The Penitent Thief known as the Good Thief or the Thief on the Cross, is one of two unnamed persons mentioned in a version of the Crucifixion of Jesus in the New Testament. The Gospel of Luke describes one asking Jesus to "remember him" when Jesus will have "come into" his kingdom; the other, as the impenitent thief, challenges Jesus to save himself to prove that he is the Messiah. He is venerated in the Catholic Church; the Roman Martyrology places his commemoration on 25 March, together with the Feast of the Annunciation, because of the ancient Christian tradition that Christ were crucified and died on the anniversary of Christ's Incarnation. He is given the name Dismas in the Gospel of Nicodemus and is traditionally known in Catholicism as "Saint Dismas" . Other traditions have bestowed other names: In Coptic Orthodox tradition and the Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea, he is named Demas. In the Codex Colbertinus, he is named Zoatham. In Russian Orthodox tradition, he is named Rakh. Two men were crucified at the same time as Jesus, one on his right hand and one on his left, which the Gospel of Mark interprets as fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah 53:12.
According to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark both of the thieves mocked Jesus. Save yourself and us." 40 The other, rebuking him, said in reply, "Have you no fear of God, for you are subject to the same condemnation? 41 And indeed, we have been condemned justly, for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes, but this man has done nothing criminal." 42 Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." 43 He replied to him, "Amen I say to you today you will be with me in Paradise." 23:39–43 The phrase translated "Amen I say to you today you will be in paradise" in Luke 23:43 is disputed in a minority of versions and commentaries. The Greek manuscripts are without punctuation, so attribution of the adverb "today" to the verb "be", as "Amen I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise", or the verb "say", as "Amen I say to you today, you will be with me in paradise", is dependent on analysis of word order conventions in Koine Greek; the majority of ancient Bible translations follow the majority view, with only the Aramaic language Curetonian Gospels offering significant testimony to the minority view.
As a result, some prayers recognize the good thief as the only person confirmed as a saint—that is, a person known to be in Paradise after death—by the Bible, indeed by Jesus himself. Thomas Aquinas wrote: The words of The Lord must therefore be understood not of an earthly or corporeal paradise, but of that spiritual paradise in which all may be, said to be, who are in the enjoyment of the divine glory. Hence to place, the thief went up with Christ to heaven, that he might be with Christ, as it was said to him: "Thou shalt be with Me in Paradise". Only the Gospel of Luke describes one of the thieves as penitent, that gospel does not name him. Augustine of Hippo does not name the thief, but wonders if he might not have been baptized at some point. According to tradition, the Good Thief was crucified to Jesus' right hand and the other thief was crucified to his left. For this reason, depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus show Jesus' head inclined to his right, showing his acceptance of the Good Thief.
In the Russian Orthodox Church, both crucifixes and crosses are made with three bars: the top one, representing the titulus. The footrest is slanted, pointing up towards the Good Thief, pointing down towards the other. According to John Chrysostom, the thief dwelt in the desert and robbed or murdered anyone unlucky enough to cross his path. According to Pope Gregory I, he "was guilty of blood his brother's blood; the thief's conversion is sometimes given as an example of the necessary steps one must take to arrive at salvation through Christ: awareness of personal sin, repentance of sin, acceptance of Christ and salvation's promise of eternal life. Further, the argument is presented that baptism is not necessary for salvation since the thief had no opportunity for it. However, in some church traditions he is regarded as having a "baptism of blood". Luke's unnamed penitent thief was assigned the name Dismas in the Gospel of Nicodemus, portions of which may be dated to the 4th century; the name "Dismas" was adapted from a Greek word meaning "sunset" or "death".
The other thief's name is given as Gestas. In Syriac Infancy Gospel's Life of the Good Thief, Augustine of Hippo said. Anne Catherine Emmerich saw the Holy Family "exhausted and helpless". Pope Theophilus of Alexandria wrote a Homily on the Crucifixion and the Good Thief, a classic of Coptic literature. In Coptic Orthodoxy, he is named Demas; this is the name given to
King James Version
The King James Version known as the King James Bible or the Authorized Version, is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed as well as published in 1611 under the sponsorship of James VI and I. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, the 27 books of the New Testament; the translation is noted for its "majesty of style", has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world. It was first printed by Robert Barker, the King's Printer, was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities: The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII, the second had been the Bishops' Bible, commissioned in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. On the European continent, the first generation of Calvinists had produced the Geneva Bible of 1560 from the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version.
In January 1604, King James convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England. James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy; the translation was done by 47 scholars. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer, the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings, as such was authorised by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.
Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most printed book in history all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title "King James Version" indicates this Oxford standard text; the title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern English, was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, AND THE NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: & with the former Tranſlations diligently compared and reuiſed, by his Maiesties ſpeciall Comandement". The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", F. F. Bruce suggests it was "probably authorised by order in council" but no record of the authorisation survives "because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19".
