Sulawesi known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia. One of the four Greater Sunda Islands, the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra and Papua are larger in territory, only Java and Sumatra have larger populations; the landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula. Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: the Gulf of Tomini between the northern Minahasa and East peninsulas; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and separates the island from Borneo. The name Sulawesi comes from the words sula and besi and may refer to the historical export of iron from the rich Lake Matano iron deposits; the name came into common use in English following Indonesian independence. The name Celebes was given to the island by Portuguese explorers. While its direct translation is unclear, it may be considered a Portuguese rendering of the native name "Sulawesi".
Sulawesi is the world's eleventh-largest island, covering an area of 174,600 km2. The central part of the island is ruggedly mountainous, such that the island's peninsulas have traditionally been remote from each other, with better connections by sea than by road; the three bays that divide Sulawesi's peninsulas are, from north to south, the Tomini, the Tolo and the Boni. These separate the Minahassa or Northern Peninsula, the East Peninsula, the Southeast Peninsula and the South Peninsula; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island. The island is surrounded by Borneo to the west, by the Philippines to the north, by Maluku to the east, by Flores and Timor to the south; the Selayar Islands make up a peninsula stretching southwards from Southwest Sulawesi into the Flores Sea are administratively part of Sulawesi. The Sangihe Islands and Talaud Islands stretch northward from the northeastern tip of Sulawesi, while Buton Island and its neighbours lie off its southeast peninsula, the Togian Islands are in the Gulf of Tomini, Peleng Island and Banggai Islands form a cluster between Sulawesi and Maluku.
All the above-mentioned islands, many smaller ones are administratively part of Sulawesi's six provinces. The island slopes up from the shores of the deep seas surrounding the island to a high non-volcanic, mountainous interior. Active volcanoes are found in the northern Minahassa Peninsula, stretching north to the Sangihe Islands; the northern peninsula contains several active volcanoes such as Mount Lokon, Mount Awu and Karangetang. According to plate reconstructions, the island is believed to have been formed by the collision of terranes from the Asian Plate and from the Australian Plate, with island arcs in the Pacific; because of its several tectonic origins, various faults scar the land and as a result the island is prone to earthquakes. Sulawesi, in contrast to most of the other islands in the biogeographical region of Wallacea, is not oceanic, but a composite island at the centre of the Asia-Australia collision zone. Parts of the island were attached to either the Asian or Australian continental margin and became separated from these areas by vicariant processes.
In the west, the opening of the Makassar Strait separated West Sulawesi from Sundaland in the Eocene c. 45 Mya. In the east, the traditional view of collisions of multiple micro-continental fragments sliced from New Guinea with an active volcanic margin in West Sulawesi at different times since the Early Miocene c. 20 Mya has been replaced by the hypothesis that extensional fragmentation has followed a single Miocene collision of West Sulawesi with the Sula Spur, the western end of an ancient folded belt of Variscan origin in the Late Paleozoic. Before October 2014, the settlement of South Sulawesi by modern humans had been dated to c. 30,000 BC on the basis of radiocarbon dates obtained from rock shelters in Maros. No earlier evidence of human occupation had at that point been found, but the island certainly formed part of the land bridge used for the settlement of Australia and New Guinea by at least 40,000 BCE. There is no evidence of Homo erectus having reached Sulawesi. Following Peter Bellwood's model of a southward migration of Austronesian-speaking farmers, radiocarbon dates from caves in Maros suggest a date in the mid-second millennium BC for the arrival of a group from east Borneo speaking a Proto-South Sulawesi language.
