Malaysian general election, 2018

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Malaysian general election, 2018

← 2013 9 May 2018 2023 →

All 222 seats to the Dewan Rakyat
112 seats needed for a majority
Registered 14,940,624
Turnout 12,299,514 (82.32%)[1]
  First party Second party Third party
  Asia Pacific Young Business Conference & Trade 2010 (cropped).jpg Najib Razak 2008-08-21.jpg Hadi Awang (cropped).jpg
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Najib Razak Abdul Hadi Awang
Party Pakatan Harapan
Sabah Heritage Party
Barisan Nasional Gagasan Sejahtera
Leader since 7 January 2018 3 April 2009 23 July 2002
Leader's seat Langkawi Pekan Marang
Last election 68 seats, 37.1%
(Pakatan Rakyat)
133 seats, 47.38% 21 seats, 14.78%
(Pakatan Rakyat)
Seats won 121 79 18
Seat change Increase 53 Decrease 54 Decrease 3
Popular vote 5,781,600 4,080,797 2,051,188
Percentage 47.92% 33.80% 16.99%
Swing Increase 10.82% Decrease 13.58% Increase 2.21%

Malaysia election results map 2018.svg

Prime Minister before election

Najib Razak
Barisan Nasional

Elected Prime Minister

Mahathir Mohammad
Pakatan Harapan

Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia
Malaysian general election symbol

The 14th Malaysian general election (GE14 or PRU14, acronym in Malay: Pilihan Raya Umum ke-14) was held on 9 May 2018 to elect members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia.[2] At stake are all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of 13 state legislative assemblies, the 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.[3]

The Constitution of Malaysia requires a general election to be held in the fifth calendar year unless it is dissolved earlier by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong due to a motion of no-confidence or at the request of the Prime Minister.

Pakatan Harapan, the main opposition coalition in the Malaysian Parliament, won 113 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, Malaysia's lower house of parliament. The Sabah Heritage Party, which won another 8 seats, informally aligned itself with Pakatan Harapan, giving the opposition alliance a total of 121 seats in the new Parliament, enough to form a government.[4][5]

This marked a historic defeat for the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, which had been the governing party of Malaysia and its predecessor state, Malaya, since the country's independence in 1957. This makes Mahathir Mohamad the next Prime Minister of Malaysia and, at 92 years old, the oldest head of government in the world, although he has indicated he would give way within a few years to jailed opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim after seeking a royal pardon for him.[6]

Timetable[edit]

The key dates are listed below in Malaysia Standard Time (GMT+8):

28 March Prime Minister Najib Razak tabled the Election Commission's redelineation report in the Dewan Rakyat[7]
6 April Najib Razak announced his intention to dissolve the Malaysian Parliament[8]
7 April Formal dissolution of Parliament[9]
10 April Election Commission chairman Hashim Abdullah announced that the general election will take place on 9 May 2018[2]
28 April Nomination process of candidates for the general election begins,and the deadline (10am) for the delivery of candidate nomination papers[10][11]
28 April Official 11-day campaigning period begins[12]
5 May Early voting begins[13]
9 May Polling day
10 May Inauguration of the new Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad at Istana Negara[14]
12 May Prime Minister Mahathir announced the positions of:
  1. Home Minister - Malaysian United Indigenous Party president Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin
  2. Finance Minister - Democratic Action Party secretary-general Lim Guan Eng
  3. Defence Minister - National Trust Party president Mohamad Sabu

Electoral system[edit]

The Dewan Rakyat is made up of 222 members of parliament, elected for a five-year term; these seats are distributed between the thirteen Malaysian states in proportion to the states' voting population. Members are elected from single-member constituencies that each elects one representative to the Dewan Rakyat using the first-past-the-post voting system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament; in this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition. Malaysia does not practice compulsory voting and automatic voter registration, the voting age is above 21[15][16] although the age of majority in the country is 18.[17]

The redistricting of electoral boundaries for the entire country had been presented to and passed by the Dewan Rakyat, and subsequently gazetted on 29 March 2018 after obtaining the royal consent of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ahead of the 14th general election.[18] Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of Malaysia (EC), which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister's Department.

Dissolution of state legislative assemblies[edit]

While any state may dissolve its assembly independently of the Federal Parliament, the traditional practice is for most state assemblies to be dissolved at the same time as Parliament; in accordance with Malaysian law, the parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each state (Dewan Undangan Negeri) would automatically dissolve on the fifth anniversary of the first sitting, and elections must be held within sixty days of the dissolution, unless dissolved prior to that date by their respective Heads of State on the advice of their Heads of Government.

Below are the dates of which the legislative assembly of each state dissolved:

State legislatives
assemblies
First legislative day Expected last legislative day Expected election day
(on or before)
Dissolution day
Kelantan Kelantan 13 June 2013 13 June 2018 13 August 2018 7 April 2018[19]
Terengganu Terengganu 16 June 2013 16 June 2018 16 August 2018 9 April 2018[20]
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan 17 June 2013 17 June 2018 17 August 2018 7 April 2018[21]
Johor Johor 20 June 2013 20 June 2018 20 August 2018 7 April 2018[22]
Selangor Selangor 21 June 2013 21 June 2018 21 August 2018 9 April 2018[23]
Kedah Kedah 23 June 2013 23 June 2018 23 August 2018 7 April 2018[19]
Perlis Perlis 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 7 April 2018[24]
Penang Penang 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 10 April 2018[25]
Perak Perak 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 9 April 2018[26]
Pahang Pahang 1 July 2013 1 July 2018 1 September 2018 7 April 2018[19]
Malacca Melaka 1 July 2013 1 July 2018 1 September 2018 7 April 2018[27]
Sabah Sabah 13 June 2013 13 June 2018 13 September 2018 7 April 2018[28]

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly was not dissolved as the last election was held in 2016 and the term of the state assembly is due to end in 2022.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Altogether 53 parties were eligible to contest in the election and get on the ballot and can therefore elect a representative in the Dewan Rakyat.[29] Furthermore, there are several independent candidates running for a single-member constituency.

