Melvin Joel Konner is the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Anthropology and of Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology at Emory University. He studied at Brooklyn College, CUNY, where he met Marjorie Shostak, whom he married and with whom he had three children, he earned his PhD in biological anthropology from Harvard University in 1973. He spent two years doing fieldwork among the Kalahari San or Bushmen, studying infant development and the hormonal mechanism of lactational infertility. After six years on the Harvard faculty, he returned to school and received his MD from Harvard Medical School in 1985, he moved to Emory as department chair. From 1985 on, he contributed in developing the concept of a Paleolithic diet and its impact on health, publishing along with Stanley Boyd Eaton, also with his wife Marjorie Shostak and with Loren Cordain, he has held grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and National Science Foundation, has been a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, the Foundations Fund for Research in Psychiatry.
Raised in an Orthodox Jewish family, Konner has stated that he lost his faith at age 17. His views on religion, are complex, as he has discussed the function of counseling by chaplains in the hospital where he worked, saying that while as a scientist he did not endorse their views, as an anthropologist he recognized the value of their services. Konner aroused some controversy in 2006 when he wrote an article contesting the claims in former US President Jimmy Carter's book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid. Carter responded quoting from his December 15 press release entitled "Letter to the Jewish Citizens of America". In a lengthy follow-up letter, Konner disputed Carter's claims and called the book and its title inflammatory, he attended and was a speaker at the Beyond Belief symposium on November 2006. Konner, Melvin J. Women After All: Sex and the End of Male Supremacy. W. W. Norton & Company Konner, Melvin J; the Evolution of Childhood. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Konner, Melvin J. The Jewish Body. Knopf. Konner, Melvin J. Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews. New York: Viking Compass. Konner, Melvin J; the Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit, 2nd ed. New York: Times Books. Konner, Melvin J. Medicine at the Crossroads: The Crisis in Healthcare. Pantheon Books. Konner, Melvin J. Why the Reckless Survive... and Other Secrets of Human Nature. New York: Viking. Konner, Melvin J. Becoming a Doctor: A Journey of Initiation in Medical School. New York: Viking. Paleolithic diet Hunter-gatherer Stanley Boyd Eaton, researcher Loren Cordain, researcher Staffan Lindeberg, researcher Melvin Konner's blog on anthropology and human nature Melvin Konner's blog on Jewish subjects
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's definition of health as a state of complete physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes and system at all stages of life. UN agencies claim sexual and reproductive health includes physical, as well as psychological well-being vis-a-vis sexuality. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective and acceptable methods of birth control. Individuals do face inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on socioeconomic status, education level, ethnicity and resources available in their environment, it is possible for example, that low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health.
The WHO assessed in 2008 that "Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, 14% for men." Reproductive health is a part of rights. According to the United Nations Population Fund, unmet needs for sexual and reproductive health deprive women of the right to make "crucial choices about their own bodies and futures", affecting family welfare. Women bear and nurture children, so their reproductive health is inseparable from gender equality. Denial of such rights worsens poverty. Adolescent health creates a major global burden and has a great deal of additional and diverse complications compared to adult reproductive health such as early pregnancy and parenting issues, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortions, lack of healthcare access, high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, mental health issues; each of those can be affected by outside political and socio-cultural influences. For most adolescent females, they have yet to complete their body growth trajectories, therefore adding a pregnancy exposes them to a predisposition to complications.
These complications range from anemia, malaria, HIV and other STI's, postpartum bleeding and other postpartum complications, mental health disorders such as depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts. In 2016, adolescent birth rates between the ages of 15-19 was 45 per 1000. In 2014, 1 in 3 experienced sexual violence, there more than 1.2 million deaths. The top three leading causes of death in females between the ages of 15-19 are maternal conditions 10.1%, self-harm 9.6%, road conditions 6.1%. The causes for teenage pregnancy are diverse. In developing countries, young women are pressured to marry for different reasons. One reason is to bear children to help with work, another on a dowry system to increase the families income, another is due to prearranged marriages; these reasons tie back to financial needs of girls' family, cultural norms, religious beliefs and external conflicts. Adolescent pregnancy in developing countries, carries increased health risks, contributes to maintaining the cycle of poverty.
