Designed to win the Le Mans 24-hour race, the slippery D-Type was produced by Jaguar Cars Ltd. between 1954 and 1957. Sharing the straight-6 XK engine and many mechanical components with its C-Type predecessor its structure however was radically different. Innovative monocoque construction and aerodynamic efficiency integrated aviation technology in a sports racing car, some examples including a renowned vertical stabilizer. Engine displacement began at 3.4 litres, was enlarged to 3.8 L in 1957, reduced to 3.0 L in 1958 when Le Mans rules limited engines for sports racing cars to that maximum. D-Types won Le Mans in 1955, 1956 and 1957. After Jaguar temporarily retired from racing as a factory team, the company offered the remaining unfinished D-Types as XKSS versions whose extra road-going equipment made them eligible for production sports car races in America. In 1957 25 of these cars were in various stages of completion when a factory fire destroyed nine of them. Total production is thought to have included 18 factory team D-Types, 53 customer cars and 16 XKSS versions.
The structural design, by Jaguar's William Heynes Technical Director and Chief Engineer was revolutionary at the time, applied aeronautical technology. The "tub", or cockpit section, was of monocoque construction comprising sheets of aluminium alloy, its elliptical shape and comparatively small cross-section provided torsional rigidity and reduced drag. To the front bulkhead was attached an aluminium tubing subframe for the engine, steering assembly, front suspension. Rear suspension and final drive were mounted to the rear bulkhead. Fuel was carried in the tail and the designers followed aviation practice by specifying a deformable Marston Aviation Division bag in place of a conventional tank; the aerodynamic bodywork was the work of Malcolm Sayer, who had joined Jaguar following a stint with the Bristol Aeroplane Company during the Second World War and worked on the C-Type. The D-Type required a minimal frontal area. To reduce the XK engine's height, Chief Engineer William Heynes, responsible for the C and D type overall design, developed dry sump lubrication, it has been said that the car's frontal area was a consideration in canting the engine at 8½° from the vertical.
Philip Porter, in his book Jaguar Sports Racing Cars, says that " more reason was to provide extra space for the ram pipes feeding the three twin-choke Weber carburettors." Reducing underbody drag contributed to the car's high top speed. For the 1955 season, factory cars were fitted with a longer nose, which lengthened the car by 7½ inches and further increased maximum speed. Mechanically, many features were shared with the outgoing C-Type, its front and rear suspension and innovative all-round disc brakes were retained, as was the XK engine. Apart from the new lubrication system, the engine was further revised as development progressed during the D-Type's competition life. Notably in 1955 larger valves were introduced, together with asymmetrical cylinder heads to accommodate them. Elements of the body shape and many construction details were used in the Jaguar E-Type1961-1969. Jaguar D-Types fielded by a team under the leadership of Jaguar's racing manager Lofty England were expected to perform well in their debut at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans race.
In the event, the cars were hampered by fuel starvation caused by problems with the fuel filters, necessitating pit stops for their removal, after which the entry driven by Duncan Hamilton and Tony Rolt speeded up to finish less than a lap behind the winning Ferrari. The D-Type's aerodynamic superiority is evident from its maximum speed of 172.8 mph on the Mulsanne Straight compared with the 4.9 litre Ferrari's 160.1 mph. Three weeks the D Type won the Rheims 12 hour endurance race. For 1955 the cars were modified with long-nose bodywork and engines uprated with larger valves. At Le Mans, they proved competitive with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLRs, expected to win. Mike Hawthorn's D-Type had a narrow lead over Juan Manuel Fangio's Mercedes when another Mercedes team car was involved in the most catastrophic accident in motorsport history. Driver Pierre Levegh and more than 80 spectators lost their lives. Mercedes withdrew from the race. Jaguar opted to continue, the D-Type driven by Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb went on to win.