The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the Dewan Rakyat is the person who is called on by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the Leader of the Opposition.

The table below lists parties which were represented in the 13th Dewan Rakyat.

Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2013 result Seats in 13th
Dewan Rakyat
Votes (%) Seats
BN Barisan Nasional
National Front
National conservatism Najib Razak 222 47.38%
133 / 222
130 / 222
PH Pakatan Harapan
Alliance of Hope
Reformism / Progressivism Mahathir Mohamad 204 36.1%
67 / 222
72 / 222
GS Gagasan Sejahtera
Ideas of Prosperity
Islamic conservatism Abdul Hadi Awang 158 14.78%
21 / 222
13 / 222
WARISAN Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabah Heritage Party
Sabah Regionalism Mohd. Shafie Apdal 17 New Party
0 / 222
2 / 222
PSM Parti Sosialis Malaysia
Socialist Party of Malaysia
Democratic socialism Mohd. Nasir Hashim 4 0.19%
1 / 222
1 / 222
Independents 24
0 / 222
2 / 222

Last election pendulum[edit]

The previous General Election witnessed 133 governmental seats and 89 non-governmental seats filled the Dewan Rakyat, the government side has 44 safe seats and 34 fairly safe seats, while the other side has 33 safe seats and 18 fairly safe seats.

Extended content
GOVERNMENT SEATS
Marginal
Mas Gading Nogeh Gumbek SPDP 40.6
Keningau Joseph Pairin Kitingan PBS 43.8
Pensiangan Joseph Kurup PBRS 44.3
Kota Marudu Maximus Johnity Ongkili PBS 45.9
Cameron
Highlands
Palanivel K. Govindasamy MIC 46.2
Tenom Raime Unggi UMNO 46.7
Baram Anyi Ngau SPDP 48.9
Ranau Ewon Ebin UPKO 49.2
Bentong Liow Tiong Lai MCA 49.4
Beaufort Azizah Mohd Dun UMNO 49.4
Labis Chua Tee Yong MCA 49.5
Sungai Besar Noriah Kasnon UMNO 49.6
Kuala Selangor Irmohizam Ibrahim UMNO 49.6
Pasir Gudang Normala Abdul Samad UMNO 49.6
Bagan Serai Noor Azmi Ghazali UMNO 49.7
Hulu Selangor Kamalanathan Panchanathan MIC 49.9
Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNO 50.1
Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNO 50.1
Tebrau Khoo Soo Seang MCA 50.1
Kota Belud Abdul Rahman Dahlan UMNO 50.1
Jerai Jamil Khir Baharom UMNO 50.2
Segamat Subramaniam Sathasivam MIC 50.3
Kuala Kangsar Wan Mohammad Khair-il Anuar
Wan Ahmad
UMNO 50.4
Arau Shahidan Kassim UMNO 50.6
Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNO 50.6
Titiwangsa Johari Abdul Ghani UMNO 50.6
Ledang Hamim Samuri UMNO 50.7
Tasek Gelugor Shabudin Yahaya UMNO 50.8
Setiawangsa Ahmad Fauzi Zahari UMNO 50.8
Tuaran Madius Tangau UPKO 50.8
Kulim-
Bandar Baharu
Abd. Aziz Sheikh Fadzir UMNO 51.0
Muar Razali Ibrahim UMNO 51.0
Pulai Nur Jazlan Mohamed UMNO 51.0
Balik Pulau Hilmi Yahaya UMNO 51.1
Pendang Othman Abdul UMNO 51.5
Merbok Ismail Daut UMNO 51.9
Bagan Datok Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO 52.1
Sabak Bernam Mohd Fasiah Mohd Fakeh UMNO 52.1
Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO 52.5
Sik Mansor Abd Rahman UMNO 52.6
Sepanggar Jumat Idris UMNO 52.6
Saratok William Ikom SPDP 52.6
Jerlun Othman Aziz UMNO 52.8
Tanjong Malim Ong Ka Chuan MCA 53.0
Tanah Merah Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz UMNO 53.1
Sekijang Anuar Abdul Manap UMNO 53.2
Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNO 53.7
Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO 53.8
Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNO 53.8
Tawau Mary Yap Kain Ching PBS 53.8
Kangar Shaharuddin Ismail UMNO 53.9
Sri Aman Masir Kujat PRS 54.4
Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO 54.5
Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNO 54.6
Lubok Antu William Nyallau Badak PRS 54.7
Tanjong Piai Wee Jeck Seng MCA 55.0
Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNO 55.1
Tambun Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah UMNO 55.3
Larut Hamzah Zainudin UMNO 55.6
Johor Bahru Shahrir Abdul Samad UMNO 55.8
Fairly safe
Batu Sapi Linda Tsen Thau Lin PBS 56.0
Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO 56.1
Setiu Che Mohamad Zulkifly Jusoh UMNO 56.1
Tapah Saravanan Murugan MIC 56.1
Sri Gading Aziz Kaprawi UMNO 56.4
Jeli Mustapa Mohamed UMNO 56.5
Hulu Terengganu Jailani Johari UMNO 56.5
Kemaman Ahmad Shabery Cheek UMNO 56.9
Parit Mohd Zaim Abu Hassan UMNO 56.9
Jempol Mohd Isa Abdul Samad UMNO 56.9
Simpang
Renggam
Liang Teck Meng GERAKAN 57.0
Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNO 57.4
Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNO 57.5
Bintulu Tiong King Sing SPDP 57.6
Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNO 58.1
Selangau Joseph Entulu Belaun PRS 58.1
Silam Nasrun Mansur UMNO 58.2
Julau Joseph Salang Gandum PRS 58.3
Kubang Pasu Mohd Johari Baharum UMNO 58.4
Paya Besar Abdul Manan Ismail UMNO 58.4
Jelebu Zainuddin Ismail UMNO 58.4
Ayer Hitam Wee Ka Siong MCA 58.4
Kanowit Aaron Ago Dagang PRS 58.5
Putatan Marcus Mojigoh UPKO 58.7
Maran Ismail Muttalib UMNO 59.1
Alor Gajah Koh Nai Kwong MCA 59.2
Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO 59.5
Kimanis Anifah Aman UMNO 59.5
Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNO 59.6
Safe
Kudat Abdul Rahim Bakri UMNO 60.2
Tampin Shaziman Abu Mansor UMNO 60.4
Gerik Hasbullah Osman UMNO 60.6
Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNO 60.9
Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO 61.0
Kuala Pilah Hasan Malek UMNO 61.0
Libaran Juslie Ajirol UMNO 61.2
Tangga Batu Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah UMNO 61.4
