal Jane, incorporating Mount Wellington Mine, the Wheal Maid Decline and the Wheal Maid Tailings Lagoons, were closed for the last time.

On 16 January 1992 the UK's most infamous mine water outburst disaster occurred when 320 million litres of untreated acidic mine water and sludge burst from the Nangiles adit at the Wheal Jane Mine site in Cornwall into the Carnon R