Saint Michael, Barbados
The parish of St. Michael is one of eleven parishes of Barbados, it is found at the southwest portion of the island. Saint Michael has survived by name as one of the original six parishes created in 1629 by Governor Sir William Tufton; the parish is home to Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. Bridgetown is the centre of commercial activity in Barbados, as well as a central hub for the public transport network. Other major infrastructure in St. Michael is the international seaport of Barbados—the Deep Water Harbour. Therein, a number of cruise ships arrive and depart including various lines such as Royal Caribbean and Cunard; the harbour features several sugar towers for loading locally produced sugar into transport ships, a tower for loading flour for transport. The Needham's Point Lighthouse is located in Needham's Point, Saint Michael, behind the new Hilton Barbados Hotel. Under Barbados's historical vestry system, the main parish church is sited in St Michael's Row in Bridgetown; the cathedral replaced the former parish church, located at the site of St Mary's Church.
St Michael's Cathedral was elevated to cathedral status under Bishop Coleridge, who arrived in Barbados in 1825 to head the newly created Diocese of Barbados and the Leeward Islands. Christ Church - South Saint George - East Saint James - Northwest Saint Thomas - Northeast with Christ Church: – Starts from the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, Christ Church and proceeds southerly along the plantation track and the boundary between the residential developments called Fort George Heights and Kent House to the boundary junction with public road called Highway R, it moves westerly along Highway R to its junction at Wildey with the Airport to West Coast Highway. It goes southerly along the Highway to merge at Clapham with the public road called Highway 6 go north-westerly along Highway 6 to its junction with the public Observatory Road moves southerly along Observatory Road to its junction with the public Fordes Road. Moving south-westerly, north-westerly and northerly along Fordes Road, Bonnett’s Road and Brittons New Road to its junction with Dalkeith Hill westerly along Dalkeith Hill to its junction with Deighton Road.
Along Dayrells Road in a south-westerly, north-westerly and westerly direction to its junction with Dalkeith Road at the Garrison continuing along Dalkeith Road south-westerly to its junction with the public road Highway 7. With St. George: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, Christ Church and proceeding in a westerly and northerly direction along the plantation track to its junction at lower Birneys with the public road Highway 5. Northerly along Haynes Hill and Pasture Road to its junction with Monroe Road; this is the meeting point of the parishes of St. George, St. Michael, St. Thomas. With St. James: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. James, St. Thomas, St. Michael and proceeding westwards along the public road called Clermont Road to its junction with the public road called Husbands Road. With St. Thomas: – Starting from the meeting point of the parishes of St. Thomas, St. George, St. Michael and proceeding along Highway E in a south-westerly direction to the junction with the public road running from Canewood to Jackson.
Bridgetown is the capital and largest city of Barbados. The Town of Saint Michael, the Greater Bridgetown area is located within the parish of Saint Michael. Bridgetown is sometimes locally referred to as "The City", but the most common reference is "Town"; as of 2014, its metropolitan population stands at 110,000. The Bridgetown port, found along Carlisle Bay lies on the southwestern coast of the island. Parts of the Greater Bridgetown area, sit close to the borders of the neighbouring parishes Christ Church and St. James; the Grantley Adams International Airport for Barbados, is located 16 kilometres southeast of Bridgetown city centre, has daily flights to major cities in the United Kingdom, United States and the Caribbean. There is no longer a local municipal government, but it is a constituency of the national Parliament. During the short-lived 1950s-1960s Federation of the British West Indian Territories, Bridgetown was one of three capital cities within the region being considered to be the Federal capital of region.
The present-day location of the city was established by English settlers in 1628. Bridgetown is a major West Indies tourist destination, the city acts as an important financial, convention centre, cruise ship port of call in the Caribbean region. On 25 June 2011, "Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison" was added as a World Heritage Site of UNESCO. Although the island was abandoned or uninhabited when the British landed there, one of the few traces of indigenous pre-existence on the island was a primitive bridge constructed over the Careenage area's swamp at the centre of Bridgetown, it was thought that this bridge was created by a people indigenous to the Caribbean known as the Tainos. Upon finding the structure, the British settlers began to call what is now the Bridgetown area Indian Bridge. Scholars believe that the Tainos were driven from Barbados to the neighbouring island of Saint Lucia, during an invasion by the Kalinagos, another indigenous people of the region. After 1654 when a new bridge was constructed over the Careenage by the British, the area became known as The Town of Saint Michael and as Bridgetown, after Sir Tobias Bridge.
