Jackson Hole Mountain Resort
The Jackson Hole Mountain Resort is a ski resort in the western United States, at Teton Village, Wyoming. In the Teton Range of the Rocky Mountains, it is located in Teton County, 12 miles northwest of Jackson and due south of Grand Teton National Park, it is named after the significant Jackson Hole valley and is known for its steep terrain and a large continuous vertical drop of 4,139 ft. The ski area covers Rendezvous and Apres Vous Mountains. Known for its challenging terrain, half of the runs are rated expert, 40% intermediate, only 10% beginner; the intermediate terrain is on south-facing Apres Vous Mountain, while Rendezvous Mountain has Jackson Hole's more advanced terrain that includes bowls and chutes, over 4,100 vertical feet of skiing, the greatest continuous rise in the U. S.. The slopes on Rendezvous face southeast. In addition to the skiable terrain in-bounds, there is an larger area to be explored off-piste; these areas are accessed through marked gates by expert skiers/boarders who are equipped with avalanche safety gear.
Jackson Hole's original aerial tram was closed to the public in the fall of 2006 and replaced with a new tram that opened in 2008. The tram's vertical rise is 4,139 feet to an elevation of 10,450 feet above sea level. Construction on the new, 100-passenger Doppelmayr CTEC tram began in June 2007 and it began service on December 20, 2008. During the two seasons without a tram, a temporary double chairlift named East Ridge was built to service the runs at the top of Rendezvous Mountain. Other lifts include the eight passenger Bridger gondola, four high speed detachable quad chairlifts, seven fixed grip chairlifts. Recent additions include the Marmot Double Chair in 2011 built by Doppelmayr CTEC, the Casper Detachable Quad in 2012 built by Leitner-Poma, the Teton Detachable Quad in 2015 built by Doppelmayr. In the summer, the resort offers numerous activities such as mountain biking and paragliding; the resort and region is served by the Jackson Hole Airport, northeast of Teton Village Before 1961, the area of the future resort was the Crystal Springs Girl Scout Ranch.
Paul McCollister purchased the ranch and formed the Jackson Hole Ski Corporation in 1963 with partners Alex Morley and Gordon Graham. Construction began a year and Apres Vous mountain opened to the public in 1964 with two double chairlifts; the original tram on Rendezvous opened 53 years ago on July 31, 1966. The resort opened that December, reigning Olympic gold medalist Josef "Pepi" Stiegler of Austria was hired that same year as ski school director. In 1992, McCollister sold his interests in the resort to John Kemmerer III. Jackson Hole hosted World Cup ski races in the inaugural 1967 season, again in 1970 and 1975; the first national Powder 8 Championship was held at Jackson Hole in 1970. Jackson Hole was the site of two in-bounds avalanches in late 2008, first on December 27 and another two days on December 29; the first avalanche resulted in the death of skier David Nodine, one of three in-bound deaths in the American West in the 2008-09 ski season, the most since three skiers were killed at Alpine Meadows in 1976.
The second avalanche occurred in the Headwall area and buried part of the Bridger Restaurant but resulted in no injuries. An in-bounds avalanche swept a longtime member of the ski patrol, Mark Wolling, off a cliff on January 6, 2010. Although he was rescued, he died from his injuries. A double-black-diamond run in Cheyenne Bowl was named after Big Wally, it is marked on the trail map as Wally World. A set of flags lying on the run's fall line indicates. 16 Total 1 100-passenger Aerial Tram Rendezvous Mountain Aerial Tram 2 8-passenger Detachable Gondolas Bridger Gondola Sweetwater Gondola 4 Detachable Quads Apres Vous Teewinot Casper Teton 4 Fixed Grip Quads Moose Creek Sublette Thunder Union Pass 1 Fixed Double Marmot 3 Handle Tows 1 Ski Carpet Terrain AspectsNorth: 10% South: 30% East: 60% Official website Ski Lifts.org - Jackson Hole - current and removed lifts
Bear Valley (resort)
Bear Valley is a ski area located on highway 4 between Lake Tahoe and Yosemite—about three hours southeast of Sacramento, California. It is around one hour from California; the alpine ski area and a portion of the real estate in the village of Bear Valley was owned by an investment partnership led by a Canadian company, Dundee Realty, from 2005 to 2014. In 2014, Skyline International acquired Bear Valley. Nine lifts provide access to 75+ runs covering 1,680 acres skiable. Prior to the 2010-2011 ski season, an additional 400 acres of non-lift serviced terrain was opened to the public expanding the resort to 1680 skiable acres, making it the 8th largest in skiable acres in the state of California; the resort is known for its commitment to snow making and snow science expertise, as a result of snow management, was one of 6 resorts in California that remained open into mid-spring during the worst drought in California history. Bear Valley is known for its rich racing history and one of two resorts in California that operates a NASTAR course nearly every weekend of the winter season.
In 2015 the ski areas Season Pass became valid at both the cross country ski area. Known as "The Forever Pass" the pass gives access to unlimited downhill and cross country ski trails during the winter season; the Bear Valley Cross Country and Snowshoe Trail System consists of 35 trails covering 3,000 acres of terrain. Bear Valley Cross Country is operated by Paul and Diane Petersen. Paul Petersen is co-author of The Essential Cross Country Skier: A Step By Step Guide and a pioneer in the Nordic skiing industry in California; the Bear Valley back country offers endless options to access the back country via alpine touring and back country skis or snow shoes. Mountain Adventure Seminars, based in Bear Valley, offers instruction in telemark skiing, avalanche safety skills, mountaineering guide services, extended overnight tours of the surrounding back country. MAS, in conjunction with Bear Valley Mountain Resort offers snow cat assisted tours of both back country and side country ski areas outside the patrolled areas of the alpine resort.
