National Highway 12 (India)
National Highway 12 is a National Highway in India which runs in West Bengal. It runs from its junction with NH 27 at Dalkhola terminating at Bakkhali. NH 12 originates from its junction with NH 27 at Dalkhola in Uttar Dinajpur district and passes through Karandighi,Maharajahat Raiganj, Malda, passes over the Farakka Barrage, Umarpur Murshidabad, Krishnanagar, Barasat. List of National Highways in India by highway number National Highways Development Project NH 12 on OpenStreetMap
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
Municipal corporations in India
A municipal corporation, city corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government. The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments. Municipal corporations are referred to by different names in different states, all of which are translated to "municipal corporation" in English; these names include nagar nigam, mahanagar palika, pouro nigom, pur porishod, nagar palika nigam, Nagara Palaka Samstha, Maanagaraatchi. The Vadodara Municipal Corporation is called by the name "Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan"; the detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state, as per the laws passed by the state legislatures, but the basic structure and function is the same.
The area administered by a municipal corporation is known as a municipal area. Each municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards. A municipal corporation is made up of a wards committee; each ward has one seat in the wards committee. Members are elected to the wards committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years; these members are known as corporators. The number of wards in a municipal area is determined by the population of the city; some seats are reserved for scheduled tribes, backward classes and women. A state can choose to constitute additional committees to carry functions of urban local governance, in addition to the wards committees. In addition to the councillors elected from the wards, the legislature of a state may choose to make provisions for the representation of persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, the MPs or MLAs representing the constituencies which comprise wholly or the municipal area, and/or the commissioners of additional committees that the state may have constituted.
If a state legislature appoints a person from the first category to a wards committee, that individual will not have the right to vote in the meetings of the municipal corporation, while MPs, MLAs and commissioners do have the right to vote in meetings. The largest corporations are in the seven metropolitan cities of India, viz. Delhi, Kolkata, Bengaluru and Pune; the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation of The City of Mumbai is the richest municipal corporation in India. The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation, but in most states and territories of India the role is ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner; the office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city. As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor; the tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is five years. However, in seven states. Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of mayor and councilors.
The Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution lists the subjects that municipal corporations are responsible for. Corporations may be entrusted to perform functions and implement schemes including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule. Urban planning including town planning. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. Planning for economic and social development Water supply for domestic and commercial purposes. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. Fire services. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded. Slum improvement and upgradation. Urban poverty alleviation. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, playgrounds. Promotion of cultural and aesthetic aspects. Burials and burial grounds. Cattle pounds. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries Its sources of income are taxes on water, houses and vehicles paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government. List of municipal corporations of India Municipal governance in India
North Bengal State Transport Corporation
North Bengal State Transport Corporation is a state government run transport corporation in West Bengal, India. It plies buses in North Bengal but operates services to other parts of West Bengal and neighboring states. North Bengal State Transport Corporation is one of the oldest State Road Transport organizations in India started functioning in April, 1945 under the management and control of the Royal Durbar of Cooch-Behar State and it was converted into a Corporation in April, 1960; the Corporation can boast of its dedicated services throughout the State. The area of operation of the Corporation limited within the State of Coochbehar and the neighboring district of Jalpaiguri was expanded and now covers all the districts of the State of West Bengal. In addition it operates some inter-state services with neighboring states of Asom, Bihar and Sikkim; the Corporation completed its 50 years of service to the Nation and celebrated its Golden Jubilee year in 1995. As a recognition of its contribution to the socio-economic development of the society specially in rural areas, the corporation was honored with "National Productivity Award" from the Honourable President of India in 1993-94.
North Bengal State Transport Corporation is a public utility service and its sole aim is to operate efficient transport system to cater to the needs of the traveling people both in rural and urban areas. Various categories of Standard, Semi-Deluxe, Rocket and A/C Coach buses with attractive amenities are being operated on those routes on least possible fares fixed by the Government; the NBSTC is now venturing a hitherto unexplored area of Tourism activities by exploiting the tourism potentials of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, North-eastern states and the neighboring countries like Bhutan and Nepal from the year 2009, named as "Sabuj-er Pathe Hatchhani" with the help of some well-skilled Officers and Drivers of the NBSTC. The overwhelming response that the corporation received from the tour lovers on inception of the various tour programmes from its Head quarter at Cooch Behar has encouraged us to organise tour programmes from all important Divisions and Depots. We are presenting a complete profile of our organization with all necessary informations about our tourism initiative.
