Nana Sahib, born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of Maratha empire and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore during the 1857 uprising. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky; the Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender executed the survivors, gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days, he disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859. Nana was born on 19 May 1824 to Narayan Bhat and Ganga Bai. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Maratha War, the East India Company had exiled Peshwa Baji Rao II to Bithoor near Cawnpore, where he maintained a large establishment paid for in part out of a British pension.
Nana's father, a well-educated Deccani Brahmin, had travelled with his family from the Western Ghats to become a court official of the former Peshwa at Bithoor. Lacking sons, Baji Rao adopted Nana Sahib and his younger brother in 1827; the mother of both children was a sister of one of the Peshwa's wives. Nana Sahib's childhood associates included Tantya Tope, Azimullah Khan and Manikarnika Tambe who became famous as Rani Lakshmibai. Tantya Tope was the son of Pandurang Rao Tope, an important noble at the court of the Peshwa Baji Rao II. After Baji Rao II was exiled to Bithoor, Pandurang Rao and his family shifted there. Tantya Tope was the fencing master to Nana Sahib. Azimullah Khan joined the court of Nana Sahib as Secretary, after the death of Baji Rao II in 1851, he became the dewan in Nana Sahib's court. The Doctrine of lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, the British Governor-General of India between 1848 and 1856. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir".
The latter supplanted the long-established legal right of an Indian sovereign without an heir to choose a successor. In addition, the British were to decide; the doctrine and its application were regarded by Indians as illegitimate. At that time, the Company had absolute, imperial administrative jurisdiction over many regions spread over the subcontinent; the company took over the princely states of Satara and Sambalpur, Baghat and Jhansi using this doctrine. The British took over Awadh claiming; the Company added about four million pounds sterling to its annual revenue by the use of this doctrine. With the increasing power of the East India Company, discontent simmered amongst sections of Indian society and the indigenous armed Jhansi forces. Under the Peshwa's will Nana Sahib was, through his adoption, heir-presumptive to the Maratha's throne, eligible for his adoptive father's continuing annual pension of £80,000 from the East India Company. However, after the death of Baji Rao II, the Company stopped the pension on the grounds that the Nana was not a natural born heir and that the kingdom no longer existed.
The Nana, while still wealthy, was offended by both the termination of the pension and by the suspension of various titles and grants, retained by Baji Rao in exile. Accordingly, Nana Sahib sent an envoy to England in 1853 to plead his case with the British Government. However, Azimullah Khan was unable to convince the British to resume the pension, he returned to India in 1855. Nana Sahib won the confidence of the Collector of Kanpur, it was planned that Nana Sahib would assemble a force of 1,500 soldiers to support the British, in case the rebellion spread to Cawnpore. On 6 June 1857, at the time of the rebellion by forces of the East India Company at Cawnpore, the British contingent had taken refuge at an entrenchment in the northern part of the town. Amid the prevailing chaos in Cawnpore and his forces entered the British magazine situated in the northern part of the town; the soldiers of the 53rd Native Infantry, who were guarding the magazine, thought that Nana had come to guard the magazine on behalf of the Company.
However, once he entered the magazine, Nana Sahib announced that he was a participant in the rebellion against the Company, intended to be a vassal of Bahadur Shah II. After taking possession of the Company treasury, Nana advanced up the Grand Trunk Road stating that he wanted to restore the Maratha confederacy under the Peshwa tradition, decided to capture Cawnpore. On his way, Nana met the rebel Company soldiers at Kalyanpur; the soldiers were on their way to Delhi, to meet Bahadur Shah II. Nana wanted them to go back to Cawnpore, help him defeat the British; the soldiers were reluctant at first, but decided to join Nana when he promised to double their pay and reward them with gold, if they were to destroy the British entrenchment. On 5 June 1857, Nana Sahib sent a letter to General Wheeler informing him to expect an attack next morning at 10 am. On 6 June, his forces attacked the Company entrench
Raghunathrao was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774. Raghunathrao known as "Raghoba", "Raghoba Dada" and "Ragho Bharari," was the younger brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa, his father was Peshwa Bajirao mother was Kashibai. Raghunathrao was born in Mahuli near Satara on 8 December 1734. Much of his childhood was spent in Satara. In his early years he fought with great success in the north, his expedition during 1753–1755 was concluded by an advantageous treaty with Jat. He is favorably remembered by Hindus for the fact that during that expedition he brought an end to Muslim rule at Hindu religious places such as Mathura, Gaya, Kurukshetra. Raghunathrao made Alamgir II Emperor in his place. At the end of 1756, Ahmad Shah Abdali was preparing to invade Delhi once again. Nanasaheb Peshwa, Malharrao Holkar and Dattaji Shinde and it was decided that Marathas being the protectors of the Mughal Emperor would make another expedition to North India to stop another Afghan invasion.