For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. In his Leviathan of 1651, Thomas Hobbes referred to it as the English Translation made in the beginning of the Reign of King James. A 1761 "Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English" refers to the 1611 version as a new and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by its name, despite using the name "Rhemish Testament" for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. A "History of England", whose fifth edition was published in 1775, writes that new translation of the Bible, viz. that now in Use, was begun in 1607, published in 1611. King James's Bible is used as the name for the 1611 translation in Charles Butler's Horae Biblicae. Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a "Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible" published in Massachusetts in 1815, in an English publication from 1818, which explicitly states that the 1611 version is "generally known by the name of King James's Bible".
This name was found as King James' Bible: for example in a book review from 1811. The phrase "King James's Bible" is used as far back as 1715, although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or a description; the use of Authorized Version and used as a name, is found as early as 1814. For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as "our present, only publicly authorised version", "our Authorized version", "the authorized version" are found; the Oxford English Dictionary records a usage in 1824. In Britain, the 1611 translation is known as the "Authorized Version" today; as early as 1814, we find King James' Version, evidently a descriptive phrase, being used. "The King James Version" is found, unequivocally used as a name, in a letter from 1855. The next year King James Bible, with no possessive, appears as a name in a Scottish source. In the United States, the "1611 translation" is generally
Gabriel, in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was subsequently developed by other traditions. In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel. Gabriel the archangel is a character in other ancient Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations. In the Gospel of Luke, there is the story of the Annunciation, where the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively. In many Christian traditions including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Gabriel is referred to as a saint. In Islam, Gabriel is an archangel whom God sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad; the first five verses of the 96th chapter of the Quran, the Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the angel Gabriel is the same individual as the prophet Noah in his mortal ministry.
In Yazidism, Gabriel is one of the Seven Mysteries, the Heptad to which God entrusted the world and sometimes identified with Melek Taus. Jewish rabbis interpreted the "man in linen" as Gabriel in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Ezekiel. In the Book of Daniel, Gabriel is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in literature. In the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel, sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, stands at the left hand of God. Shimon ben Lakish concluded that the angelic names of Michael and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations. In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirah of Yesod. Gabriel has a prominent role as one of God's archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of God's court.
Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God sends Gabriel as his agent. According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls" that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls. Gabriel takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born; the intertestamental period produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were expanded, each had particular duties and status before God. In 1 Enoch 9:1–3, along with Michael and Suriel, "saw much blood being shed upon the earth" and heard the souls of men cry, "Bring our cause before the Most High." In 1 Enoch 10:1, the reply came from "the Most High, the Holy and Great One" who sent forth agents, including Gabriel— And the Lord said to Gabriel: "'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, against the children of fornication: and destroy the children of the Watchers from amongst men: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have."
—1 Enoch 10:9 Gabriel is the fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim." When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me:'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days." First, concerning John the Baptist, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias, a priest of the course of Abia, whose barren wife Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron, while he ministered in the temple: After completing his week of ministry, Zacharias returned to his house and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again: Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke.
In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Abaddon. Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels; the trope of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is familiar in Negro spirituals. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: the angels of the Son of Man.
Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Christian Gospels, the man who assumed responsibility for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. A number of stories that developed during the Middle Ages connect him with Glastonbury, where the stories said he founded the earliest Christian oratory, with the Holy Grail legend. Matthew 27:57 described him as a rich man and disciple of Jesus, but according to Mark 15:43 Joseph of Arimathea was "a respected member of the council, himself looking for the kingdom of God". According to John 19:38, upon hearing of Jesus' death, this secret disciple of Jesus "asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, Pilate gave him permission." Joseph purchased a linen shroud and proceeded to Golgotha to take the body of Jesus down from the cross. There, according to John 19:39-40, Joseph and Nicodemus took the body and bound it in linen cloths with the spices that Nicodemus had bought; the disciples conveyed the prepared corpse to a man-made cave hewn from rock in a garden of his house nearby.
The Gospel of Matthew alone suggests. The burial was undertaken speedily, "for the Sabbath was drawing on". Joseph of Arimathea is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, some Protestant churches; the traditional Roman calendar marked his feast day on March 17, but he is now listed, along with Saint Nicodemus, on August 31 in the Martyrologium Romanum. Eastern Orthodox churches commemorate him on the Third Sunday of Pascha and on July 31, the date shared by Lutheran churches. Although a series of legends developed during the Middle Ages tied this Joseph to Britain as well as the Holy Grail, he is not on the abbreviated liturgical calendar of the Church of England, although this Joseph is on the calendars of some churches of the Anglican communion, such as the Episcopal Church, which commemorates him on August 1. Many Christians interpret Joseph's role as fulfilling Isaiah's prediction that the grave of the "Suffering Servant" would be with a rich man, assuming that Isaiah was referring to the Messiah.