Hulu Rajang Ugak Kumbong PRS 61.8
Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin UMNO 62.1
Mambong James Dawos Mamit PBB 62.8
Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNO 63.7
Sibuti Ahmad Lai Bujang UMNO 63.8
Papar Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin UMNO 63.9
Kalabakan Abdul Ghapur Salleh UMNO 64.0
Pagoh Muhyiddin Yassin UMNO 64.8
Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO 65.0
Rompin Jamaluddin Jarjis UMNO 65.5
Labuan Rozman Isli UMNO 65.6
Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNO 67.0
Langkawi Nawawi Ahmad UMNO 67.2
Sipitang Sapawi Ahmad UMNO 67.3
Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO 69.0
Masjid Tanah Mas Ermieyati Samsudin UMNO 69.7
Beluran Ronald Kiandee UMNO 69.7
Mersing Abdul Latiff Ahmad UMNO 70.2
Lawas Henry Sum Agong PBB 70.6
Limbang Hasbi Habibollah PBB 72.8
Serian Richard Riot Jaem SUPP 73.5
Tenggara Halimah Mohamed Sadique UMNO 73.7
Pekan Najib Razak UMNO 75.2
Batang Lupar Rohani Abdul Karim PBB 75.4
Mukah Leo Michael Toyad PBB 75.5
Betong Douglas Uggah Embas PBB 75.9
Kota Samarahan Rubiah Wang PBB 76.8
Kapit Alexander Nanta Linggi PBB 77.1
Petra Jaya Fadillah Yusof PBB 77.8
Semporna Mohd Shafie Apdal UMNO 81.1
Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNO 81.9
Kota Tinggi Noor Ehsanuddin
Mohd Harun Narrashid
UMNO 82.4
Santubong Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar PBB 84.4
Batang Sadong Nancy Shukri PBB 85.5
Igan Wahab Dolah PBB 85.8
Tanjong Manis Norah Abdul Rahman PBB 87.4
NON-GOVERNMENT SEATS
Marginal
Alor Setar Gooi Hsiao-Leung PKR 47.4
Sepang Mohamed Hanipa Maidin PAS 49.1
Bachok Ahmad Marzuk Shaary PAS 49.5
Kuala Nerus Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali PAS 49.9
Telok Kemang Kamarul Bahrin Abbas PKR 49.9
Temerloh Nasrudin Hassan PAS 50.1
Batu Pahat Mohd Idris Jusi PKR 50.1
Bukit Gantang Idris Ahmad PAS 50.2
Sarikei Wong Ling Biu DAP 50.4
Pasir Puteh Nik Mazian Nik Mohamad PAS 50.8
Lembah Pantai Nurul Izzah Anwar PKR 51.0
Sandakan Wong Tien Fatt DAP 51.0
Miri Michael Teo Yu Keng PKR 51.0
Kuala Krai Mohd Hatta Ramli PAS 51.2
Gombak Mohamed Azmin Ali PKR 51.4
Dungun Wan Hassan Mohd Ramli PAS 51.9
Sungai Siput Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj PKR 51.9
Raub Ariff Sabri Abdul Aziz DAP 52.1
Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP 52.1
Pokok Sena Mahfuz Omar PAS 52.2
Kuala Langat Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid PKR 52.2
Seremban Loke Siew Fook DAP 52.2
Kuala Kedah Azman Ismail PKR 52.3
Marang Abdul Hadi Awang PAS 52.6
Bukit Katil Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin PKR 52.6
Padang Serai Surendran Nagarajan PKR 53.0
Bakri Er Teck Hwa DAP 53.4
Kluang Liew Chin Tong DAP 54.0
Kuantan Fuziah Salleh PKR 54.1
Wangsa Maju Tan Kee Kwong PKR 54.4
Sungai Petani Johari Abdul PKR 54.7
Kampar Ko Chung Sen DAP 54.7
Lumut Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid PKR 54.8
Kapar Manivannan Gowindasamy PKR 55.1
Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP 55.5
Shah Alam Khalid Samad PAS 55.7
Tumpat Kamarudin Jaffar PAS 55.8
Pasir Mas Nik Mohamad Abduh Nik Abdul Aziz PAS 55.8
Fairly safe
Kuala Terengganu Raja Kamarul Bahrin Shah PAS 56.0
Indera Mahkota Fauzi Abdul Rahman PKR 56.1
Telok Intan Seah Leong Peng DAP 56.3
Bandar Tun Razak Abdul Khalid Ibrahim PKR 56.4
Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR 56.7
Rantau Panjang Siti Zailah Mohd Yusoff PAS 56.9
Nibong Tebal Mansor Othman PKR 57.1
Hulu Langat Che Rosli Che Mat PAS 57.1
Gelang Patah Lim Kit Siang DAP 57.2
Batu Chua Tian Chang PKR 57.9
Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP 57.9
Taiping Nga Kor Ming DAP 58.5
Gopeng Lee Boon Chye PKR 58.5
Permatang Pauh Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR 58.6
Ampang Zuraida Kamarudin PKR 58.8
Subang Sivarasa K. Rasiah PKR 58.8
Parit Buntar Mujahid Yusof Rawa PAS 58.9
Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP 59.3
Safe
Kota Bharu Takiyuddin Hassan PAS 61.5
Penampang Ignatius Dorell Leiking PKR 61.8
Kota Melaka Sim Tong Him DAP 62.3
Petaling Jaya
Selatan
Hee Loy Sian PKR 63.0
Pengkalan Chepa Izani Husin PAS 63.2
Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR 63.4
Stampin Julian Tan Kok Ping DAP 63.7
Klang Charles Anthony R. Santiago DAP 63.9
Kota Raja Siti Mariah Mahmud PAS 63.9
Segambut Lim Lip Eng DAP 64.6
Kubang Kerian Ahmad Baihaki Atiqullah PAS 64.7
Rasah Teo Kok Seong DAP 65.1
Kelana Jaya Wong Chen PKR 65.8
Pandan Rafizi Ramli PKR 65.9
Puchong Gobind Singh Deo DAP 66.7
Serdang Ong Kian Ming DAP 67.1
Jelutong Jeff Ooi Chuan Aun DAP 70.3
Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP 72.2
Kota Kinabalu Wong Sze Phin DAP 72.2
Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP 72.8
Batu Kawan Kasthuriraani Patto DAP 73.1
Bandar Kuching Chong Chieng Jen DAP 73.8
Ipoh Timor Su Keong Siong DAP 75.5
Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP 76.7
Bukit Bendera Zairil Khir Johari DAP 77.2
Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP 77.8
Bukit Gelugor Karpal Singh Ram Singh DAP 80.1
Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Kiong DAP 80.5
Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP 81.2
Petaling Jaya
Utara
Tony Pua Kiam Wee DAP 81.3
Kepong Tan Seng Giaw DAP 81.8
Tanjong Ng Wei Aik DAP 82.8
Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP 85.7

