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A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move. There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction.

Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol ♂, a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the Unicode symbol is: U+2642 ♂ MALE SIGN The symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros; the sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors.

These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.

The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.

In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68


The One-Step was a ballroom dance popular in social dancing at the beginning of the 20th century. Troy Kinney writes that One-Step originated from the Turkey Trot dance, with all mannerisms of the latter removed, so that "of the original'trot' nothing remains but the basic step"; the One-Step included the following basic figures: The Castle Walk. The Turn is a walking step, pivoting on one foot to change direction; the right foot comes from the preceding step to the place of starting. The turn's completion brings the right foot into anterior fourth position; the woman's steps are the converse of the man's, her left foot making the long steps, while her right foot turns on its place. The turn gains smoothness by means of allowing the right knees to touch each other lightly; the Dip. Starting with the right foot in posterior fourth position: during the first beat, sink. In that case the left foot again glides to anterior fourth position, the step is effected as before. Several dips are made in succession.

They succeed a turn, the latter's finish leaving the feet in appropriate position for the purpose. The dip is executed with the performers in any position of the couple, it occurs in other dances. The Grapevine The One-Step Eight, so called from the number of beats it occupies, is a simple walk, with turn; the man's steps are the converse of the woman's. Executed in closed position of the couple; the Square a Tango figure, is effective in the One-Step. From posterior third position, the right foot steps to anterior fourth position, it is repeated several times. Executed in closed position of the couple. Execution of the figure occupies two measures of music.

Sand Dune Park

Sand Dune Park is an area of public sand dunes on a steep slope, used for exercise in Manhattan Beach, California. The area has been used by amateur and professional athletes and has been featured in fitness magazines and newspaper accounts as a great workout spot; the park around the dune was built on a converted dump site by local residents in 1964. It was "just a little patch of grass and sand to enjoy when the area was still small beach cottages" and remains one of the last "remnants of a time when much of the South Bay landscape was sand dunes", according to local historian Jan Dennis, its popularity has grown and fencing, parking restrictions, closure are being considered. A fight to close down the sand dune portion of the park or restrict its access came to a head in 2009 when neighbors came out in opposition to the sand dune over noise and overcrowding concerns. Several City Council meetings addressed the issues involved, the sand dune was closed and fenced. After negotiation, it was reopened in August 2010 after the implementation of substantial use mitigation measures.

Use of the sand dune portion of the park is by reservation only, which must be made in advance at City Hall, a little over a mile away during business hours. The entrance to the fenced area is supervised during scheduled hours; the city has found the restrictions to be a treasure trove of revenue fining violators of the restrictions hundreds of dollars for a single violation. Next to the dune is an un-restricted set of 208 steps that look like an attractive alternative, though there are signs that read "No Jogging." Fines are higher for jogging on the steps. As such, the city sends police to watch for violators; when questioned, enforcement officials seem to distinguish between jogging and walking, the rules sound close to those of International Racewalking, requiring one foot to be on the ground at all times. A group of residents was formed to advocate for more recreational usage. A study showed the fencing and restrictions were keeping people away, usage down 45%; as a response, the city kept the restrictions, but opened up a few additional usage slots in late 2011.

The park has been used by Troy Polamalu of the Pittsburgh Steelers, Thomas Mayo of the NY Jets, former UCLA defensive back Kirk Alexander, Kobe Bryant, Andrew Bynum and several of their Los Angeles Lakers teammates "past and present". Paul Pierce of the Los Angeles Clippers, Tony Gonzalez of the Atlanta Falcons and "any number of NHL players, USC and UCLA football players, volleyball players, fighters, sprinters and WNBA players" have "taken on the dune, sharing the sand with a steady stream of weekend warriors." Chaenactis glabriuscula var. orcuttiana — Orcutt's yellow pincushion, is a rare native plant limited to the coastal dunes of southern California. The Bell Avenue Sand Dune Park in Manhattan Beach and the Ballona Wetlands each had var. orcuttiana populations newly discovered in Spring 2010. The variety is listed by the California Native Plant Society as endemic to California coastal dunes ecosystems and declining

Rhythmic Circus

Rhythmic Circus is an eleven member percussive dance and Musical ensemble from Minneapolis and the creators of the musical production Feet Don't Fail Me Now! Since 2008, the troupe has performed in over 250 cities worldwide including a six-week tour throughout China and the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, the world's largest art festival. Notable national performances include the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. an extended off-Broadway run at New York's New Victory Theater, the American reality television series America's Got Talent where, despite the audition receiving four "yes" votes to pass through to the next round of competition, the troupe declined to continue. Rhythmic Circus was created in 2007; the Rhythmic Circus mission was to "spread positivity to audiences everywhere through inspirational experiences for all age groups and cultural backgrounds through the sensational blend of theater and dance." Many of the dancers have performed and choreographed together since 2000, most have known each other since childhood, having danced competitively against one another.