Initial settlement was around the mouth of the Sa'dan river, on the northwest coast of the peninsula, although the south coast has been suggested. Subsequent migrations across the mountainous landscape resulted in the geographical isolation of PSS speakers and the evolution of their languages into the eight families of the South Sulawesi language group. If each group can be said to have a homeland, that of the Bugis – today the most numerous group – was around lakes Témpé and Sidénréng in the Walennaé depression. Here for some 2,000 years lived the linguistic group. Despite the fact that today they are link
Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Members of this family are called civets or genets. Viverrids are found in South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line, all over Africa, into southern Europe, their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics. Viverrids have five toes on each foot and half-retractile claws, they have six cutting teeth in each jaw and true grinders with two tubercular grinders behind in the upper jaw, one in the lower jaw. The tongue is rough with sharp prickles. A pouch or gland occurs beneath the anus. Viverrids are the most primitive of all the families of feliform Carnivora and less specialized than the Felidae. In external characteristics, they are distinguished from the Felidae by the longer muzzle and tuft of facial vibrissae between the lower jaw bones, by the shorter limbs and the five-toed hind foot with the first digit present.
The skull differs by the position of the postpalatine foramina on the maxilla always well in advance of the maxillopalatine suture, about the level of the second premolar. The typical dental formula is: 22.214.171.124.1.4.2, but the number may be reduced, although never to the same extent as in the Felidae. Their flesh-shearing carnassial teeth are undeveloped. Most viverrid species have a penis bone. Viverrids range in size from the African linsang with a body length of 33 cm and a weight of 650 g to the African civet at 84 cm and 18 kg, although large binturongs, which can weigh up to 25 kg, attain the greatest mass, they are solitary and have excellent hearing and vision. They are omnivorous. Favored habitats include woodland, savanna and above all tropical rainforest. Due to heavy deforestation, many face severe habitat loss. Several species, such as the Hose's palm civet, endemic to northern Borneo, are considered vulnerable; the otter civet is classified as endangered. In 1821, Gray defined this family as consisting of the genera Viverra, Genetta and Suricata.
Reginald Innes Pocock redefined the family as containing a great number of diversified genera, being susceptible of division into several subfamilies, based on the structure of the feet and of some specialized scent glands, derived from the skin, which are present in most of the species and are situated in the region of the external generative organs. He subordinated the subfamilies Hemigalinae, Paradoxurinae and Viverrinae to the Viverridae; the Viverridae consist of: Hemigalinae Genus Chrotogale Owston's palm civet Genus Cynogale Otter civet Genus Diplogale Hose's palm civet Genus Hemigalus Banded palm civet Paradoxurinae Genus Arctictis Binturong Genus Arctogalidia Small-toothed palm civet Genus Macrogalidia Sulawesi palm civet Genus Paguma Masked palm civet Genus Paradoxurus Asian palm civet Golden palm civet Golden wet-zone palm civet Sri Lankan brown palm civet Jerdon's palm civet Golden dry-zone palm civet Prionodontinae Genus Prionodon Banded linsang Spotted linsang Viverrinae Genus Civettictis African civet Genus Genetta Abyssinian genet Angolan genet Bourlon's genet Crested servaline genet Common genet Johnston's genet Rusty-spotted genet Pardine genet Aquatic genet King genet Servaline genet Haussa genet Cape genet Giant forest genet Genus Poiana West African oyan Central African oyan Genus Viverra Malabar large-spotted civet Large-spotted civet Malayan civet Large Indian civet Genus Viverricula Small Indian civet Some authorities are of the opinion that the subfamily Prionodontinae, which consists of two extant species of Asiatic linsangs in the genus Prionodon, should be regarded as a family in its own right.