Endorsements[edit]

Newspapers, organisations and individuals have endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election.

Politicians not standing[edit]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election[edit]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election
MP Seat First elected Party Ref
Ismail, ShaharuddinShaharuddin Ismail Kangar 2013 Barisan Nasional [30]

Election spending[edit]

Spending by candidates[edit]

Before the campaign, there were no limits to what a political party, candidate, or third party (corporations, unions, special interest groups, etc.) can spend: spending rules are only in force after the writs have been dropped and the campaign has begun. Malaysian election law set election spending limit at RM200,000 for each parliamentary candidate and half of the latter for each state legislature candidate.[31]

Spending by Election Commission[edit]

Election Commission chairman Mohd. Hashim Abdullah announced that it is spending RM500 million for this General Election,[2] RM100 million more than the previous one.

Part of the spendings were spend on indelible ink which cost about RM4.8 million for a total of 100,000 bottles of 60mL ink imported from Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited in India.[32]

Election observers[edit]

The Election Commission (EC) has invited 14 countries to participate in the polls as foreign observers, comprising representatives of election management bodies from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Commonwealth of Nations, Asian and European countries as well as a study and support centre for the Malaysian Commonwealth Studies Centre based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Seven countries agreed to send representatives to observe the elections, namely Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Thailand and Timor-Leste.[33] The invitation was also extended to India, Pakistan and Uzbekistan of which nine countries observers arrived on 7 May.[34] The EC also appointed 1,236 election observers from 14 local non-governmental organisations.[35]

Results[edit]

All 222 parliamentary seats (and 505 seats of 12 state legislative assemblies) were contested in this General Election. Results were announced by returning officers after 5 pm, 9 May.