The availability and type of sex education for teenagers varies in different parts of the world. LGBT teens may suffer additional problems if they live in places where homosexual activity is disapproved and/or illegal. Ninety nine percent of maternal deaths occur in developing countries and in 25 years, maternal mortality globally dropped to 44%. Statistically, a woman's chance of survival during childbirth is tied to her social economic status, access to healthcare, where she lives geographically, cultural norms. To compare, a woman dies of complications from childbirth every minute in developing countries versus a total of 1% of total maternal mortality deaths in developed countries. Women in developing countries have little access to family planning services, different cultural practices, have lack of information, birthing attendants, prenatal care, birth control, postnatal care, lack of access to health care and are in poverty. In 2015, those in low-income countries had access to antenatal care visits averaged to 40% and were preventable.
All these reasons lead to an increase in the Maternal Mortality Ratio. One of the international Sustainable Development Goals developed by United Nations is to improve maternal health by a targeted 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030. Most models of maternal health encompass family planning, preconception and postnatal care. All care after childbirth recovery is excluded, which includes pre-menopause and aging into old age. During childbirth, women die from severe bleeding, high blood pressure during pregnancy, delivery complications, or an unsafe abortion. Other reasons can be regional such as complications related to diseases such as malaria and AIDS during pregnancy; the younger the women is when she gives birth, the more at risk her and her baby is for complications and mortality. There is a significant relationship between the quality of maternal services made available and the greater financial standings of a country. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia exem
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Embryology is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology. Embryology has a long history. Aristotle proposed the accepted theory of epigenesis, that organisms develop from seed or egg in a sequence of steps; the alternative theory, that organisms develop from pre-existing miniature versions of themselves, held sway until the 18th century. Modern embryology developed from the work of von Baer, though accurate observations had been made in Italy by anatomists such as Aldrovandi and Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divide the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the blastula the first pore becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome.
The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula; the gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells from which all the bodily organs and tissues develop: The innermost layer, or endoderm, give rise to the digestive organs, the gills, lungs or swim bladder if present, kidneys or nephrites. The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton if any, blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system, including the brain, skin or carapace and hair, bristles, or scales. Embryos in many species appear similar to one another in early developmental stages; the reason for this similarity is. These similarities among species are called homologous structures, which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism, having evolved from a common ancestor.
Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much research into embryology has been done. Before fertilization, the female gamete produces an abundance of mRNA - transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein; these mRNA molecules are stored to be used in what will become the developing embryo. The male and female Drosophila gametes exhibit anisogamy; the female gamete is larger than the male gamete because it harbors more cytoplasm and, within the cytoplasm, the female gamete contains an abundance of the mRNA mentioned. At fertilization, the male and female gametes fuse and the nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete. Note that before the gametes' nuclei fuse, they are known as pronuclei. A series of nuclear divisions will occur without cytokinesis in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell known as a syncytium. All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism are identical in terms of the DNA sequence of the genome.
Before the nuclei can differentiate in transcriptional activity, the embryo must be divided into segments. In each segment, a unique set of regulatory proteins will cause specific genes in the nuclei to be transcribed; the resulting combination of proteins will transform clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will each develop into multiple fetal and adult tissues in development. Outlined below is the process that leads to tissue differentiation. Maternal-effect genes - subject to Maternal inheritance Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis. Zygotic-effect genes - subject to Mendelian inheritance Segmentation genes establish 14 segments of the embryo using the anteroposterior axis as a guide. Gap genes establish 3 broad segments of the embryo. Pair-rule genes define 7 segments of the embryo within the confines of the second broad segment, defined by the gap genes. Segment-polarity genes define another 7 segments by dividing each of the pre-existing 7 segments into anterior and posterior halves.