Nanasaheb Peshwa gave the command of this expedition to Ragunathrao and Malharrao Holkar was asked to assist Ragunathrao. Malharrao Holkar left for Indore at the end of 1756 and Ragunathrao followed him with his army after few weeks in October 1756. Ragunathrao was joined by Malharrao Holkar; the purpose of Ragunathrao’s northern expedition was twofold: first was to defend the Mughal Emperor from Afghan invasion and second to collect funds and tributes to meet with Peshwa’s growing debts. So in the middle of May 1757, Ragunathrao sent an advance force of 20,000 into the Ganga Doab to recover lost possessions of Marathas, with Malharrao Holkar and the remaining force decided to invade Rajputana to collect funds. Due to the fortified lands and the martial nature of the people, Ragunathrao was unable to gather funds for the subsistence of his army and sent letters to Poona asking Peshwa for funds.“I am feeding myself only by looting villages. In this country most places are fortified, not a grain of food can be obtained without fighting.
I have no money, cannot raise a loan. My soldiers have been fasting for one or two days at a time.” - Ragunathrao's letter to PeshwaThe Maratha army moved through Mewar from Indore and on its way collected a ransom of one lakh from Jawad and plundered Ranikheda in March 1757. Reaching Jaipur in April 1757, Ragunathrao demanded payments from Madho Singh and laid siege to Barwada belonging to the Shekhawats. Lacking siege materials the Maratha army could not force the Shekhawats to surrender, the long standing siege started taking its toll on the Maratha army. Kaniram, the Jaipur minister offered Ragunathrao payment as agreed in the past between Marathas and Rajputs, but Ragunathrao was adamant, he demanded 40 to 50 lakhs and territory worth 14 lakhs or threatened to wait out the siege and take territory worth 40 to 50 lakhs from the Rajputs. Madho Singh, king of Jaipur refused all of Ragunathrao’s terms and asked all his feudatories to fortify their posts and stay vigilant; the Maratha army in Rajputana at the time did not have the numbers necessary to storm forts of Barwada and Jaipur and so on 12 July 1757 Ragunathrao agreed to peace talks with Madho Singh.
He accepted a payment of eleven lakhs from Jaipur. On 12 July 1757, Ragunathrao wrote to Peshwa: "I is any loan available. My troops are in debt. Prices here are high. I am daily getting my food only by sacking the villages.” - Ragunathrao's letter to Peshwa on 12th July 1757Having thus concluded the business in Rajputana and Malharrao Holkar with the remaining Maratha forces started making for Delhi to liberate it from the Afghan agents at the end of July 1757, by which point of time Ahmad Shah Abdali was well away in his country. The Maratha troops sent by Ragunathrao to recover lost possessions in the Ganga Doab under the command of Sakharam Bapu, Vithal Shivdev, Tatya Gangadhar and Antaji Mankeshwar into the Ganga Doab reached Agra in May 1757. On reaching Agra, the Marathas advanced to Yamuna, they crossed Yamuna at Agra, occupied Etawah and Sikandra, encamped at Kasganj on the southern bank of the Ganga on 17 June 1757. Antaji Mankeshwar went to Anupshahar about 2 July 1757. Meerut, occupied by Najib Khan’s agents resisted the Marathas but were swiftly defeated.
Imad-ul-mulk sent his diwan Nagar Mal to Anupshahar to establish friendly relations with the Marathas once again. Shuja-ud-daulah had agreed to remain neutral in the conflict between Najib-ud-daulah and the Marathas, thus most of the Doab came under the control of Marathas. Ahmad Shah Abdali, before heading home in Afghanistan, kept Alamgir II on the throne with Imad-ul-Mulk as his wazir, but Abdali gave all the real power to Najib-ud-Daulah, his supreme agent in India and made him Mir Bakshi. Alamgir II, Imad-ul-Mulk all wanted to be free from Najib Khan’s dominance and asked the Marathas for aid in liberating Delhi from Afghan influence. Ragunathrao agreed and marched on the imperial capital in July 1757. Sakharam Bapu, present in the Doab region at the time, occupied Patparganj, Shamsher Bahadur with the artillery division reached Rewari on 27 July 1757. Grain was stopped from entering the city. Najib Khan in preparation of the coming battle, dug trenches at Khizirabad outside the city to halt the cavalry advance of the Marathas.