Parliament[edit]

121 79 18 1 3
PH + WARISAN BN GS U I
e • d Summary of the 9 May 2018 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pakatan Harapan[a] PH 5,615,822[36] 45.56 113 52.25 Increase 45
People's Justice Party PKR 2,096,776 17.10 47 22.52 Increase 17
Democratic Action Party[b] DAP 2,098,068 17.38 42 18.92 Increase 4
Malaysian United Indigenous Party PPBM 696,087 5.77 13 5.86 Increase 13
National Trust Party[c] AMANAH 648,274 5.37 11 4.95 Increase 11
Barisan Nasional[d] BN 4,080,797 33.80 79 35.59 Decrease 54
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 2,548,251 21.10 54 24.32 Decrease 34
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 220,479 1.83 13 5.86 Decrease 1
Sarawak People's Party PRS 59,218 0.49 3 1.35 Decrease 3
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 167,061 1.39 2 1.35 Decrease 2
Progressive Democratic Party PDP 59,853 0.50 2 0.90 Decrease 2
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 639,165 5.30 1 0.45 Decrease 6
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 122,540 1.01 1 0.45 Steady
United Sabah Party PBS 49,994 0.41 1 0.45 Decrease 3
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation UPKO 57,062 0.47 1 0.45 Decrease 2
United Sabah People's Party PBRS 57,062 0.10 1 0.45 Steady
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 128,973 1.07 0 0 Decrease 1
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 8,996 0.07 0 0 Steady
People's Progressive Party myPPP 7,422 0.06 0 0 Steady
Gagasan Sejahtera GS 2,051,188 16.99 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 2,041,580 16.91 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian National Alliance Party[e] IKATAN 9,025 0.07 0 0 Steady
Love Malaysia Party PCM 502 0.00 0 0 Steady
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front Berjasa 81 0.00 0 0 Steady
Sabah Heritage Party (Pakatan Harapan ally) WARISAN 280,520 2.32 8 3.61 Increase 8
United Sabah Alliance USA 66,902 0.55 1 0.45 Increase 1
Homeland Solidarity Party STAR 21,361 0.18 1 0.45 Increase 1
Sabah People's Hope Party PHRS 37,708 0.31 0 0 Steady
Sabah Progressive Party SAPP 6,090 0.05 0 0 Steady
Sabah People's Unity Party PPRS 1,743 0.01 0 0 Steady
Love Sabah Party PCS 8,603 0.07 0 0 Steady
Socialist Party of Malaysia PSM 3,782 0.03 0 0 Decrease 1
Malaysian People's Party PRM 2,372 0.02 0 0 Steady
Malaysian United Party MUP 2,102 0.02 0 0 Steady
State Reform Party STAR 1,299 0.01 0 0 Steady
Sabah Native Co-operation Party Anak Negeri 1,173 0.00 0 0 Steady
People’s Alliance For Justice of Peace PEACE 1,005 0.00 0 0 Steady
Penang Front Party PFP 892 0.00 0 0 Steady
New Sarawak Native People's Party PBDSB 538 0.00 0 0 Steady
Parti Bumi Kenyalang PBK 392 0.00 0 0 Steady
People's Alternative Party PAP 302 0.00 0 0 Steady
Independents IND 70,770 0.59 3 1.35 Increase 3
Valid votes 12,082,431[36]
Invalid/blank votes 217,083[36]
Total votes (voter turnout: 82.32%) 12,299,514 100.00 222 100.00 TBA
Did not vote 2,641,110
Registered voters[f] 14,940,624
Ordinary voters[f] 14,636,716
Early voters[f] 300,255
Postal voters[f] 3,653
Voting age population[g] (aged 21 years and above) 18,359,670
Malaysian population[h] 32,258,900

Source: Election Commission of Malaysia (SPR)[37]

  1. ^ Contested using People's Justice Party election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ Contested using rocket election symbol on the ballot papers in East Malaysia.
  3. ^ Contested using white mountain election symbol on the ballot papers in Batu Sapi, Sabah.
  4. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  5. ^ Contested using green moon election symbol on the ballot papers in the election.
  6. ^ a b c d Abdullah, Mohd. Hashim (10 April 2018). Urusan Pilihan Raya Umum ke-14 (in Malay). SPR Media Statement. Retrieved on 8 May 2018.
  7. ^ The estimates are correct as at February 2018. See Zulkipli, Nur Lela (12 February 2018). 3.6 juta orang muda belum daftar pengundi (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.
  8. ^ Malaysia (6 February 2018). Perangkaan Demografi Suku Tahun Keempat (ST4) 2017, Malaysia (in Malay). Department of Statistics Malaysia Media Statement. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.


Summary of the 2018 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results[38]