As a Government undertaking we are committed to extend safety and security to the participants in our tour programmes and hope to earn their faith and reliance on us. Tour-loving people are invited to get the taste of the nature with NBSTC taking part in our tour programmes. North Bengal State Transport Corporation is a West Bengal State Government Undertaken Transport Corporation, it plys buses in North Bengal and other parts of West Bengal to Kolkata along with the various part of Asom, Jharkhand, Sikim. NBSTC owns many depots in West Bengal to station their buses; this organisation was inaugurated by the King of Cooch Behar His Highness Jagaddipendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur Lt. Col. in a bright sunny 1 April morning in the year 1945. Started with three buses and trucks; the vehicles were of ‘Thames and Chevrolet' make came'Ford' makes. Thanks to the far farsightedness of erstwhile rulers, this organisation provided and still providing lively hood and means of transport. To scores of peoples of North Bengal Region and lower Asom.
As a matter of fact it is most the oldest STU in India which received National Productivity Award with the intense work-out of the Employees of the NBSTC. It is weaved with the social, cultural life of the peoples of this region. Now NBSTC has various types of Big, Mini or Midi Bus to give Service to the People like Ashok Leyland, Eicher, Swaraj Mazda etc. North Bengal State Transport Corporation, by type of its operation is a District type muffussil service and its sole aim is to render services for the socio-economic development of the remote rural areas in North Bengal. Unluckily, the corporation, prior to may-2011,was diverted from this target and some services / routes towards remote areas were kept suspended on the plea of un-economic operation but the present scenario, from may-2011 and onwards, does not support the above cause on the basis of traffic demand/earnings; such type of services under other depots of the Corporation are expected to be re-opened/newly opened shortly with overcoming the acute financial crisis facing at present and with the addition of new buses/overhauling of the roadworthy serviceable “Off-road” buses.
A part from above, some “City-Services” have been inaugurated to render traveling facilities to the public/students living the surrounding places of the District Town in Cooch Behar and the city of Siliguri after may-2011. But the City-Service discontinues after some days due to some unavoidable circumstances in Jalpaiguri. Along time demand / necessity of the corporation to establish a tyre retreading plant of its Own; the vision of the corporation for coming days is to operate economic and properly Co-Ordinated transport services through the optimum utilization of its available sources and suitable assistance /guidance from related level. Ordinary, Rocket, AC-Rocket, Semi-Rocket, Premium Rocket Bus is available between various Depots including Coochbehar and Kolkata is continues
Malda is a city and a municipality in Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It serves as the district headquarters, it is the fourth largest city in West Bengal. Malda is a municipal corporation with two municipalities, English Bazar Municipality and Old Malda municipality; this is an Undeveloped City becoming bigger since 1925-1930 and the city is growing and its population had now cross over a half of million people. English Bazar is the divisional headquarters of Malda Division in this state. Malda is at 25 ° 00 ′ 39 ″ N 88 ° 08 ′ 28 ″ E, it is on the western bank of the river Mahananda. As in much of Bengal, the weather is extremely humid and tropical. Temperatures can reach as high as 46 °C during the day in May and June and fall as low as 4 °C overnight in December and January; the district of Malda formed in 1813 out of the outlying areas of Purnia and Rajshahi districts. In 1832 a separate treasury was established, in 1859 a magistrate and collector were appointed. Up to 1876 this district formed part of Rajshahi Division, from 1876 to 1905 it formed part of Bhagalpur Division.