Mercedes withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1955 season, Jaguar again entered Le Mans in 1956. Although only one of the three factory-entered cars finished, in sixth place, the race was won by a D-Type entered by the small Edinburgh-based team Ecurie Ecosse and driven by Ron Flockhart and Ninian Sanderson, beating works teams from Aston Martin and Scuderia Ferrari. In America, the Cunningham team raced several D-Types. In 1955, for example, a 1954 works car on loan to Cunningham won the Sebring 12 Hours in the hands of Mike Hawthorn and Phil Walters, in May 1956 the team's entries for Maryland's Cumberland national championship sports car race included four D-Types in Cunningham's white and blue racing colors. Driven by John Fitch, John Gordon Benett, Sherwood Johnston and team owner Briggs Cunningham, they finished fourth, fifth and eighth, respectively. Although Jaguar withdrew from motorsport at the end of the 1956 season, 1957 proved to be the D-Type's most successful year. 3.8-litre engine Jaguar D-Types took five of the top six places at Le Mans, Ecurie Ecosse, with considerable support from Jaguar, finished first and second, the best result in the D-Type's racing h
The slide rule known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer. The slide rule is used for multiplication and division, for functions such as exponents, roots and trigonometry, but not for addition or subtraction. Though similar in name and appearance to a standard ruler, the slide rule is not meant to be used for measuring length or drawing straight lines. Slide rules exist in a diverse range of styles and appear in a linear or circular form with a standardized set of markings essential to performing mathematical computations. Slide rules manufactured for specialized fields such as aviation or finance feature additional scales that aid in calculations peculiar to those fields. At its simplest, each number to be multiplied is represented by a length on a sliding ruler; as the rulers each have a logarithmic scale, it is possible to align them to read the sum of the logarithms, hence calculate the product of the two numbers. The Reverend William Oughtred and others developed the slide rule in the 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier.
Before the advent of the electronic calculator, it was the most used calculation tool in science and engineering. The use of slide rules continued to grow through the 1950s and 1960s as computers were being introduced. In its most basic form, the slide rule uses two logarithmic scales to allow rapid multiplication and division of numbers; these common operations can be error-prone when done on paper. More elaborate slide rules allow other calculations, such as square roots, exponentials and trigonometric functions. Scales may be grouped in decades, which are numbers ranging from 1 to 10, thus single decade scales C and D range from 1 to 10 across the entire width of the slide rule while double decade scales A and B range from 1 to 100 over the width of the slide rule. In general, mathematical calculations are performed by aligning a mark on the sliding central strip with a mark on one of the fixed strips, observing the relative positions of other marks on the strips. Numbers aligned with the marks give the approximate value of the product, quotient, or other calculated result.
The user determines the location of the decimal point in the result, based on mental estimation. Scientific notation is used to track the decimal point in more formal calculations. Addition and subtraction steps in a calculation are done mentally or on paper, not on the slide rule. Most slide rules consist of three linear strips of the same length, aligned in parallel and interlocked so that the central strip can be moved lengthwise relative to the other two; the outer two strips are fixed. Some slide rules have scales on both sides of the rule and slide strip, others on one side of the outer strips and both sides of the slide strip, still others on one side only. A sliding cursor with a vertical alignment line is used to find corresponding points on scales that are not adjacent to each other or, in duplex models, are on the other side of the rule; the cursor can record an intermediate result on any of the scales. A logarithm transforms the operations of multiplication and division to addition and subtraction according to the rules log = log + log and log = log − log .
Moving the top scale to the right by a distance of log , by matching the beginning of the top scale with the label x on the bottom, aligns each number y, at position log on the top scale, with the number at position log + log on the bottom scale. Because log + log = log , this position on the bottom scale gives x y, the product of x and y. For example, to calculate 3×2, the 1 on the top scale is moved to the 2 on the bottom scale; the answer, 6, is read off the bottom scale. In general, the 1 on the top is moved to a factor on the bottom, the answer is read off the bottom where the other factor is on the top; this works because the distances from the "1" are proportional to the logarithms of the marked values: Operations may go "off the scale. In such cases, the user may slide the upper scale to the left until its right index aligns with the 2 d
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, monocoque construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".
In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.
Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.
The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design of th
Great Yarmouth known to locals as Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England. It straddles the narrow mouth of the River Yare 20 miles east of Norwich, it had an estimated population of 38,693 at the 2011 Census, making it the most third populous place in Norfolk. The town has been a seaside resort since 1760, was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, it is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, depending on the herring fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 20th century, has now all but disappeared; the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, today it services offshore natural gas rigs. More the development of renewable energy sources offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands. Great Yarmouth rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in 1844 making it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Yarmouth, triggering an influx of settlers.