In 1833, Edward Turner Bennett described the Malagasy fossa and subordinated the Cryptoprocta to the Viverridae. A molecular and morphological analysis based on DNA/DNA hybridization experiments suggests that Cryptoprocta does not belong within Viverridae, but is a member of the Eupleridae; the African palm civet resembles the civets of the Viverridae, but is genetically distinct and belongs in its own monotypic family, the Nandiniidae. There is little dispute; the following cladogram shows the phylogenetic relationships for the revised Viverridae, based on the molecular genetics study of Gaubert & Cordeiro-Estrela, with additional sp
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Not to be confused with Riau Islands, a province of Indonesia. The Riau Archipelago is a geographic term for the core group of islands within the Riau Islands Province in Indonesia, located south of Singapore. Before the province of Riau Islands was formed, there was no ambiguity in term; the province may have the word "Provinsi" preceding it for clarity. Additionally the term BBK for Batam Bintan Karimun may refer to the archipelago; the name of this archipelago predates the creation of the Indonesian province, did not include the Lingga Islands or Natuna Islands, which now belong to that province. On the other hand, Singapore was considered a part of the islands, at least in the Islamic eras. From 650 CE–1377 CE are accepted dates for the Srivijaya empire, the area seems to be well within the bounds of their control; the Jambi Kingdom sacked the Srivijaya capital in 1088, allowing that empire to grow and spread Malay as a lingua franca, ostensibly as a successor or part of the Srivijaya empire itself.
The Pamalayu expedition force of the Singhasari empire in 1275 sacked the Jambi/Srivijaya forces. Bintan was a staging ground in the Malay Annals for the foundation of a state at Temasek. Kingdom of Singapura dated from 1299 to 1398 but it not known how much influence it wielded on the nearby Riau archipelago; when control passed to the Malacca Sultanate is unknown, but that sultanate dates from 1400 until 1511, when the Portuguese sacked Malacca. Some time after, the Johor Sultanate, once itself part of the Malacca Sultanate, took control of the area until Sultan Mahmud III's death in 1811, Singapore's purchase in 1819, the islands of the Riau Archipelago, along with Temasek; the islands became part of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, created after the succession dispute following the death of Mahmud III of Johor, when Abdul Rahman was crowned as the first Sultan of Riau-Lingga in 1812. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 established the border between Dutch and British interests and awarded the islands to the Dutch sector of influence.
Henceforth, Singapore was no longer co-administered. The remaining archipelago became a part of the Residency of Dependencies. In 1989, Sijori Growth Triangle was formed to speed up development in Batam. In 2002, Riau Islands Province was carved out of Riau Province. In 2009, the area was formally included in a free-trade zone, though it had been operating as such. A number of studies and books have detailed the growing violence and concern about identity and social change in the archipelago; as the Malay, who were once the dominant ethnic group in the islands, have been reduced to about a third of the population as a result of immigration from elsewhere in Indonesia, they feel that their traditional rights are threatened. The immigrants have felt politically and financially suppressed. Both of these causes have led to increased violence. Piracy in the archipelago is an issue; the main islands are Batam, Galang, Combol and Karimun. Tanjung Pinang located in the south of Bintan Island is the provincial capital.
Tanjung Balai Karimun is an international port along with Tanjung Pinang. High speed ferry services exist to the archipelago of the Lingga Islands. Batam-island-info.com: Batam Island Info Guide
Langkawi known as Langkawi, the Jewel of Kedah, is a district and an archipelago of 99 islands in the Andaman Sea some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. The islands are a part of the state of Kedah, adjacent to the Thai border. On 15 July 2008, Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah consented to the change of name to Langkawi Permata Kedah in conjunction with his golden jubilee celebration. By far the largest of the islands is the eponymous Langkawi Island, with a population of some 64,792. Langkawi is an administrative district, with the town of Kuah as its largest town. Langkawi is a duty-free island; the name Langkawi is thought to have existed by the early 15th century, although in the 16th century the island of Langkawi was marked on maps variously as Langa, Langka and Langapura. There are many suggestions for the origin of the name of Langkawi. According to one interpretation, Langkawi means island of the reddish-brown eagle, a Brahminy kite in colloquial Malay; the Malay word for eagle is helang, kawi is a red stone used as a chalk to mark goods.
