The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the morning glory family Convolvulaceae. Its large, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable, in some parts of the English-speaking world, sweet potatoes are locally known by other names such as kumara, but people usually confused it with yam due to their similar appearances. The young leaves and shoots are eaten as greens. The sweet potato is only related to the potato and does not belong to the nightshade family Solanaceae. The plant is a perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, red, brown and beige and its flesh ranges from beige through white, pink, yellow and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas. Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally.
The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato includes several garden flowers called morning glories, some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context. To add to the confusion, a different crop plant, the oca, is called a yam in many parts of Polynesia, the United States Department of Agriculture requires that the label yam always be accompanied by sweet potato in U. S. retail sales of sweet potato. Although the sweet potato is not closely related botanically to the common potato, the first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbuss expedition in 1492. Later explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, the Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato. The first record of the sweet potato is found in the Oxford English Dictionary of 1775. In Argentina, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic the sweet potato is called batata, in Mexico, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote, derived from the Nahuatl word camotli.
In New Zealand, the most common cultivar is the red cultivar called kumara, a derived from the Māori name kūmara. Kumara is particularly popular as a food, or in contemporary cuisine as kumara chips, often served with sour cream. Occasionally, shops in Australia will label purple cultivars as purple sweet potato to denote the difference to the other cultivars, about 95% of Australias production is of the orange cultivar named Beauregard, originally from North America, known simply as sweet potato. A reddish-purple cultivar, Northern Star, is 4% of production and is sold as kumara, the origin and domestication of sweet potato is thought to be in either Central America or South America
The Maldives, officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of India and Sri Lanka, the chain of twenty-six atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Malé is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the Kings Island for its central location. With an average elevation of 1.5 metres above sea level, it is the worlds lowest country, with even its highest natural point being the lowest in the world. Due to the subsequent risks posed by rising sea-levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019, the Maldives have been historically and culturally linked to the Indian subcontinent since the fourth century BCE. The Maldivian archipelago was Islamised in the 12th century and consolidated as a sultanate, developing commercial and cultural ties with Asia. From the mid 16th-century, the region came under the influence of European colonial powers.
Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a republic was established in 1968 with an elected Peoples Majlis. The ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform, the Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy. Fishing has historically been the dominant economic activity, and remains the largest sector by far, along with Sri Lanka, it is one of only two South Asian countries rated high on the Human Development Index, with its per capita income the highest among SAARC nations. The name Maldives may derive from the Malayalam words maala and dweepu or the Tamil maalai and theevu, the Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu means island, and Dhives means islanders, the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa refers to an island called Mahiladiva in Pali, which is probably a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit word meaning garland.
Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives derives from the Sanskrit mālādvīpa, in Tamil, Garland of Islands can be translated as Malai Theevu. In Malayalam, Garland of Islands can be translated as Maladweepu, in Kannada, Garland of Islands can be translated as Maaledweepa. This is the name inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem. The classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives is Dibajat, the Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden, while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the Maldive Islands and to Maldives. One such community are the Giraavaru people and they are mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé
Minicoy, locally known as Maliku is the southernmost atoll of the archipelago of Lakshadweep, India. Administratively, it is a town in the Indian union territory of Lakshadweep. The ancient name of Maliku was Mahiladū, mahila + dū meaning womens island, now Minicoy is called Maliku in the local language. The name Maliku is thought to have derived from the Arab traders term for the island. Since it was the ancient capital of Lakshadweep, Minicoy islanders have long settled in the Nicobar Islands across the Bay of Bengal. These settlers regularly travelled back to Minicoy, a British official once asked a Minicoy islander what the name of his island was. The islander told the official that he was from Maliku but usually lived in Minikaa-raajje, the official thought Maliku and Minikaa were the same place and recorded the name of this islanders home as Minikaa. This became anglicised as Minicoy, little did this islander know that as a result of this cross-cultural exchange, his home would forever be called by a name that sounded like cannibal in his own language.