Bridgetown is the only city outside the present United States. Two of Washington's ancestors and Gerrard Hawtaine, were early planters on the island, their grandmother was Mary Washington of Sulgrave, England. In 2011, historic buildings in Bridgetown were designated as a protected area by UNESCO. English settlement of Bridgetown began on 5 July 1628 under Charles Wolverstone, who brought with him 64 settlers to these lands formally claimed by James Hay, the Earl of Carlisle. Wolverstone had been sent by a group of London merchants, headed by Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, they had been granted a lease to 10,000 acres of land by the Earl of Carlisle in settlement of debts. Wolverstone granted each of the settlers 100 acres of land on the northern side of the Careenage waterway for the purpose of general settlement; the southern shore on Needham's Point was claimed by Carlisle's agents in October 1628. In 1631, many acres of land directly facing Carlisle Bay were passed to Henry Hawley, the new Governor.
An investigation by a Commission in 1640 found that much of Hawley's land transactions were legitimate and properly showed these lands as being attributed to the Earl of Carlisle. Bridgetown was built with a street layout resembling early English medieval or market towns, with its narrow serpentine street and alley configuration. In 1824, Barbados became the seat of the Anglican Diocese of the Leeward Islands; the St Michael's Parish Church became a Cathedral. In 1842, Trinidad, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia were split into separate dioceses by Royal Letters Patent which decreed that the Town of Bridgetown should be called the City of Bridgetown. From 1800 until 1885, Bridgetown was the main seat of Government for the former British colonies of the Windward Islands. During this period, the resident Governor of Barbados served as the Colonial head of the Windward Islands. After the Government of Barbados exited from the Windward Islands union in 1885, the seat was moved from Bridgetown to St. George's on the neighbouring island of Grenada.
In December 1925, a committee sought to petition the King for a Royal Charter of Incorporation to provide local government in the city, proposed to consist of a mayor, 8 aldermen, 12 common councillors, a town clerk, a head-borough or chief constable, such other officers as would be deemed necessary. It was proposed that the island's House of Assembly should seek to incorporate the city instead of using a Royal Charter; this proposal did not succeed. This provided a separate administration with a mayor. On 20 September 1960, the College of Arms in London granted arms to the City of Bridgetown; the armorial bearings were designed by the late Neville Connell, the director of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, H. W. Ince, the Honorary Secretary of the Society. Local
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
1979 Cricket World Cup
The 1979 Cricket World Cup was the second edition of the Cricket World Cup and was won by the West Indies, who had won the inaugural tournament four years earlier. It was held in England from 9 to 23 June 1979; the format remained unchanged with eight countries participating in the event. The preliminary matches were played in two groups of four teams each; the top two teams in each group played the semi-finals, the winners of which met in the final at Lord's. The matches played consisted of 60 overs per team and were played in traditional white clothing and with red balls, they hence started early. The eight teams at the tournament were split into two groups of four teams, with each team playing the others in their group in a single round-robin format; the top two teams from each group advance to the semi-finals to play in a single-elimination tournament. Eight teams qualified for the final tournament. Sri Lanka and Canada were the only two teams without Test status and qualified for the tournament by reaching the final of the 1979 ICC Trophy.