The base village includes a hotel, cabins, 2 restaurants, 2 full bars, a pizza parlor. The Lodge at the base facility is known for its majestic granite fireplace and post and beam construction of the atrium style hotel; the hotel's Cathedral Lounge is a desired location for special events. The village includes a US Post Office, general store and snowmobile rental center. There is an Alpine County Sheriff's office and fire station, as well as a County library and K-6 public school. On summer weekends and holidays, there is bus service to Lake Alpine, a popular nearby recreation area and lodge. In winter months, there is a shuttle to the ski area in daily operation. A lift from town has been planned for years, as is terrain expansion. In early 2013, the partnership that owns the ski area operation and a portion of the real estate in town decided to sell their holdings which now include entitlements for over 300 condominium homes. In September 2013, a deal to sell the ski area operation fell through.
In December 2013 a group of Bear Valley property owners announced an initiative to explore community ownership options for both the ski area operation and the village. In February 2014, the Bear Valley Mountain Cooperative was formed with the objective of acquiring and managing those assets on behalf of the community. In 2014 the resort was acquired by Skyline International and owns and operates the resort. Bear Valley Mountain Resort Website 3dSkiMap of Bear Valley Mountain Resort
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Giant slalom is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G. Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing; this category separates them from the speed events of downhill. The technical events are composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run; the vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m for men, 250–400 m for women. The number of gates in this event is 46 -- 58 for women; the number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race. Although giant slalom is not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h. Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, longer than slalom skis.
In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm for men and 180 cm for women. A maximum stand height of 55 mm was established for all disciplines. In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m for men and 23 m for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm, the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm; the best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety at 29 m, Lindsey Vonn at 27 m. For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m and the minimal length to 195 cm. Many athletes criticized this decision. David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues, he states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski.
He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used. The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20. After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes; the giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world Olympics since. A one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, at the Olympics in 1968; the second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, made its Olympic debut in 1980. The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills.
Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics. Upon its introduction, giant slalom displaced the combined event at the world championships; the combined returned in 1954 in Åre, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events, a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, at the 1988 Calgary Olympics, it was changed to the super-combined format at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010. In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967. Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup. Updated to 15 February 2019. List of Olympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Olympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of World Champions in giant slalom Media related to Giant slalom skiing at Wikimedia Commons
Val Gardena is a valley in Northern Italy, in the Dolomites of South Tyrol. It is best known as a skiing, rock climbing, woodcarving area; the valley's main river is the Rio Gardena. The three municipalities in Val Gardena are Ortisei and Santa Cristina. Val Gardena is one of five valleys with a majority of Ladin speakers; the form of the Ladin language spoken in this valley is called Gardenese in Italian, Grödnerisch in German and Gherdëina in Ladin. The woodcarving industry has flourished in Val Gardena since the 17th century. Since the 19th century and altars carved in the area have been shipped to Catholic Churches throughout the world. In the 18th century, besides religious statuettes, the production of woodcarved figurines of genre art was widespread in the valley. Among them statuettes of beggars in pairs, four seasons, watchstands were popular. In the 19th and 20th century, carving of wooden toys was such a widespread occupation in all Gardenese families that Amelia Edwards called Ortisei the "capital of Toyland".
One of the valley's best-known products is the peg wooden doll, popular all over Europe and America in the 19th century. In one of her many trips Margaret Warner Morley went to Europe to Val Gardena where she was inspired to write the novel Donkey John of the toy valley; the Parish Church of Ortisei displays a rich collection of statues carved by local artists in the last two centuries. The Museo della Val Gardena in Ortisei owns a rich collection of historical wooden toys, woodcarved statues and figurines; the valley hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships in 1970. Val Gardena is home to the Saslong Classic, a men's World Cup downhill race, held every year since 1969. Since 2002, the downhill has been paired with a Super-G race, from 1979 to 1982 a combined event was held; the Saslong course is considered one of the five "classic" men's downhill races, along with Garmisch-Partenkirchen's Kandahar, Kitzbühel's Hahnenkamm, Wengen's Lauberhorn, Val-d'Isère's Criterium. It is well known for the "Camel Humps", a series of three small jumps which racers must negotiate in quick succession.
Two men have won the Saslong title four times in a career: Austrian Franz Klammer and Italy's Kristian Ghedina. If Super-G wins are included, two other men have matched that feat: Peter Müller of Switzerland and Austrian Michael Walchhofer. A women's slalom and parallel slalom were held in 1975. Val Gardena is part of the Sella Ronda alpine ski touring circuit; the Gardena Spring Trophy is an annual international figure skating competition held every spring in the Valley. Val Gardena has the Hockey Club Gardena. Carolina Kostner, figure skater and cousin of Isolde Kostner, the ski-champion Giorgio Moroder, record producer, performer and DJ Woodcarved beggars Amelia Edwards. Untrodden peaks and unfrequented valleys. A midsummer ramble in the Dolomites. Longman's, Co.. London 1873. Margaret Warner Morley. Donkey John of the toy valley. Chicago A. C. McClurg & Co. 1909. Old prints of Val Gardena