In 1905, it was again transferred to Rajshahi Division, until 1947 Malda remained in this division. In August 1947 this district was affected by the Partition of India. Between 12 and 15 August 1947 whether the district would become part of India or Pakistan was unknown, as the announcement of the Radcliffe Line did not make this point clear. During these few days the district was under a magistrate of East Pakistan. There are two municipalities in Malda; the English Bazar Municipality and the municipality of Old Malda. The municipality of English Bazar is divided into 29 wards; the Trinamool Congress with 15 councillors holds power. The metropolitan area of English bazar consist of Mangalbari, Old Malda, Sahapur, Narayanpur,Jodupur Heart of the city is Rathbari It is the most busiest Business Centre. NH 34 crosses through the heart of the city; the Gour Kanya Bus Terminus serves as bus depot for both Private Buses and Government Bus Service, operated by the NBSCT. It is connected to all the other districts and cities in West Bengal like Siliguri, East Midnapur, Purulia, Kalna, Kalyani, Digha, Rampurhat, Asansol, Cochbehar Mathabhanga and Berhampore.
Lots of private buses connect the local short and long distance routes, including Nalagola, Aiho, Gazole, Kaliachak, Samsi, Chanchal, Balurghat, Baharampur and Siliguri. E-rickshaws are available in the city to cover short distance. There are private cars and taxis, Tata Magic and Maximo Presents for local transportation. There are four railway stations; these are Malda Town Railway Station. Second one is Old Malda Railway Station; the third one is Malda Court Railway Station which serves the Mangalbari and Naldubi area and Gour Malda Railway Station which serves the Mohhadipur and Gauḍa area. Malda's main railway station is Malda Town, it is a busy station and all trains stop here. According to Indian Railway, Malda Town is in the top 100 ticket booking stations all over India, it is the Divisional Headquarters of Eastern Railway's Malda Division. Financial department officials have offices there. All trains bound for North Bengal and the north eastern states of India pass through Malda Town station.
Lots of Express and mail trains depart from this station. Howrah-NJP Line passes through this station. Most top class trains Like Shatabdi Express stop in this station. Mega cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore Lucknow, Patna, Tiruvanathapuram, Ranchi, Raipur and Agartala all are well connected through the rail route. Howrah-Njp Shatabdi Express, cover the fastest train in this region. Malda Airport was closed in 1972 due to the Bangladesh War. Before that there were direct daily flights from Malda to Kolkata and Guwahati. In 2014 direct helicopter services were started between Malda and Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, by the government of West Bengal; as of 2017 the airport is under construction and the flight service will start soon. As of the 2011 census, English Bazar municipality had a population of 216,083 and the metropolitan city had a population of 324,237; the municipality had a sex ratio of 877 females per 1,000 males and 14.9% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 84.69%.
There are lots of resorts in Malda. The Golden Park hotel and resort located at Narayanpur is the best in malda with helipad; some other hotels are Hotel Kalinga, Hotel Purvanchal, Hotel pratapaditya, Hotel Landmark, Hotel Samrat, Hotel Hari Om, Hotel Silver Arcade, Hotel Parvat, Hotel Mango leaf, Hotel MMC, Hotel Raj, Motel Pother Sathi, etc. A Water Park, Aquatic Bengal, is located in Narayanpur. Several colleges and universities are around English Bazar; the largest is the University of Gour Banga, established in 2008. All the 28 colleges in Malda, Uttar Dinajpur and Dakshin Dinajpur districts, except for Raiganj University College, are affiliated with it. Other notable institutions include Malda College, established on 23 July 1944, the oldest higher educational institution in the city.
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Maldaha Uttar (Lok Sabha constituency)
Maldaha Uttar is one of the 543 parliamentary constituencies in India. All the seven assembly segments of No. 7 Maldaha Uttar are in Malda district of West Bengal. As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, Malda ceased to exist from 2009 and two new ones came into being: Maldaha Uttar and Maldaha Dakshin. Maldaha Uttar is composed of the following assembly segments: Habibpur Gazole Chanchal Harishchandrapur Malatipur Ratua Maldaha For MPs from Malda in previous years see Malda Source: General Election to the Lok Sabha 2014 - State wise seats won & valid votes polled by political parties General Elections 2009 to the 15th Lok Sabha - Party wise seats won and votes polled List of Constituencies of the Lok Sabha