East Africa, who played in the first World Cup, did not qualify this time, which meant there would be no nation from the African region participating in the 1979 World Cup. In a close semi-final match, England prevailed. New Zealand fielded. England began badly, falling to 38/2, before Mike Graham Gooch resurrected the innings. Derek Randall played well in the second half of the innings, as England recovered from 98/4 to post 221. In the response, John Wright attacked well in the beginning. However, the loss of wickets bogged New Zealand down, despite several late flourishes in the batting order, New Zealand started to drop behind; when New Zealand could not achieve the remaining 14 runs from the last over of the match, England went into the final. Gordon Greenidge and Desmond Haynes set a first wicket partnership of 132 runs in a match dominated by batting. Vivian Richards and Clive Lloyd contributed solidly, as West Indies ran up 293 against Pakistan. Majid Khan and Zaheer Abbas shared a second-wicket partnership of 166 runs in 36 overs in the response.
However, none of the other Pakistani batsmen flourished, with Javed Miandad being bowled for a duck first ball, Pakistan lost 9/74, beginning with the dismissal of Abbas. Pakistan was bowled out for 250 in 56.2 overs in the high-scoring semi-final, sending the West Indies to the final. England chose to field first; the West Indies got off to a bad start, falling to 99/4 with the loss of Greenidge, Haynes and captain Clive Lloyd. However, Vivian Richards and Collis King consolidated the innings. King ripped through the English bowling, with a strike rate of 130.3. The West Indies were at 238/5 when the 139 run partnership ended with the loss of Collis King. Vivian Richards and the tail took the West Indies to a imposing total of 286; the English batsmen got off to a good start. But the openers, Mike Brearley and Geoff Boycott scored slowly, they put together a methodical opening partnership of 129 runs in 38 overs, playing as if the match were a five-day Test. By the time both batsmen were out, the required run rate had risen too high.
Graham Gooch played some hefty strokes in scoring his 32, taking England to 183/2. However, the loss of Gooch triggered the most devastating collapse in World Cup history, as England lost 8/11, they were all out for 194 in 51 overs. Vivian Richards was declared Man of the Match. Cricket World Cup 1979 from Cricinfo Cricket World Cup 1979
Pointe-à-Pierre is a town in Trinidad and Tobago. It lies south of Claxton Bay, it is most famous as the site of the country's largest oil refinery, run by Petrotrin, the state-owned oil company. The town is populated by employees of the company. Facilities provided for the residents include a primary school, a yacht club and a staff club equipped with a pool, tennis courts and squash courts; the oil refinery was built by Trinidad Leaseholds Limited and expanded by Texaco. It was transferred to Trintoc when the government purchased the land-based assets of Texaco Trinidad Limited, incorporated into Petrotrin; the town is the home of the world-famous Pointe-à-Pierre Wild Fowl Trust, a wildlife reserve for waterfowl located within the secured premises of the Petrotrin oil refinery. Pointe-à-Pierre is separated from Marabella by the Guaracara River and from Gasparillo by the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway, it lies on the Gulf of Paria and is an important port for the export and import of petroleum products.
At the southern edge of Pointe-à-Pierre lies Guaracara Park, known for its cricket matches. Famous residents / past residents of Pointe-à-Pierre include: Stephen Ames Floella Benjamin David Jenkins Trevor McDonald
Old Trafford Cricket Ground
Old Trafford, known for sponsorship reasons as Emirates Old Trafford, is a cricket ground in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. It opened in 1857 as the home of Manchester Cricket Club and has been the home of Lancashire County Cricket Club since 1864. Old Trafford is England's second oldest Test venue and hosted the first Ashes Test in England, in July 1884, two Cricket World Cup semi-finals. In 1956, the first 10-wicket haul in a single innings was achieved by England bowler Jim Laker who achieved bowling figures of 19 wickets for 90 runs—a bowling record, unmatched in Test and first-class cricket. In the 1993 Ashes Test at Old Trafford, leg-spinner Shane Warne bowled Mike Gatting with the "Ball of the Century". Extensive redevelopment of the ground to increase capacity and modernise facilities began in 2009 in an effort to safeguard international cricket at the venue; the pitch at Old Trafford has been the quickest in England, but will take spin in the game. It is located about 0.5 miles from Old Trafford football stadium.