Minicoy is the second largest and the southernmost among the islands of the Lakshadweep archipelago. It is located 201 km to the SSW of Kalpeni, at the end of the Nine Degree Channel and 125 km to the north of Thuraakunu, Maldives. The atoll is 10 km in length, having a maximum breadth of about 6 km, the closest geographic feature is the Investigator Bank, a submerged shoal located 31 km to the northeast. The main island is located on the eastern and southeastern side of the lagoon, along the reef fringe. It measures about 10 km from its end to its southernmost point and it is about 1 km wide in its southern half, while the northern half is a narrow sandspit. Minicoy is almost completely covered with coconut trees, one of the few landmarks of the island is a tall lighthouse. On the southern side of the island lies the uninhabited islet of Viringili. Formerly the lepers of Minicoy were banished to this island where they lived in abject conditions, Maliku Atoll has a lagoon with two entrances in its northern side, Saalu Magu on the northeast and Kandimma Magu on the northwest.
Its western side is fringed by a reef and coral rocks awash. The interior of the lagoon is sandy and of moderate depth and this atoll is administered under the Indian Union Territory of Lakshadweep
Chapati, known as roti and roshi, is an unleavened flatbread from the Indian Subcontinent, and popular staple in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Chapati is made of wheat flour known as Atta and water. It is a staple in South Asia as well as amongst South Asian expatriates throughout the world. Chapatis were introduced to parts of the world by South Asian immigrants, particularly by Indian merchants to Central Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa. The word chapat means flat, which describes the method of forming rounds of thin dough by slapping the dough between the wetted palms of the hands. With each slap, the round of dough is rotated, chapati is noted in the 16th-century document Ain-i-Akbari by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, vizier of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Chapatis are one of the most common forms of bread which is staple food in South Asia. The carbonized wheat grains discovered at the excavations at Mohenjo-Daro are of a variety to an endemic species of wheat still to be found in India today. The Indus valley is known to be one of the lands of cultivated wheat.
Chapati is a form of roti or rotta, the words are often used interchangeably. Chapatis are made using a soft dough comprising Atta flour, Atta is made from hard Gehun. It is more finely ground than most western-style wholewheat flours, roti are prepared without salt to provide a bland background for spiced dishes. After proving, the dough becomes softer and more pliable, the rolled-out dough is thrown on the preheated dry tava and cooked on both sides. In some regions of South Asia chapatis are only partly cooked on the skillet, and put directly on a high flame, the hot air cooks the chapati rapidly from the inside. In some parts of northern India and eastern Pakistan, this is called a phulka and it is possible to puff up the roti directly on the tava. Once cooked, chapati is often topped with butter or ghee, chapati diameter and thickness vary from region to region. Tavas were traditionally made of unglazed earthenware, but are now made from metal. The shape of the rolling pin varies from region to region, parathas are mostly made using all-purpose flour instead of whole wheat flour
The little tunny is the most common tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. It is found in temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic. It is found regularly in offshore and inshore waters, and is classified as a migratory species by UNCLOS. Occurring in large schools and weighing up to 36 lb, it is one of the members of the tuna Scombridae family. Commonly called false albacore or little tuna, it resembles the Atlantic bonito, skipjack tuna, the little tunny feeds primarily on pelagic fish. It is best identified by the dark spots appearing between its pectoral and ventral fins and worm-like markings on its back, the fish is used as bait for sharks and marlin due to its high oil content and hook retention. It is considered by many to be a fish because of its limited nutritional value. However, the little tunny is commercially important in many locations and it is marketed fresh, canned and frozen. It is sought-after as a sport due to its line-stripping 64 km/h runs. By trolling with lures near reefs, it can be caught on hook, constantine Samuel Rafinesque identified the little tunny in 1810 and gave the fish its current name, Euthynnus alletteratus.