The prophecy in Isaiah chapter 53 is known as the "Man of Sorrows" passage: He was assigned a grave with the wicked, with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth. The Greek Septuagint text: And I will give the wicked for his burial, the rich for his death. Since the 2nd century, a mass of legendary detail has accumulated around the figure of Joseph of Arimathea in addition to the New Testament references. Joseph is referenced in apocryphal and non-canonical accounts such as the Acts of Pilate, a text appended to the medieval Gospel of Nicodemus and The Narrative of Joseph, mentioned in the works of early church historians such as Irenaeus, Hippolytus and Eusebius, who added details not found in the canonical accounts. Francis Gigot, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia, states that "the additional details which are found concerning him in the apocryphal Acta Pilati, are unworthy of credence."Hilary of Poitiers enriched the legend, Saint John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, was the first to write that Joseph was one of the Seventy Apostles appointed in Luke 10.
During the late 12th century, Joseph became connected with the Arthurian cycle, appearing in them as the first keeper of the Holy Grail. This idea first appears in Robert de Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie, in which Joseph receives the Grail from an apparition of Jesus and sends it with his followers to Britain; this theme is elaborated upon in subsequent Arthurian works penned by others. Retellings of the story contend that Joseph of Arimathea himself travelled to Britain and became the first Christian bishop in the Isles, a claim Gigot characterizes as a fable; the Gospel of Nicodemus, a text appended to the Acts of Pilate, provides additional details about Joseph. For instance, after Joseph asked Pilate for the body of the Christ, prepared the body with Nicodemus' help, Christ's body was delivered to a new tomb that Joseph had built for himself. In the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Jewish elders express anger at Joseph for burying the body of Christ, saying: And Joseph stepped out and said to them: Why are you angry against me because I begged the body of Jesus?
Behold, I have put him in my new tomb. And you have acted not well against the just man, because you have not repented of crucifying him, but have pierced him with a spear; the Jewish elders captured Joseph, imprisoned him, placed a seal on the door to his cell after first posting a guard. Joseph warned the elders, "The Son of God whom you hanged upon the cross, is able to deliver me out of your hands. All your wickedness will return upon you." Once the elders returned to the cell, the seal was still in place. The elders discover that Joseph had returned to Arimathea. Having a change in heart, the elders desired to have a more civil conversation with Joseph about his actions and sent a letter of apology to him by means of seven of his friends. Joseph travelled back from Arimathea to Jerusalem to meet with the elders, where they questioned him about his escape, he told them this story. And when m
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
Jacques Joseph Tissot, Anglicized as James Tissot, was a French painter and illustrator. He was a successful painter of Paris society before moving to London in 1871, he became famous as a genre painter of fashionably dressed women shown in various scenes of everyday life. He painted scenes and characters from the Bible. Jacques Tissot was born in the port town of Nantes and spent his early childhood there, his father, Marcel Théodore Tissot, was a successful drapery merchant. His mother, Marie Durand, designed hats. A devout Catholic, Tissot's mother instilled pious devotion in the future artist from a young age. Tissot's youth spent in Nantes contributed to his frequent depiction of shipping vessels and boats in his works; the involvement of his parents in the fashion industry is believed to have been an influence on his painting style, as he depicted women's clothing in fine detail. By the time Tissot was 17, he knew, his father opposed this, preferring his son to follow a business profession, but the young Tissot gained his mother's support for his chosen vocation.
Around this time, he began using the given name of James. By 1854 he was known as James Tissot. In 1856 or 1857, Tissot travelled to Paris to pursue an education in art. While staying with a friend of his mother, painter Elie Delaunay, Tissot enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts to study in the studios of Hippolyte Flandrin and Louis Lamothe. Both were successful Lyonnaise painters who moved to Paris to study under Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Lamothe provided the majority of Tissot's studio education, the young artist studied on his own by copying works at the Louvre, as did most other artists of the time in their early years. Around this time, Tissot made the acquaintance of the American James McNeill Whistler, French painters Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet. In 1859, Tissot exhibited in the Paris Salon for the first time, he showed five paintings of scenes from the Middle Ages, many depicting scenes from Goethe's Faust. These works show the influence in his work of the Belgian painter Henri Leys, whom Tissot had met in Antwerp earlier that same year.