** Fraction of total popular votes in each state rounded to the nearest percent

* Fraction of total seats in each state rounded to the nearest percent

± Change in number of seats from before the election
State /
federal territory
Barisan Nasional Pakatan Harapan + Warisan Gagasan Sejahtera Other / Independent
Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ±
Johor 581,662 38.6 8 31 -1813 819,518 54.4 18 69 2013 105,375 6.99 0 0 0 818 0.05 0 0 0
Kedah 282,273 30.0 2 13 -178 362,256 38.5 10 67 96 295,413 31.4 3 20 82 360 0.04 0 0 0
Kelantan 320,384 39.1 5 36 0 101,136 12.3 0 0 0 393,450 48.0 9 64 0 5373 0.65 0 0 0
Malacca 157,339 38.1 2 33 -82 218,415 52.9 4 67 122 35,733 8.65 0 0 0 1415 0.34 0 0 0
Negeri Sembilan 179,518 36.1 3 38 -52 267,951 53.9 5 63 62 49,478 9.95 0 0 0 302 0.06 0 0 0
Pahang 285,912 43.2 9 64 -41 204,965 30.9 5 36 62 170,605 25.8 0 0 -21 976 0.15 0 0 0
Penang 177,631 22.5 2 15 -81 543,298 68.8 11 85 81 65,005 8.24 0 0 0 3191 0.40 0 0 0
Perak 395,355 33.2 11 46 Decrease1 597,901 50.3 13 54 55 193,551 16.3 0 0 -14 2460 0.21 0 0 0
Perlis 46,885 38.8 2 67 Decrease1 46,194 38.2 1 33 Increase1 27,701 22.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sabah 335,587 39.8 10 40 -1612 416,455 51.2 14 56 511 13,295 1.58 0 0 0 75,611 0.09 1 3.34 11
Selangor 427,443 20.8 2 9 -73 1,312,053 63.8 20 91 57 312,898 15.2 0 0 -124 3527 0.17 0 0 0
Terengganu 252,461 40.7 2 25 -72 59,834 9.64 0 0 -11 308,252 49.7 6 75 53 0 0 0 0 0
SarawakSarawak 462,090 52.5 19 61 -76 381,863 43.4 10 32 54 10,591 1.20 0 0 0 3234 0.37 2 0 52
Kuala Lumpur WP Kuala Lumpur 153,945 22.1 0 0 -72 486,974 69.9 10 100 62 54,569 7.83 0 0 0 1019 0.15 0 0 0
Labuan WP Labuan 10,164 47.6 1 100 0 8,714 40.8 0 0 0 1,555 7.28 0 0 0 925 4.33 0 0 0
Putrajaya WP Putrajaya 12,148 49.5 1 100 0 8,776 35.7 0 0 0 3,634 14.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4,080,797 35.6 79 32.9 -754 5,615,822 45.56 122 54.9 655 2,051,188 16.99 18 8.11 -124 99,211 0.82 3 1.35 53

Seats

  Pakatan Harapan (55.86%)
  Barisan Nasional (35.59%)
  Gagasan Sejahtera (8.10%)
  Other / Independent (0.44%)
Vote share
Pakatan Harapan + WARISAN
47.92%
Barisan Nasional
33.80%
Gagasan Sejahtera
16.99%
Others
1.29%
Parliamentary seats
Pakatan Harapan + WARISAN
55.86%
Barisan Nasional
35.59%
Gagasan Sejahtera
8.10%
United Sabah Alliance
0.45%

State assemblies[edit]

Summary of the 2018 Malaysian Dewan Undangan Negeri election results[39]

** Fraction of total popular votes in each state rounded to the nearest percent
* Fraction of total seats in each state rounded to the nearest percent

± Change in number of seats from before the election
State /
federal territory
Barisan Nasional Pakatan Harapan Gagasan Sejahtera Other / Independent
Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ±
Johor 582,265 38.8 19 33.9 -1818 803,148 53.6 36 64.3 2020 113,216 7.6 1 1.8 -22 721 0 0 0 0
Kedah 278,694 29.6 3 8.3 -1717 343,519 36.5 18 50 99 313,171 33.7 15 41.7 88 930 0.1 0 0 0
Kelantan 308,639 37.6 8 17.8 -34 82,243 10.0 0 0 -22 426,602 52.0 37 82.2 66 3,064 0.4 0 0 0
Malacca 156,318 37.8 13 46.4 -88 211,153 51.1 15 53.6 129 44,537 10.8 0 0 -11 1,148 0.3 0 0 0
Negeri Sembilan 182,294 38.0 16 44.4 -56 258,737 53.9 20 55.6 66 35,913 7.5 0 0 0 3,059 0.6 0 0 0
Pahang 275,766 41.8 25 59.5 -45 190,711 28.9 9 21.4 -11 192,176 29.1 8 19.0 66 1,510 0.2 0 0 0
Penang 176,723 22.4 2 5.0 -88 530,008 67.2 37 92.5 88 77,171 9.8 1 2.5 0 4,785 0.6 0 0 0
Perak 395,708 33.3 27 45.0 -44 595,219 50.1 29 48.3 55 194,735 16.4 3 5.1 -11 2,979 0.3 0 0 0
Perlis 47,151 39.0 10 66.7 -33 42,220 34.9 3 20.0 22 31,335 25.9 2 13.3 11 132 0.1 0 0 0
Sabah 355,091 42.0 29 48.3 -1619 398,340 47.2 29 48.3 518 11,241 1.3 0 0.0 0 79.945 9.5 2 3.3 11
Selangor 450,742 21.9 4 7.1 -78 1,303,102 63.4 51 91.1 2220 296,250 14.4 1 1.8 -1212 6,324 0.3 0 0 0
Terengganu 261,653 42.2 10 31.3 -77 45,429 7.3 0 0 -11 313,503 50.5 22 67.8 88 0 0 0 0 0
Total 3,471,044 27.4 168 32.9 -7107 7,132,462 56.3 247 48.9 2293 2,049,850 16.2 90 17.8 813 24,732 0.2 2 0.4 81

Seats which changed allegiance[edit]

Aftermath[edit]