Wellington Pier was built in 1854, Britannia Pier opened in 1858. Throughout the 20th century, Yarmouth continued to be a booming resort, with a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. In addition to its beach, Yarmouth's major attractions and landmarks include Britannia Pier, the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, as well as the UK's only surviving Victorian seaside cast iron and glass Winter Garden; the town itself is on a 3.1-mile spit sandwiched between the North River Yare. Its well-known features include the main tourist sector on the seafront; the area is linked to Gorleston and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47 and A149 by the Breydon Bridge. The urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 8.3 sq mi and according to the Office for National Statistics in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth.
The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 68,317, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea and Great Yarmouth. The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population of around 92,500, increasing to 97,277 at the 2011 census. Great Yarmouth was 92.8% White British, with the next biggest ethnic demographic being Other White, at 3.5%, which consists of Eastern Europeans. Great Yarmouth lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum at the mouth of the River Yare, its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports, a permanent settlement was made, the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I placed it under the rule of a reeve. In 1101 the Church of St Nicholas was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, consecrated in 1119; this was to be the first of several priories founded in what was a wealthy trading centre of considerable importance. In 1208, King John granted a charter to Great Yarmouth; the charter gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, amplified by several charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston.
The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton, to convey them to the King. The hospital was founded in Yarmouth in the reign of Edward I by Thomas Fastolfe, father of Thomas Fastolf, the Bishop of St David's.. In 1551, a grammar school founded and the great hall of the old hospital was appropriated to its use; the school was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, settled in new buildings in 1872. In 1552 Edward VI granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Queen Anne replaced the two bailiffs by a mayor. In 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Zealand Expedition was assembled in the town. In 1702 the corporation founded the Fishermen's Hospital.
In the early 18th century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port, was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe's travel journals, in part as follows: Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich. It is plac'd on a peninsula between the sea; the ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the wharf.
Loughborough University is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England. It has been a university since 1966, but the institution dates back to 1909, when the Loughborough Technical Institute began with a focus on skills and knowledge which would be directly applicable in the wider world. In March 2013, the university announced it had acquired the former broadcast centre at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park which opened as a second campus in 2015, it was a member of the 1994 Group of smaller research intensive universities until the group was dissolved in November 2013. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £300.8 million of which £41.9 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £295.5 million. Loughborough is ranked within the top 10 of all three national league tables and is internationally renowned for its sports-related courses and achievements. In 2013, the university won its seventh Queen's Anniversary Prize, awarded in recognition of its impact through research and skills development in High Value Manufacturing to create economic growth.
The university is rated five star for excellence by Quacquarelli Symonds through QS Star Scheme. The university traces its roots back to 1909 when a Technical Institute was founded in the town centre. There followed a period of rapid expansion during which the institute was renamed Loughborough College and the development of the present campus began. In the early years, efforts were made to mimic the environment of an Oxbridge college whilst maintaining a strong practical counterbalance to academic learning. During World War I, the institute served as an'instructional factory', training workers for the munitions industry. Following the war, the institute fragmented into four separate colleges: Loughborough Training College Loughborough College of Art Loughborough College of Further Education Loughborough College of Technology The last was to become the nucleus of the present university, its rapid expansion from a small provincial college to the first British technical university was due to the efforts of its principals, Herbert Schofield who led it from 1915 to 1950 and Herbert Haslegrave who oversaw its further expansion from 1953 to 1967, steered its progress first to a College of Advanced Technology and a university.
In 1966, the College of Advanced Technology as it had become, received university status. In 1977, the university broadened its range of studies by amalgamating with Loughborough College of Education. More in August 1998, the university merged with Loughborough College of Art and Design. Loughborough College is still a college of further education. Schofield became principal in 1915 and continued to lead the College of Technology until 1950. Over his years as principal, the College changed beyond recognition, he purchased the estate of Burleigh Hall on the western outskirts of the town, which became the nucleus of the present 438-acre campus. He oversaw the building of the original Hazlerigg and Rutland halls of residence, which are now home to the university's administration and the Vice-Chancellor's offices. An experienced educationist, Herbert Haslegrave took over as college principal in 1953, by both increasing the breadths and raising standards, gained it the status of Colleges of Advanced Technology in 1958.