Synonyms for used for the name include E. alleteratus alleteratus, E. alliteratus, E. thunina, the little tunny is not part of the Thunnus genus like many tuna, but it is part of the Thunnini tribe. The genus Euthynnus is derived from the Ancient Greek, εὖ good, the little tunny is small in body size compared to other tuna species. It has a compact and stream-lined body built to facilitate bursts of speed and its torpedo-shaped, robust body is made for powerful swimming. It has a mouth with rigid jaws and a slightly protruding lower jaw, with a single row of small. Teeth are absent on the vomer, the bone in the roof of the mouth. The snout is shorter than the rest of the head, the little tunny has a dorsal fin with 10 to 15 tall, descending spines, as well as a much smaller second dorsal fin followed by eight finlets. At the base, the two dorsal fins are separated by a small interspace, the anal fin has 11 to 15 slightly defined rays, and is followed by seven finlets. The pectoral fins are short and do not reach the end of the first dorsal fin and are joined to the pelvic fins by interpelvic processes, there are 37-45 gill rakers, bony projections off the gills, on the first arch
A samosa, or samoosa, is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, peas, macaroni or noodles. Pine nuts can be added and its size and consistency may vary, but typically it is distinctly triangular or tetrahedral in shape. Indian samosas are usually vegetarian, and often accompanied by a mint chutney, due to cultural diffusion and emigration from these areas, samosas in todays world are prepared in other regions. Samosa is generally used in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, in eastern India, a similar dish is called Singara, Bengali, সিঙাড়া shingara, Sylheti, সিঙারা shingara sing-ra in Assamese, Odia, ଶିଙ୍ଗଡା shingada. Thambutha in Template, Kikuyu The word samosa can be traced to the sanbosag, while they are currently referred to as sambusak in the Arabic-speaking world, Medieval Arabic recipe books sometimes spell it sambusaj. The samosa is claimed to have originated in the Middle East prior to the 10th century, abolfazl Beyhaqi, an Iranian historian, mentioned it in his history, Tarikh-e Beyhaghi.
Samosas were introduced to the Indian subcontinent in the 13th or 14th century by traders from Central Asia. Amir Khusro, a scholar and the poet of the Delhi Sultanate, wrote in around 1300 that the princes and nobles enjoyed the samosa prepared from meat, onion. The Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th-century Mughal document, mentions the recipe for qutab, regions where the dish serves as a staple of local cuisine have different ways of preparing it. Samosas were brought to India by various Muslim merchants, and patronized under various Islamic dynasties in the region, Samosas from South Asia are now world renowned, and are probably the most popular type of Samosas globally. The samosa contains Wheat flour or maida flour shell stuffed with filling, generally a mixture of mashed boiled potato, green peas, spices. The entire pastry is deep-fried to a brown color. It is served hot and is eaten with fresh Indian chutney, such as mint. It can be prepared as a form, rather than as a savoury one. Samosas are often served in chaat, along with the accompaniments of yogurt, chopped onions, coriander.
The samosa is bigger compared to other Indian and foreign variants, in Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, shingaras are popular snacks. Shingaras are easy to make, but the folding is a little tricky and they are wrapped in a thin dough and fried. The coating is of white flour, not wheat flour, what distinguishes good shingaras are flaky textures, almost as if they are made with a savoury pie crust
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial.
The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead.
The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in Italy
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species. They are palm-like, dioecious trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics, common names include pandan, screw palm, and screw pine. They are classified in the order Pandanales, family Pandanaceae, often called pandanus palms, these plants are not closely related to palm trees. The species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 m tall, to medium-sized trees 20 m tall, typically with a canopy, heavy fruit. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, and ringed with leaf scars. Depending on the species, the trunk can be smooth, the roots forms a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. They commonly have many thick prop roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves and these roots are adventitious and often branched. The top of the plant has one or more crowns of strap-shaped leaves that may be spiny and they are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants. The flowers of the tree are 2–3 cm long and fragrant, surrounded by narrow.
