Rwanda–United States relations
Rwanda–United States relations are bilateral relations between Rwanda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 76% of Rwandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 17% disapproving and 7% uncertain. U. S. Government interests have shifted since the 1994 genocide from a humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development; the largest U. S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities support good governance and decentralization. Overall U. S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years. A major focus of bilateral relations is the U. S. Agency for International Development's program. In support of the overall Government of Rwanda development plan, USAID aims to improve the health and livelihoods of Rwandans and increase economic and political development.
To achieve this, USAID activities focus on: Prevention and care of HIV/AIDS. The Mission is implementing a number of activities related to the goals above, is working with the Millennium Challenge Corporation to obtain approval of the Threshold Country Plan submitted by the Government of Rwanda in November 2007. Once approved, the plan will be implemented by USAID and will focus on strengthening the justice sector and civic participation, promoting civil rights and liberties; the State Department's Public Affairs section maintains a cultural center in Kigali, which offers public access to English-language publications and information on the United States. American business interests have been small. S. investment is limited to the tea industry and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns. Annual U. S. exports to Rwanda, under $10 million annually from 1990–93, exceeded $40 million in 1994 and 1995. Although exports decreased in the years after the genocide, in 2007 they were estimated at $17 million, a 20% increase over 2006.
Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Donald W. Koran, Deputy Chief of Mission Jessica Lapenn, USAID Program Director George Lewis; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Rwanda. In July 2013, the US warned Rwanda to end its support for the March 23 Movement rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after evidence was found that Rwandan military officials were involved. In November 2015, the US criticized a vote by Rwandan lawmakers to approve a change to their constitution to allow President Paul Kagame to serve a third term. A State Department spokesman did not explicitly threaten that US aid to its traditionally close African friend would be cut, but warned ties could be reviewed. Foreign relations of Rwanda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Rwanda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Rwanda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Japan–Maldives relations are foreign relations between Japan and Maldives. Diplomatic relations were established in 1967. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, the former President of the Maldives, had visited Japan four times between 1984 and 2001. In 2014 Abdulla Yameen, the President of Maldives, met with Japanese Prime minister, Shinzo Abe in Tokyo. Maldives opened an embassy in Tokyo, in 2007. Japan has an embassy in Malé, the Maldives. In 1987, a massive storm surge flooded a large part of the Maldives; the devastating surge wielded a strong influence on this island country in the Indian Ocean the infrastructure in Malé was paralyzed and damaged at an estimated cost of U. S.$6 million. GDP of the Maldives, decreased 5.70% in this year compared to the previous one, or from U. S.$158 million in 1986 to U. S.$149 million in 1987. Malé requested Tokyo for the emergency assistance and an aid in preventing disaster like the storm surge, Japanese government accepted it. A coastal protection project supported by Japan' ODA soon began within the year, it continued until 2002 when completed the six kilometers long barrier all the way around the capital.
Just two years after this project was consummated, in 2004, a massive undersea earthquake of magnitude 9.1 or more occurred and tsunami attacked the western part of the Pacific Ocean and every coastal area of the Indian Ocean including the Maldives. This enormous tsunami killed 230,000–280,000 people in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Madagascar, Kenya, South Africa, the Maldives outside Malé Island. In the Maldives, the anti-tsunami barrier built by collaboration between both of the island countries, protected those who lived in Malé without any deaths. Kazumi Endo Keiko Yanai Abdul Hameed Zakariyya Ahmed Khaleel Adam Hamid Mohamed Hussain Shareef Adam Hamid Ibrahim Uvais Embassy of Japan in Maldives Embassy of Maldives in Japan
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
A harbor or harbour is a sheltered body of water where ships and barges can be docked. The term harbor is used interchangeably with port, a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port in Egypt is an example of a port with two harbors. Harbors may be artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys or they can be constructed by dredging, which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, United States, an array of salt marshes and tidal flats too shallow for modern merchant ships before it was first dredged in the early 20th century. In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. Examples of natural harbors include Sydney Harbour and Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka. Artificial harbors are built for use as ports; the oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea coast, at least 4500 years old.
The largest artificially created. Other large and busy artificial harbors include: Port of Houston, United States. Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor; some examples are: Port Hercules in Principality of Monaco. For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage when it is year-round. Examples of these include: Hammerfest, Norway. Vardø, Norway. Although the world's busiest port is a hotly contested title, in 2006 the world's busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port of Shanghai; the following are large natural harbors: Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding Congressional Research Service "Harbor".
New International Encyclopedia. 1905