The musicians have a similar story of supporting one another's music before joining together as a band. Both groups decided to join forces after crossing paths backstage during an Amateur Talent Competition at the Minnesota State Fair; the troupe is composed of a vocal percussionist, beat-boxer Aaron "Heatbox" Heaton, a seven-piece band, Root City, which plays music ranging from Funk and Blues to Latin and Salsa, four tap dancers which utilize percussive dance – a rhythmic and musical dance form which employs percussive foot sounds for musical expression and is a cross between modern Irish step-dance and American tap dance. Dance techniques employed by Rhythmic Circus have been likened to a cross between Blue Man Group and Riverdance; the show Feet Don’t Fail Me Now!, premiered at the Ritz Theater in Minneapolis in August 2008. The title for the show was adopted from an early 1900s New Orleans chant, is meant to replicate their spirit of celebration; the show integrates rapid-fire tap, percussive dance, a percussive folding-chair routine, a tap-beat-box showdown –described as "a sonic ninja battle" - all to a wide variety of musical genres.

The show continues to garner sell-out performances to audiences of all ages. The troupe is working on a new Christmas program. Ricci Milan - Dancer/Artistic Director Nick Bowman – Dancer/Executive Director Kaleena Miller – Dancer Galen Higgins – Dancer Aaron Wiener - Trumpet Aaron "Heatbox" Heaton – Vocal Percussionist David Feily – Guitar Cornell Blanchard –Keyboard/Vocals Patrick Nelson – Drums/Tuba/ Vocals Dan Ristrom – Bass/Vocals Peter Vircks - Saxophone Miles Hanson – Sound Design/Audio Engineer Mark Ruark – Lighting Design/Production Manager 2011 Sage Award – Outstanding Performance 2011 Sage Award – Outstanding Ensemble 2012 "Spirit of the Fringe" Award, Edinburgh Fringe Festival A capella Taps We Got It Feet Don’t Fail Me Now Hit the Road I Believe World Tour Chairs Great Big Ending Dream Song Salsa Boogie Monster Circus In May 2012, Rhythmic Circus partnered with Bremer Bank to produce the video "Step Up!" to raise funds for Second Harvest Heartland, one of the largest food banks in the United States.

Bremer donated $1 for every viewing. In 2014, Nick Bowman founded the non-profit, Vision Street Arts, as an outreach to bring the performing arts to students "of all socio-economic and cultural backgrounds – including under-served, low-income individuals who would otherwise not have access to the performance." It was created to act as a launching platform for emerging artists "committed to artistic excellence and devoted to positive influence." Official website Vision Street Arts

London Regiment (1993)

The London Regiment is an infantry regiment in the Army Reserve of the British Army. It was raised in 1993, perpetuating the lineage of some the battalions of an earlier regiment of the same name; the London Regiment is the only reserve infantry battalion in London District. The London Regiment was reformed in 1993 through the regimentation of some of the remaining successors of the original regiment. At formation it consisted of: HQ Company at Battersea A Company at Westminster and Catford B Company at Edgware and Hornsey C Company at Balham and Camberwell D Company at ChelseaTwo companies of the Royal Green Jackets, F Company and G Company, formed part of the regiment between 1998 and 2004. In May 2004 Messines company, made up from an HQ and included two platoons from across the London Regiment deployed to Iraq. Following the restructuring of the British Army in 2004, it was announced that the Guards Division would gain a TA battalion; this saw the London Regiment retaining its name and multi-badge structure, while transferring from the Queen's Division to the Guards Division.

The two Royal Green Jackets companies were transferred to the Royal Rifle Volunteers in preparation for the formation of The Rifles in 2007. In July 2017 B Company transferred to the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment to become B Company, 4th Battalion The Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment and C Company transferred to the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers to become C Company, 5th Battalion The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. To replace these two units, F Company, 7th Battalion The Rifles returned to the London Regiment, while a new G Company was raised. In addition to the regimental re-structuring, the regiment was moved under command of the 11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East and tasked, will be known, as the'Guards reserve battalion', it consists of three rifle and one HQ companies: HQ Company A Company F Company G Company London Regiment


Histiostomatidae is a family of astigmatid mites and branches in a phylogenetic tree of the Astigmata. These mites are characterized by a small size and a close association to arthropodes insects. A morphologically specialized instar, the deutonymph, is adapted to attach e.g. insects for a phoretic transport from one habitat to another. The mites use different insect groups as phoretic carriers such as beetles and Hymenoptera. In all species, the digitus mobilis of the chelicera is reduced to small rests, the distal pedipalp article is connected to a more or less complex membranous structure; these mouthpart modifications form an organ to feed bacteria. Habitats are colonized by the mites such as animal dung, waterfilled treeholes or the fluids of Nepenthes and Sarracenia - pitcher plants; the family contains the following genera: Histiostomatidae-Mites: Mouthparts and Feeding von Stefan F. Wirth Mites of the Histiostomatidae von Stefan F. Wirth