This interpretation was used to create the landmark sculpture of an eagle as the symbol of Langkawi at Dataran Helang in Kuah. Some believed that Langkawi is the same as or related to the Lanka or Langkapuri mentioned in Indian sources; this ancient name Lanka is found in Indian literature from an early period, although the identification of the original Lanka is not certain. Puri or puram in Sanskrit means a city; the name Langkawi is thought to be related to Langkasuka, an old kingdom thought by some to have links with Kedah. Some thought that Langkawi means "many beautiful islands", langka being a Sanskrit word meaning "beautiful" while wi means "many". In 2008, the then-sultan of Kedah, Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah, conferred the title of Langkawi Permata Kedah upon the island as part of his golden jubilee as an affirmation of Kedah's ownership over the island. Langkawi had long been at the periphery of, but associated with, the domain of the Kedah Sultanate. Legend tells of a great snake ular besar, the custodian of the Langkawi Islands, to which a new king of Kedah must sacrifice a virgin daughter whenever he first ascended the throne, or when a war was declared with another state.
The island of Langkawi was recorded in history by various travelers to the region. It was called Lóngyápútí in the 14th century by the Yuan dynasty traveler Wang Dayuan, when the Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He visited the region, the island was marked as 龍牙交椅, Lóngyájiāoyǐ, in his map. In the 15th century, it was known to the Acehnese as Pulau Lada "Pepper Island" as they came over to plant pepper. In 1691, the French general Augustin de Beaulieu recorded going to the island of "Lancahui" to buy pepper, de Beaulieu was required to obtain a license from Kedah's heir apparent in Perlis before the penghulu or chief of Langkawi would sell pepper to him. Langkawi was home to seafarers, such as the orang laut or sea people from the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, as well as pirates and fishermen, it had been thought to be cursed for a couple of centuries - according to local legend, in the late 18th century, a woman named Mahsuri was wrongfully accused of adultery and put to death, she placed a curse on the island that would last for seven generations.
Not long after Mahsuri's death, in 1821, the Siamese army invaded Kedah, attacked Langkawi. In the first attack, the locals decided to burn down the granary at Padang Matsirat to starve and drive out the Siamese army; the Siamese finally captured the island in May 1822, killed its leaders, many of the islanders were taken as slaves, while others were forced to flee. Before the Siamese invasion, there was an estimated island population of 3–5000, only a small proportion was left after the invasion; the island was recaptured from Siamese rule in a campaign against the Siamese in 1837. In 1840–1841, the Sultan of Kedah, who went into exile after the Siamese attacks, was allowed to return by the Siamese, the population of Langkawi islands recovered afterwards due to settlement of immigrants from Sumatra. However, the Orang Laut who fled after the Siamese attacks did not returned. In 1909, the islands came under British rule under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909; the middle of the channel between Tarutao National Park and Langkawi would become the Siamese border, Tarutao would be part of Siam while all the Langkawi islands to the south would come under British rule.
During the World War II, Siam took control as British Malaya fell to the Japanese. Langkawi had been a haven for pirates. In a series of operations, between December 1945 and March 1946, the British cleared the pirates' land base in Langkawi and Tarutao; the British continued to rule until Malaya gained its independence in 1957. Langkawi remained as a quiet backwater until 1986, when the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad decided to transform it into a major tourist resort, helping to plan many of the islands buildings himself; the curse placed by Mahsuri for seven generations was said to have lifted as the 7th generation descendant of Mahsuri who now lives in Phuket Province was born. The island grew as a tourist destination, by 2012, it had received over 3 million tourists a year. Langkawi, a cluster of 99 islands separated from mainland Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca, is a district o
Bangka is an island lying east of Sumatra, administratively part of Sumatra, with a population of about 1 million. It is the 9th largest island in Indonesia and the main part of Bangka-Belitung Province, being one of its namesakes alongside the smaller Belitung across the Gaspar Strait; the provincial capital, Pangkal Pinang, lies on the island. The island is administratively divided into a chartered city. Bangka is an island province together with Belitung Island. Bangka lies just east of Sumatra, separated by the Bangka Strait; the size is about 12,000 km². Most of the geographical faces of the island consists of lower plains, small hills, beautiful beaches, white pepper fields and tin mines; the largest town is Pangkal Pinang which serves as the capital of Bangka-Belitung Province. Sungai Liat is the second largest city in Bangka island. Mentok is the principal port in the west; the other important towns are Toboali in the southern region, Koba an important tin mining town located on the southern part of the island, Belinyu, a town famous for its seafood products.