He further began a building programme. In 1963, the Robbins Report on higher education recommended that all colleges of advanced technology should be given the status of universities. Loughborough College of Technology was granted a Royal Charter on 19 April 1966 and became Loughborough University of Technology, with Haslegrave as its first vice-chancellor, it remodelled itself in the image of the plate glass universities of the period, created under Robbins. In 1977, Loughborough Training College was absorbed into the university; the Arts College was amalgamated with the university in 1998. These additions have diluted the technological flavour of the institution, causing it to resemble more a traditional university with its mix of humanities and sciences. In 1996, the university dropped the'of Technology' from its title, becoming'Loughborough University'; the shortened name'Lufbra' is used by the students' union, the alumni association and others. The university's main campus is in the Leicestershire town of Loughborough.
The Loughborough campus covers an area of 438 acres, includes academic departments, halls of residence, the Students' Union, two gyms and playing fields. Of particular interest are the walled garden, the'garden of remembrance', the Hazlerigg-Rutland Hall fountain-courtyard and the Bastard Gates. In the central quadrangle of the campus stands a famous cedar, which has appeared as a symbol for the university. A heavy snowfall in December 1990 led to the collapse of the upper canopy which gave the tree its distinctive shape; the Pilkington Library opened in 1980. It covers 9,161 square metres over four floors with 1375 study places; the Library has a history of undertaking research in the field of information work. There is an open access area where students are allowed to take in cold food and drinks as well as to engage in group discussions. Loughborough University L
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names; the modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a large and powerful military. Most European nations copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and transfer to the reserve force. Conscription is controversial for a range of reasons, including conscientious objection to military engagements on religious or philosophical grounds; those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country, seeking asylum in another country. Some selection systems accommodate these attitudes by providing alternative service outside combat-operations roles or outside the military, such as Siviilipalvelus in Finland, Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland.
Several countries conscript male soldiers not only for armed forces, but for paramilitary agencies, which are dedicated to police-like domestic only service like Internal Troops, Border Guards or non-combat rescue duties like Civil defence troops – none of, considered alternative to the military conscription. As of the early 21st century, many states no longer conscript soldiers, relying instead upon professional militaries with volunteers enlisted to meet the demand for troops; the ability to rely on such an arrangement, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities. Many states that have abolished conscription therefore still reserve the power to resume it during wartime or times of crisis. States involved in wars or interstate rivalries are most to implement conscription, whereas democracies are less than autocracies to implement conscription. Former British colonies are less to have conscription, as they are influenced by British anticonscription norms that can be traced back to the English Civil War.
Around the reign of Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire used. Under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war. During times of peace they were instead required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for this service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land, it is possible that this right was not to hold land per se but specific land supplied by the state. Various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have been practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Records show that Ilkum commitments could become traded. In other places, people left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them. With the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi. In medieval Scandinavia the leiðangr, leding, lichting, expeditio or sometimes leþing, was a levy of free farmers conscripted into coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm.
The bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the freemen of each county. In the 690s Laws of Ine, three levels of fines are imposed on different social classes for neglecting military service; some modern writers claim. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year; the historian David Sturdy has cautioned about regarding the fyrd as a precursor to a modern national army composed of all ranks of society, describing it as a "ridiculous fantasy":The persistent old belief that peasants and small farmers gathered to form a national army or fyrd is a strange delusion dreamt up by antiquarians in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries to justify universal military conscription. Medieval levy in Poland was known as the pospolite ruszenie; the system of military slaves was used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s.
The Turkish troops soon came to dominate the government, establishing a pattern throughout the Islamic world of a ruling military class separated by ethnicity and religion by the mass of the population, a paradigm that found its apogee in the Mamluks of Egypt and the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, institutions that survived until the early 19th century. In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, with a slave army called the Kapıkulu; the new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme. The captive children were forced to convert to Islam; the Sultans had the young boys trained over several years. Those who showed special promise in fighting skills were trained in advanced warrior skills, put into the sultan's personal service, turned into the Janissaries, the elite branch of the Kapıkulu. A n