The site was first used as a cricket ground in 1857, when the Manchester Cricket Club moved onto the meadows of the de Trafford estate. Despite the construction of a large pavilion, Old Trafford's first years were rocky: accessible only along a footpath from the railway station, the ground was situated out in the country, games only attracted small crowds, it was not until the Roses match of 1875. When W. G. Grace brought Gloucestershire in 1878, Old Trafford saw 28,000 spectators over three days, this provoked improvements to access and facilities. In 1884, Old Trafford became the second English ground, after The Oval, to stage Test cricket: with the first day being lost to rain, England drew with Australia. Expansion of the ground followed over the next decade, with the decision being taken to construct a new pavilion in 1894; the ground was purchased outright from the de Traffords in 1898, for £24,372, as crowds increased, with over 50,000 spectators attending the 1899 Test match. In 1902, the Australian Victor Trumper hit a hundred before lunch on the first day.
Crowds fell through the early 20th century, the ground was closed during the First World War. Investment followed throughout the inter-war period, during this time, Lancashire experienced their most successful run to date, gaining four championship titles in five years. During the Second World War, Old Trafford was used as a transit camp for troops returning from Dunkirk, as a supply depot. In December 1940, the ground was hit by bombs, destroying several stands. Despite this damage—and the failure of an appeal to raise funds for repairs—cricket resumed promptly after the war, with German PoWs being paid a small wage to prepare the ground. The'Victory Test' between England and Australia of August 1945 proved to be popular, with 76,463 seeing it over three days. Differences of opinion between the club's committee and players led to a bad run of form in the 1950s and early 1960s. After 1964, the situation was reversed, 1969 saw the first Indoor Cricket Centre opened. In 1956 Jim Laker became the first person to take all 10 wickets in a Test match innings, achieving figures of 10 for 53 in the fourth Test against Australia.
Having taken 9 for 37 in the first innings, Laker ended the match with record figures of 19 for 90, which remain unmatched to this day. On 1 May 1963 the first one day cricket match took place at Old Trafford, as the Gillette Cup was launched. Lancashire beat Leicestershire in a preliminary knock-out game, as 16th and 17th finishers in the Championship the previous year, to decide who would fill the 16th spot in the One Day competition. Following Lancashire's reign as One Day champions in the 1970s, a programme of renovation and replacement was initiated in 1981; this changed the face of the ground to the extent that, only the Pavilion “is recognisable to a visitor who last watched or played a game in, the early 1980s”. In 1981 Ian Botham hit 118, including six sixes, which he has called "one of the three innings I would like to tell my grandchildren about". England went on to win the Ashes after being lampooned in the national media for such poor performances. In 1990, Sachin Tendulkar scored his first Test hundred at the age of 17—becoming the second-youngest centurion—to help India draw.
In 1993, Shane Warne bowled the "Ball of the Century" to Mike Gatting at the ground. In the same game, Graham Gooch was out handling the ball for 133—only the sixth out of nine times this has happened. In 1995, Dominic Cork took a hat-trick for England against the West Indies. In 2000, both Mike Atherton and Alec Stewart played their hundredth Tests, against the West Indies. In the Third Test of the 2005 Ashes series the match ended in a nailbiting draw, with 10,000 fans shut out of the ground on the final day as tickets were sold out. England went on to win the series regaining the Ashes for the first time in over 20 years; the cricket ground is near the Old Trafford football stadium, in the borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester two miles south west of Manchester city centre. Its capacity is 22,000 for Test matches, for which temporary stands are erected, 15,000 for other matches. Since 1884, it has hosted 74
Hampshire County Cricket Club
Hampshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Hampshire. Hampshire teams formed by earlier organisations, principally the Hambledon Club, always had first-class status and the same applied to the county club when it was founded in 1863; because of poor performances for several seasons until 1885, Hampshire lost its status for nine seasons until it was invited into the County Championship in 1895, since when the team have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Hampshire played at the Antelope Ground, Southampton until 1885 when they relocated to the County Ground, Southampton until 2000, before moving to the purpose-built Rose Bowl in West End, in the Borough of Eastleigh; the club has twice won the County Championship, in the 1973 seasons. Hampshire played their first one-day match in the 1963 Gillette Cup, but did not win their first one-day silverware until 1975 when they won the Sunday League which it won twice more, in 1978 and 1986.