There are 4 sea ports in Bangka. It was intended; the population was 626,955 in 1990, 960,692 in the 2010 census. During the glacial periods, Bangka was connected to mainland Asia with the larger islands of Java and Borneo as part of the Sunda Shelf, got separated once the sea level rose; the Kota Kapur inscription, dated from 686 CE, was found in Bangka in 1920, showed Srivijayan influence on the island around the 7th century. The island was conquered by an expedition from Majapahit, led by Gajah Mada, which appointed local rulers and established social structures; as the empire declined, Bangka fell into neglect. Bangka was recorded in the 1436 Xingcha Shenglan, compiled by the Chinese soldier Fei Xin during the treasure voyages of Admiral Zheng He. Contemporary records show that the area - close to the busy Strait of Malacca and waters of the Musi River - had significant presence of Chinese traders. On, the island was taken over by the Johor and Minangkabau Sultanates which introduced Islam to the island.
It continued to pass to the Banten Sultanate before it was inherited by the nearby Palembang Sultanate sometime in the late 17th century. Soon after, around 1710, tin was discovered on the island which attracted migrants from across the archipelago and beyond. Descendants of the Chinese immigrants from Guangdong, still form a large portion of modern Bangka's inhabitants; as tin mining developed further, the Palembang Sultanate sent for experts in Malay Peninsula and China. The Dutch East India Company managed to secure a monopolistic tin purchase agreement in 1722, but hostilities began to develop between the Sultan and the Dutch. During the British Invasion of Java in 1811, then-Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin attacked and massacred the staff of the Dutch post on the island, he was deposed and executed by the British. His successor ceded Bangka to Britain in 1812, but in 1814 Britain exchanged it with the Dutch for Cochin in India following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Around the late years of the 18th century, Bangka was an important production center of tin in Asia, with annual outputs hovering around 1,250 tons.
In 1930 Bangka had a population of 205,363. Japan occupied the island from February 1942 to August 1945 during World War II; the Japanese military perpetrated the Bangka Island massacre against Australian nurses and British and Australian servicemen and civilians. During the Indonesian National Revolution, republican leaders Sukarno and Hatta were exiled in Bangka in the aftermath of Operation Kraai. Bangka became part of independent Indonesia in 1949; the island, together with neighboring Belitung, was part of South Sumatra province, but in 2000 the two islands became the new province of Bangka-Belitung. In the recent years, tin mining has declined notedly, although it is still a major part of the island's economy. Bangka is home to a number of communist Indonesians who have been under house arrest since the 1960s anti-Communist purge and are not permitted to leave the island. Since c. 1710, Bangka has been one of the world's principal tin-producing centers. Tin production is an Indonesian government monopoly, there is a tin smelter at Muntok.
White pepper is produced on the island. The majority of the inhabitants are Malays and Chinese Hakkas; the population is split between those work on the tin mines, palm oil plantations, rubber plantations and those who work on pepper farms. Islands of Indonesia
Banggi Island is located within the Kudat Division of Sabah in Malaysia. With an area of 440.7 square kilometres, it is the largest island in Malaysia followed by Bruit Island, Langkawi Island and Penang Island. It is located off the northern coast of Sabah near Marudu Bay; the highest elevation on the island is a hill 529 metres high. As of 2016, it has an estimated population of 30,000. Banggi's largest settlement is Limbuak. In 2014, a new township was proposed to be built in the island; the island is part of the gazetted area of Tun Mustapha Marine Park. List of islands of Malaysia UN Systemwide Earthwatch