Pakatan's victory triggered nation-wide celebrations, marking the end of a 61-year rule by Barisan Nasional (and preceding Alliance Party).[40] 4th Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad was sworn in as the 7th prime minister on the night of 10th May, which also sparked wide celebrations across the country.[41]

Defections and government formation[edit]

A day after the election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) announced that they have left the Barisan Nasional coalition, and will join Warisan in forming the state government in Sabah.[42] However, the five elected assemblymen of the party stated that they refused to leave the coalition, and will maintain allegiance to Barisan,[43] as such, Barisan Nasional, along with the support of the Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR), temporarily formed the next Sabah state government, with Musa Aman chosen as the Chief Minister.[44]

However, the formation of the Sabah state government didn't last long, on the following day, six Sabah BN assemblymen, four from UMNO and two from UPKO, announced that they had defected to Warisan.[45] This resulted in Barisan not having enough seats to form the state government, thus giving Warisan, along with Pakatan Harapan, the needed mandate to form the new Sabah state government.[46] Warisan president, Shafie Apdal, was later sworn in as the new Sabah Chief Minister the day after,[47] on the same day, a second Sabah-based Barisan component party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), announced that they will also leave the coalition due to poor performance in the election, not winning a single seat they contested in.[48]

The following day afterwards, two Sabah-based Barisan component party, the United Sabah People's Party (PBRS) and the United Sabah Party (PBS), announced that they will also leave Barisan. PBRS stated that they will apply for membership in the ruling party coalition, Pakatan Harapan,[49] while PBS stated that they will form a new Sabah-based coalition, compromising of all Sabah BN parties.[50]

On the same day, 3 Johor BN assemblymen announced that they have defected to PPBM, giving Pakatan a two-thirds majority in the Johor State Legislative Assembly,[51] while 2 Perak BN assemblymen announced that they will support Pakatan in forming the new Perak state government, while maintaining their allegiance with Barisan, giving Pakatan the needed mandate to form the state government in Perak, ending the hung parliament status-quo.[52] This resulted in both assemblymen having their UMNO membership dropped, thus becoming independents.[53] Perak Pakatan chairman, Ahmad Faizal Azumu, was later sworn in as the new Perak Menteri Besar.[54] Subsequently, two independent MPs, Jugah Muyang, who won in Lubok Antu, and Larry Sng Wei Shien, who won in Julau, announced that they have joined PKR.[55] Jugah Muyang won in a three-cornered fight against both Barisan and PKR, while the latter was endorsed by Pakatan against the BN candidate.[56]

On 13 May, a third independent MP, Prabakaran Parameswaran, who won in the constituency of Batu, announced that he would also join PKR, increasing Pakatan's total tally in the Dewan Rakyat to 124,[57] he was endorsed by PKR during the election after PKR's original candidate, Tian Chua, was disqualified from contesting due to a RM2,000 fine.[58]

On 14 May, a Perak BN assemblyman, Zainol Fadzi Paharudin, who had his UMNO membership dropped for supporting Pakatan in forming the state government, announced that he has joined PPBM,[59] giving Pakatan 30 seats in the Perak State Legislative Assembly, enough for a simple majority.

Party leadership changes[edit]

After facing a defeat in the election, losing nearly a third of its seat in the Dewan Rakyat, former Prime Minister Najib Razak announced his resignation as president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional on 12 May.[60] Party deputy president Ahmad Zahid Hamidi took over the role as president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional, while vice-president Hishammuddin Hussein took over the duties of deputy president and deputy chairman of Barisan.[61]

Controversies[edit]

There had been many controversies before the general election began, mostly regarding gerrymandering and electoral boundary re-delineations in favour of the ruling party, the body regulating elections in Malaysia, the Electoral Commission (which is under the control of the Prime Minister's Department) has been criticised by Bersih, Human Rights Commission of Malaysia and other organisations for electoral malpractices, arbitrary decisions and a lack of transparency.[62][63][64]

Gerrymandering[edit]

Opposition parties, non-governmental organisations and even politicians from the ruling party have accused the government of gerrymandering, manipulating the composition of electoral seats in favour of Barisan Nasional,[65] the opposition claims that the manipulation primarily involves merging opposition-dominated areas into large, single seats and dividing BN-favouring areas among several, smaller seats so as to favour rural voters who are more inclined to support the ruling party.[66] An analyst with electoral reform group Tindak Malaysia estimates that this latest redelineation process would allow Barisan Nasional to regain control with just 33% of the vote.[67]

The Electoral Integrity Project (EIP), an independent academic project based at Harvard University and the University of Sydney that studies election integrity and assigns PEI scores (Global Perceptions of Electoral Integrity) to countries across the world, had in its most recent research paper published in November 2017, determined and ranked Malaysia's election integrity at 142nd out of 158 countries, just above Zimbabwe (143th), Vietnam (147th) and Afghanistan (150th).[68]

Polling Day on midweek[edit]

Some of Malaysians protested the EC's decision to set Polling Day on midweek (Wednesday, 9 May) rather than to set it on weekend (i.e. Saturday) as it had been in the previous General Elections, some of them, including Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad,[69] PAS deputy president Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man[70] and Bersih chairperson Maria Chin,[71] viewed such decision to be unfair, undemocratic, and an attempt to discourage people overseas or interstate from returning to their hometowns to vote.[72]

Overseas ballot issues[edit]