It has twice won the Benson & Hedges Cup, in 1988 and 1991. Having first played Twenty20 cricket in 2003, Hampshire won the Friends Provident t20 in 2010; the County Championship was restructured in 2000, at the end of the 2002 Hampshire was relegated for the first time. The club remained in the second division for three seasons and since 2004 had competed in the top tier. However, the club was relegated once more in 2011; the club won both the Friends Life t20 and ECB 40 in 2012, but it wasn't until 2014 before they were promoted to the first division again. They narrowly avoided relegation in 2015 before being relegated again in 2016, only to be reprieved after Durham were relegated after taking ECB sanctions to secure their future. Phil Mead is the club's leading run-scorer with 48,892 runs in 700 matches for Hampshire between 1905 and 1936. Fast bowler Derek Shackleton took 2,669 wickets in 583 first-class matches between 1948 and 1969 which remains a club record. Alec Kennedy, whose career lasted from 1907 to 1936, was the first player to score 10,000 runs and take 1,000 wickets for Hampshire.
Colin Ingleby-Mackenzie was both first professional captain. First XI honoursChampion County County Championship – 1961, 1973 Division Two – 2014 Gillette/NatWest/C&G/Friends Provident Trophy/CB40/RLODC – 1991, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2018 Twenty20 Cup - 2010, 2012 Sunday/National League – 1975, 1978, 1986 Benson & Hedges Cup – 1988, 1992Second XI honoursSecond XI Championship - 1967, 1971, 1981, 1995, 2001 Second XI Trophy - 2003, 2008 A Latin poem by Robert Matthew in 1647 contains a probable reference to cricket being played by pupils of Winchester College on nearby St. Catherine’s Hill. If authentic, this is the earliest known mention of cricket in Hampshire. But, with the sport having originated in Saxon or Norman times on the Weald, it must have reached Hampshire long before 1647. In 1680, lines written in an old Bible invite "All you that do delight in Cricket, come to Marden, pitch your wickets". Marden is in Sussex, north of Chichester, close to Hambledon, just across the county boundary in Hampshire.
Hampshire is used in a team name for the first time in August 1729, when a combined Hampshire and Sussex XI played against Kent. The origin of the legendary Hambledon Club is lost. There remains no definite knowledge of Hambledon cricket before 1756, when its team had gained sufficient repute to be capable of attempting three matches against Dartford, itself a famous club since the 1720s if not earlier. Hambledon had earned recognition as the best parish team in Hampshire, but no reports of their local matches have been found. We do not know when the Hambledon Club was founded and it seems that some kind of parish organisation was operating in 1756, although there may well have been a patron involved; the Sussex v Hampshire match in June 1766 is the earliest reference to Hampshire as an individual county team. Whether the Hambledon Club was involved is unrecorded but it was; some historians believe it was at about this time that the club, as distinct from a parish organisation, was founded. The Hambledon Club was in many respects a Hampshire county club for it organised Hampshire matches, although it was a multi-functional club and not dedicated to cricket alone.
Its membership attracted large numbers of sporting gentry and it dominated the sport, both on and off the field, for about thirty years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787. Hambledon produced some legendary Hampshire players including master batsman John Small and the two great fast bowlers Thomas Brett and David Harris. Following the demise of the Hambledon Club towards the end of the 18th century, Hampshire continued to be recognised as a first-class team into the nineteenth century but, after the 1828 season, they had long spells without any first-class matches until the county club was founded in 1864; the county played some first-class fixtures during 1842 to 1845 and one match versus MCC in 1861 but was otherwise outside cricket’s mainstream through 1829 to 1863. Hampshire County Cricket Club was founded on 12 August 1863 and played its first first-class match against Sussex at the Antelope Ground, Southampton on 7 and 8 July 1864. Sussex won by 10 wickets with James Lillywhite claiming ten wickets in the match for 80 runs, including his 100th career wicket.
Hampshire was recognised as a first-class team from 1864 to 1885. In 1886, Hampshire lost its status after years of poor results; the team did play against Surrey and Sussex in 18