The female tree produces flowers with round fruits that are bract-surrounded, the fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures. The fruits can stay on the tree for more than 12 months and these plants grow from sea level to 3,300 m. Pandanus trees are of cultural and economic importance in the Pacific and they grow wild mainly in seminatural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, and salt spray. They propagate readily from seed, but are widely propagated from cuttings by local people. Species growing on exposed headlands and along beaches have thick prop roots as anchors in the loose sand. Those prop roots emerge from the stem, usually close to but above the ground, other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests. The tree is grown and propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves, Pandanus fruit are eaten by animals including bats, crabs and monitor lizards, but the vast majority of species are dispersed primarily by water.
Its fruit can float and spread to other islands without help from man, craftsmen collect the pandan leaves from plants in the wild. Only the mature leaves are cut so the plant will naturally regenerate, the leaves are sliced in fine strips and sorted for further processing
Luffa aegyptiaca, sponge gourd, Egyptian cucumber, and known as Vietnamese luffa, for Vietnam is its native habitat, is a species of Luffa grown for its fruit. The plant is a vine, native to South Asia. In the European botanical literature, the plant was first described by Johann Veslingius in 1638, Veslingius introduced the name Luffa. The about-30-cm-long fruit resembles a cucumber in shape and size, owing to its striking yellow flowers, Luffa aegyptiaca is occasionally grown as an ornamental. Luffa aegyptiaca is best grown with a trellis support and it requires lots of heat and lots of water to thrive. The young fruit is eaten as a vegetable and is grown for that purpose in tropical Asia. Unlike the young fruit, the ripened fruit is strongly fibrous and inedible. Due to the use as a sponge, it is known by the common names dishrag gourd, rag gourd, sponge gourd. It is called smooth luffa to distinguish it from the ridged luffa, in Israel, Luffa aegyptiaca has been in use since the time of the Late Roman Empire.
Young Luffa fruits were used for food, mature fruits were used as bath sponges. Luffa Fruits were decorated for the first time in art of the Byzantine era in Israel only, the Luffa fruits were decorated on mosaics of churches and Jewish synagogues in the Land of Israel. African plants – a Photo Guide
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut. The opacity and rich taste of milk are attributed to its high oil content. Coconut milk is a food ingredient used in Southeast Asia, the Caribbean. Coconut milk is distinguished from water by its thicker consistency. Unlike coconut water, which is the liquid found directly inside a coconut, coconut milk is the result of combining coconut water with coconut meat. The grating process can be carried out manually or by comminution, Coconut milk exists in two grades and thin. Thick coconut milk contains 20-22% fat while thin coconut milk contains 5-7% fat, thick milk is prepared by directly squeezing grated coconut meat through cheesecloth. Thin milk is produced by soaking the squeezed coconut meat in water and further squeezing the meat until a thinner liquid forms, thick milk contains soluble, suspended solids, which makes it a good ingredient for desserts and rich and dry sauces. Because thin milk does not contain these soluble solids, it is used in general cooking.
Coconut milk has a fat content of 24%, depending on the fat level of the coconut meat, when refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate out from the milk. To avoid this in commercial coconut milk, an emulsifier and a stabiliser have to be used, manufacturers of canned coconut milk typically combine diluted and comminuted milk with the addition of water as a filler. Some brands sold in Western countries add thickening agents or emulsifiers to prevent the milk from separating inside the can, Coconut milk can be consumed on its own or as a milk substitute in tea and baking. It is an ingredient in many tropical and Asian cuisines for curries or other seasonings, vegetables. Coconut rice is a rice cooked in coconut milk consumed in Southeastern Asia, nasi lemak is a Malaysian version of coconut rice, while the same dish is called nasi uduk in Indonesia. Coconut milk is used throughout Asia for making traditional serabi. In Brazil, coconut milk is used in northeastern cuisine, generally with seafood stews.