Since the 2013 elections, overseas voting has been open to the majority of Malaysian registered voters living abroad[73]. However, registered overseas Malaysian voters were reported to have received their ballots late, some even on election day, despite the election commission requiring their ballots to be returned before the close of polling stations to be counted as valid,[74] as a result, many of these overseas voters organised on social media to bring theirs and other ballots back through casual couriers.[75][76]

Nomination Day controversies[edit]

Controversies have erupted after six candidates for the opposition coalition, Pakatan Harapan, were disqualified from running under suspicious circumstances on Nomination Day (Saturday 28 April 2018),[77] the most prominent disqualification was that of PKR vice-president Chua Tian Chang, who the local returning officer prevented from defending his Batu parliamentary seat due to an earlier court conviction, despite a High Court judgement which made clear he was eligible to continue as an MP. A subsequent High Court appeal was thrown out, under the claim that they did not have jurisdiction over election-related matters.[78] Chua and his party are consequently endorsing independent candidate, 22-year-old P. Prabakaran, for the seat.[79]

Meanwhile, in Rantau, Negeri Sembilan, the state's Chief Minister Mohamad Hasan was re-elected unopposed after opposition candidate Dr. Streram Sinnasamy was prevented from entering the nomination centre, ostensibly as he did not have an entry pass, despite his claim that he was never issued one and despite the fact that there are no laws requiring candidates to have entry passes.[80] Four other opposition candidates were barred for being undischarged bankrupts, despite claims that earlier checks with the authorities had confirmed their ability to participate.[77]

Lawyers and other political analysts have criticised these returning officers for a "gross abuse of power" that went beyond their primary role (to assist with filing nomination papers) and deprived several candidates of the chance to exercise their democratic right, they claim that incidents like this contribute to the perception that Malaysian elections are inherently unfair and weaken the rule of law.[81] Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad has confirmed that he will appeal these decisions to the courts, alleging an "abuse of power" by "officers who are willing to do illegal things on orders".[82]

Alleged vote-buying[edit]

The ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, has faced criticism for alleged vote-buying, the Nikkei Asian Review has noted that measures like cash bonuses being handed out to civil servants and pensioners, key components of its support base, occurred just before the dissolution of the lower house of Parliament,[83] with other measures announced during the campaign trail including "special aid" of RM500 (US$127) and reserved social housing units for employees of government-linked company DRB-HICOM[84] as well as minimum wage increases.[85]

Within constituencies, Barisan Nasional MPs have come under significant criticism from electoral watchdog Bersih, with seven out of ten individuals named in their "Election Offenses Hall of Shame" being from Barisan Nasional component parties. Musa Aman, Noh Omar, Hamzah Zainudin and Shahanim Mohd Yusuf (BN-UMNO) as well as P. Kamalanathan and Jaspal Singh (BN-MIC) were publicly reprimanded for handing out free food, petrol, furniture, groceries and motorcycles in their respective constituencies, in what was widely seen as an attempt to sway the vote in favour of them.[86]

Controversy has also erupted over Barisan Nasional's battle for the Sekinchan constituency, considered a marginal seat held by opposition party DAP, where an election event organised by Datuk Seri Jamal Yunos (the UMNO chief for Sungai Besar) in support of local candidate Lee Yee Yuan (BN-MCA) included an all-you-can-eat buffet, chances to win a motorcycle and a RM25,000 (US$6,345) cash prize, as well as a promise of a RM2,000 (US$508) payment for every voter if they are elected.[87] All payments, along with a claimed RM150,000 in donations and a Mercedes-Benz C200 to be offered at the next event, were claimed to have been donated by "successful businessmen" in the small fishing village (population: 20,000) who wanted to show their "gratitude" to BN.[88] While Yunos denies any wrongdoing, claiming that he is not a candidate but is "only conveying contributions from certain individuals," the Sekinchan DAP branch has lodged a police report against him for alleged vote-buying.[89]

Yunos has also faced controversy for being caught on video handing out RM50 (US$13) notes from a bag at a function in the Sungai Leman Bendang Utara village, which is also part of Sekinchan, he has claimed that those being paid were "party workers" responsible for "putting up flags, buntings and other materials," a claim that media were unable to independently verify. Media outlet Malaysiakini noted that most of those being paid were not dressed in Barisan Nasional colours, and that significant numbers of senior citizens and children were present at the event.[90]

The main opposition alliance, Pakatan Harapan, has also not been immune to allegations of vote-buying. Pakatan Harapan's manifesto, particularly, lists as a key promise the abolition of Malaysia's 6% GST and increasing minimum wages, which journalists and financial analysts claim amounts to pork-barrel populism that could negatively affect Malaysian government finances.[83][91] Bersih also included Afif Bahardin (PH-PKR) on their Election Offenses Hall of Shame for utilising Penang state government programmes to give handouts such as hampers to voters in his constituency of Seberang Jaya.[92]

Additionally, Ahmad Yakob (GS-PAS) the Chief Minister of Kelantan, was singled out for criticism after "repeatedly using Kelantan state government" resources to benefit the campaign of his party, PAS (competing as the main component of the Gagasan Sejahtera coalition), including by handing out cash to religious leaders in a state government hall covered in PAS flags.[86]

See also[edit]

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  92. ^ "EC chief, PKR Youth leader inducted into Bersih's 'Hall of Shame'". Malaysiakini. 29 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 

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