Other influences include the works of the German painters Peter von Cornelius and Moritz Retzsch. After Tissot had first exhibited at the Salon and before he had been awarded a medal, the French government paid 5,000 francs for his depiction of The Meeting of Faust and Marguerite in 1860, with the painting being exhibited at the Salon the following year, together with a portrait and other paintings. Émile Péreire supplied Tissot's painting Walk in the Snow for the 1862 international exhibition in London. In about 1863, Tissot shifted his focus from the medieval style to the depiction of modern life through portraits. During this period, Tissot gained high critical acclaim, became a success as an artist. Like contemporaries such as Alfred Stevens and Claude Monet, Tissot explored japonisme, including Japanese objects and costumes in his pictures and expressing style influence. Degas painted a portrait of Tissot from these years, in which he is sitting below a Japanese screen hanging on the wall.
Tissot fought in the Franco-Prussian War as part of the improvised defence of Paris, joining two companies of the Garde Nationale and as part of the Paris Commune. His 1870 painting, La Partie Carree evoked the period of the French revolution. Either because of the radical political associations related to the Paris Commune, or because of better opportunities, he left Paris for London in 1871. During this period, Seymour Haden helped him to learn etching techniques. Having worked as a caricaturist for Thomas Gibson Bowles, the owner of the magazine Vanity Fair, as well as exhibited at the Royal Academy, Tissot arrived with established social and artistic connections in London. Tissot developed his reputation as a painter of elegantly dressed women shown in scenes of fashionable life. By 1872 Tissot had bought a house in St John's Wood, an area of London popular with artists at the time. According to The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists, "in 1874 Edmond de Goncourt wrote sarcastically that he had'a studio with a waiting room where, at all times, there is iced champagne at the disposal of visitors'".
He gained membership of The Arts Club in 1873. Paintings by Tissot appealed to wealthy British industrialists during the second half of the 19th century. During 1872 he earned 94,515 francs, an income only enjoyed by those in the echelons of the upper classes. In 1874, Degas asked him to join them in the first exhibition organized by the artists who became known as the Impressionists, but Tissot refused, he continued to be close to these artists, however. Berthe Morisot visited him in London in 1874, he travelled to Venice with Édouard Manet at about the same time, he saw Whistler, who influenced Tissot's Thames river scenes. In 1875-6, Tissot met Kathleen Newton, a divorcee who became the painter's companion and frequent model, he composed an etching of her in 1876 entitled Portrait of Mrs N. more titled La frileuse. She gave birth to a son, Cecil George Newton in 1876, believed to be Tissot's son, she moved into Tissot's household in St. John's Wood in 1876 and lived with him until her
Arrest of Jesus
The arrest of Jesus was a pivotal event in Christianity recorded in the canonical gospels. Jesus, a preacher whom Christians consider to be the Son of God, was arrested by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane, it occurred shortly after the Last Supper, after the kiss of Judas, traditionally said to have been an act of betrayal since Judas made a deal with the chief priests to arrest Jesus. The event led, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion; the arrest led to his trial before the Sanhedrin, during which they condemned him to death and handed him to Pilate the following morning. In Christian theology, the events from the Last Supper until the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as the Passion. In the New Testament, all four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, crucifixion and resurrection. In each Gospel, these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative.
Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. According to the canonical gospels, after the Last Supper and his disciples went out to Gethsemane, a garden located at the edge of the Kidron Valley, thought by scholars to have been an olive grove. Once there, he is described as leaving the group; the synoptics state that Jesus asked God that his burden be taken from him, requested not to need to undergo the events that he was due to, though giving the final choice to God. Luke states that an angel appeared and strengthened Jesus, who returned to his disciples; the synoptics state that the three disciples that were with Jesus had fallen asleep, that Jesus criticized them for failing to stay awake for an hour, suggesting that they pray so that they could avoid temptation. At that point, Judas gave Jesus a kiss, as a pre-arranged sign to those that had accompanied Judas as to who Jesus was. Having been identified, the officers arrested Jesus, although one of Jesus' disciples thought to stop them with a sword, but cut off the ear of one of the arresting officers.
The Gospel of John specifies that it had been Simon Peter who had cut off the ear of Malchus, the servant of Caiaphas, the high priest. Luke adds. John and Luke state that Jesus criticized the violent act, insisting that they do not resist Jesus' arrest. In Matthew, Jesus made the well known statement "all who live by the sword, shall die by the sword"; the account in the Gospel of John differs from that of the synoptics: only in John do Roman soldiers help to carry out the arrest. Judas leads the arresting party to Jesus, but rather than Judas pointing out Jesus, John has Jesus himself, "knowing all, to happen to him", ask them whom they are looking for; the arrest of Jesus and Judas' role in acting as a guide to those arresting him are subsequently referred to by Peter in Acts 1:16. Chronology of Jesus Life of Jesus in the New Testament Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament Doubleday 1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2 Brown, Raymond E. et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Prentice Hall 1990 ISBN 0-13-614934-0 Kilgallen, John J.
A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0-8091-3059-9 Miller, Robert J. Editor The Complete Gospels Polebridge Press 1994 ISBN 0-06-065587-9