In Colombia and Panama, the flesh of coconut and coconut milk are used to make sweet titoté. In Venezuela, meat dishes are prepared with milk and shredded fish in a dish called mojito en coco
Breadfruit is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family originating in the South Pacific and that was eventually spread to the rest of Oceania. Its name is derived from the texture of the ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia, the trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the serving as a staple food in many cultures. Sir Joseph Banks and others saw the value of breadfruit as a highly productive food in 1769, in 1787, William Bligh was appointed Captain of the HMS Bounty, and ordered to proceed to the South Pacific to collect the plants. Although Bligh won the Royal Society medal for his efforts, the introduction was not entirely successful, Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 26 m.
The large and thick leaves are cut into pinnate lobes. All parts of the tree yield latex, which is useful for boat caulking, the trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male flowers emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers, the latter grow into capitula, which are capable of pollination just three days later. Pollination occurs mainly by bats, but cultivated varieties produce fruit without pollination. The compound, false fruit develops from the perianth, and originates from 1. Breadfruit is one of the food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more grapefruit-sized fruits per season. In the South Pacific, the trees yield 50 to 150 fruits per year, usually round, productivity varies between wet and dry areas. Studies in Barbados indicate a potential of 16 to 32 tons per hectare. The ovoid fruit has a surface, and each fruit is divided into many achenes, each achene surrounded by a fleshy perianth. Most selectively bred cultivars have seedless fruit, whereas seeded varieties are mainly for their edible seeds.
Breadfruit is usually propagated using root cuttings, Breadfruit is closely related to the breadnut, from which it might have been naturally selected. It is noticeably similar in appearance to its relative of the same genus, Breadfruit has hundreds of varieties and thousands of common names varying according to its geographic distribution, and is cultivated in some 90 countries
The mahi-mahi or common dolphinfish is a surface-dwelling ray-finned fish found in off-shore temperate and subtropical waters worldwide. Also widely called dorado and dolphin, it is one of two members of the Coryphaenidae family, the other being the pompano dolphinfish, mahi means very strong in Hawaiian. The name mahimahi means very strong in Hawaiian, in other languages, the fish is known as dorade coryphène, dolphin, llampuga, lampuki, calitos, ti-rone or maverikos. The common English name of dolphin causes much confusion, two species of dolphinfish exist, the common dolphinfish and the pompano dolphinfish. Both these species are marketed by their Pacific name, mahi-mahi. Being fish, they are not related to dolphins, see Coryphaena for the possible etymologies of dolphinfish. The fish is called mahi-mahi in the Hawaiian language, and mahi mahi is commonly used elsewhere, in the Pacific and along the English speaking coast of South Africa they are commonly called by the Spanish name, Dorado.
In the Mediterranean island of Malta, this fish is referred to as the lampuka, linnaeus named the genus, derived from the Greek word, κορυφή, meaning top or apex, in 1758. Synonyms for the species include Coryphaena argyrurus, Coryphaena chrysurus and Coryphaena dolfyn, mahi-mahi have compressed bodies and a single long-based dorsal fin extending from the head almost to the tail. Mature males have prominent foreheads protruding well above the body proper and their caudal fins and anal fins are sharply concave. They are distinguished by dazzling colors, golden on the sides, the pectoral fins of the mahi-mahi are iridescent blue. The flank is broad and golden, out of the water, the fish often change color, going though several hues before finally fading to a muted yellow-grey upon death. Mahi-mahi can live up to 5 years, although they seldom exceed four, females are usually smaller than males. Catches average 7 to 13 kilograms and a meter in length and they rarely exceed 15 kilograms, and mahi-mahi over 18 kilograms are exceptional.
Mahi-mahi are among the fastest-growing of fish and they spawn in warm ocean currents throughout much of the year, and their young are commonly found in rafts of Sargassum weeds. Mahi-mahi are carnivorous, feeding on flying fish, squid and they have been known to eat zooplankton and crustaceans. Males and females are mature in their first year, usually by 4–5 months old. Spawning can occur at body lengths of 20 cm, females may spawn two to three times per year, and produce between 80,000 and 1,000,000 eggs per event