Homeotic genes use the 14 segments as pinpoints for specific types of cell differentiation and the histological developments that correspond to each cell type. Humans are deuterostomes. In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the zygote implants itself in the uterus wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week after conception, the developing human is called a fetus; as as the 18th century, the prevailing notion in western human embryology was preformation: the idea that semen contains an embryo – a preformed, miniature infant, or homunculus – that becomes larger during development. Until the birth of modern embryology through observation of the mammalian ovum by von Baer in 1827, there was no clear scientific understanding of embryology. Only in the late 1950s when ultrasound was first used for uterine scanning, was the true developmental chronology of human fetus available; the competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis proposed 2,000 years earlier by
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000x whereas most light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000x. Electron microscopes have electron optical lens systems that are analogous to the glass lenses of an optical light microscope. Electron microscopes are used to investigate the ultrastructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens including microorganisms, large molecules, biopsy samples and crystals. Industrially, electron microscopes are used for quality control and failure analysis.
Modern electron microscopes produce electron micrographs using specialized digital cameras and frame grabbers to capture the images. In 1926 Hans Busch developed the electromagnetic lens. According to Dennis Gabor, the physicist Leó Szilárd tried in 1928 to convince him to build an electron microscope, for which he had filed a patent; the first prototype electron microscope, capable of four-hundred-power magnification, was developed in 1931 by the physicist Ernst Ruska and the electrical engineer Max Knoll. The apparatus was the first practical demonstration of the principles of electron microscopy. In May of the same year, Reinhold Rudenberg, the scientific director of Siemens-Schuckertwerke, obtained a patent for an electron microscope. In 1932, Ernst Lubcke of Siemens & Halske built and obtained images from a prototype electron microscope, applying the concepts described in Rudenberg's patent. In the following year, 1933, Ruska built the first electron microscope that exceeded the resolution attainable with an optical microscope.
Four years in 1937, Siemens financed the work of Ernst Ruska and Bodo von Borries, employed Helmut Ruska, Ernst's brother, to develop applications for the microscope with biological specimens. In 1937, Manfred von Ardenne pioneered the scanning electron microscope. Siemens produced the first commercial electron microscope in 1938; the first North American electron microscope was constructed in 1938, at the University of Toronto, by Eli Franklin Burton and students Cecil Hall, James Hillier, Albert Prebus. Siemens produced a transmission electron microscope in 1939. Although current transmission electron microscopes are capable of two million-power magnification, as scientific instruments, they remain based upon Ruska’s prototype; the original form of the electron microscope, the transmission electron microscope, uses a high voltage electron beam to illuminate the specimen and create an image. The electron beam is produced by an electron gun fitted with a tungsten filament cathode as the electron source.
The electron beam is accelerated by an anode at +100 keV with respect to the cathode, focused by electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses, transmitted through the specimen, in part transparent to electrons and in part scatters them out of the beam. When it emerges from the specimen, the electron beam carries information about the structure of the specimen, magnified by the objective lens system of the microscope; the spatial variation in this information may be viewed by projecting the magnified electron image onto a fluorescent viewing screen coated with a phosphor or scintillator material such as zinc sulfide. Alternatively, the image can be photographically recorded by exposing a photographic film or plate directly to the electron beam, or a high-resolution phosphor may be coupled by means of a lens optical system or a fibre optic light-guide to the sensor of a digital camera; the image detected by the digital camera may be displayed on a computer. The resolution of TEMs is limited by spherical aberration, but a new generation of hardware correctors can reduce spherical aberration to increase the resolution in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to below 0.5 angstrom, enabling magnifications above 50 million times.
The ability of HRTEM to determine the positions of atoms within materials is useful for nano-technologies research and development. Transmission electron microscopes are used in electron diffraction mode; the advantages of electron diffraction over X-ray crystallography are that the specimen need not be a single crystal or a polycrystalline powder, that the Fourier transform reconstruction of the object's magnified structure occurs physically and thus avoids the need for solving the phase problem faced by the X-ray crystallographers after obtaining their X-ray diffraction patterns. One major disadvantage of the transmission electron microscope is the need for thin sections of the specimens about 100 nanometers. Creating these thin sections for biological and materials specimens is technically challenging. Semiconductor thin sections can be made using a focused ion beam. Biological tissue specimens are chemically fixed and embedded in a polymer resin to stabilize them sufficiently to allow ultrathin sectioning.
Sections of biological specimens, organic polymers, similar materials may require staining with heavy atom labels in order to achieve the required image contrast. One application of TEM is serial-section electron microscopy, for example in analyzing the connectivity in volumetric samples of brain tissue by imaging many thin sections in sequence; the SEM produces imag