Najib Khan on hearing of Ragunathrao’s advance, sent his wakil Meghraj to Imad-ul-Mulk to seek terms of peace, but Imad proposed humiliating terms which were unacceptable to Najib. And so there was no oth
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji Maharaj. He was Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal sardar, Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jang After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1707; the battle is known as Battle of Khed, On 12th of October 1707 Supreme commander of Maratha forces Dhanaji Jadhav joined Shahuji in that battle. Tarabai along with her son Shivaji 2 left for Panhala fort and Finally Shahuji captured Satara and became the emperor of Marathas with the capital at Satara, he crowned himself as the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire on 12th January 1708. Meanwhile Tarabai set up a new court at Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II as the Emperor.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. He was a powerful ruler of Maratha Samrajya after his grandfather father Sambhaji; however after his death, power moved from the ruling chhatrapati to his ministers and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore. He remained the most famous ruler expanding the territories of Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shahu's Seal। श्री वर्धिष्णुर्विक्रमे विष्णोः। सा मूर्तिरिव वामनी । । शंभूसुतोरिव । मुद्रा शिवराजस्य राजते ।। Early in his reign, Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Bahiroji Pingale as the Peshwa and Dhanaji Jadhav as the Sar Senapati. Bahiroji Pingale was taken as prisoner by Kanhoji Angre in 1711. In 1713 Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa and other 7 ministers as Ashtapradhan Mandal. Over the next few years, Under the directions and orders of Chhatrapati Shahu, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders such as Shinde, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent..
Shahu fathered four daughters. He adopted two sons, Fatehsinh I and Rajaram II of Satara. Rajaram II had been brought to him by Shahu's paternal aunt, who claimed that the young man was her grandson and a descendant of Shivaji, but disowned him as an imposter. After Shahu's death the powers were indirectly shifted to the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao and other ministers with Shrimant Rajaram 2 as the Chhatrapati of the Kingdom Shahu died in 1749, his adopted son Rajaram II of Satara succeeded him. Rajaram 2 was a powerful ruler but Tarabai tried to control his decisions, This led to a conflict between Tararani Sarkar and Rajaram 2, She told that Rajaram was just a imposter and so the actual power of Chhatrapati declined but still he continued to be the Chhatrapati and Chhatrapati enjoyed a lot of respect and ransom from the ministers as they were the real kings of the Maratha Empire, but the actual power was held by others: first by Tarabai and by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. Moreover the Peshwas lost their power and other independent kings started exercising real control.
Satara district Mehta, Jaswant Lal. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 441. Kasar, D. B. Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan, Rs. 165. Akkalkot, Solapur district gazette
Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi
Shriniwasrao Parshuram, popularly known as Shripatrao Pratinidhi or Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, was a General of the Maratha Empire. He served as Pratinidhi during Chhatrapati Shahu I reign. After the death of his father Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi in 1718, Shripat Rao won the favour of Shahu by his brilliant efforts as a soldier fighting many battles in the defence of the Maratha Empire. In 1718, he was appointed as the Pant Pratinidhi of Maratha Empire. Shripatrao was not only a able administrator and organizer, but a great statesman too, his work to consolidate the Maratha Raj has been praised by most of its historians. Shahu Maharaj depended upon the advice of Shripatrao. If owing to some unavoidable reasons Rao didn't present at the court at the usual hour the king would go to his house and inquire about him, thus Shripatrao, unlike his father had no problem of loyalty to Chatrapathi Shripatrao was asked by peshwas to establish his headquarters at Poona. Rao refused to do so, he wanted to be at the side of King of the Maratha Empire, away from the intrigues pomp and debauchery of the Peshwa court.
Shripatrao, was born in 1687. He must have been influenced by his father, he had lived a life of turmoil as well as of glory, benefited from it. Shahu Maharaj had great regard for Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi. Krishnaji Khatavkar had received the pargana of Khatav in 1689 A. D from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangazeb, he had become overbearing. Shripatro defeated him in battle. Submitting to Shahu's authority was appreciated by Shahu, who released Shripatro's father. In between 1724 and 1727, the Marathas led two expeditions into the Karnatak, one led jointly by Shripatrao Pratinidhi, Peshwa Bajirao I and the Sarlashkar, the other by Peshwa and Senapati; the first Karnatak expedition, which lasted for two years, from November 1724 and May 1726, led by Fateh Singh Bhonsale, accompanied by both Shripatrao Pratinidhi and Bajirao I, proved to be futile. The Nizam gave lukewarm support to Marathas; however he regarded the south as his sphere of influence and did not want Marathas to interfere with it. He therefore gave secret instructions to officers to thwart the plans of Marathas in Karnatak.
The Maratha leaders who led this campaign could not shed their differences. The Marathas could not realize their objective in this campaign; the second Karnatak expedition was led by Bajirao him in October 1727. The Pratinidhi, secretly negotiating with the Nizam, rewarded with a personal jagir i Varhad by Nizam. Bajirao therefore did not associate with Pratinidhi with this expedition, he besieged the fort of Serinaapatnam and succeeded in levying chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the rulers of Mysore and Arcot. After the death of Shripatrao Pratinidhi in 1746 Shahu Maharaj made his younger brother, Jagjivan Parshuram the next Pratinidhi. Jagjivan parashuram was the youngest son of Parashuram Trimbak Pant, he became Pratinidhi at the age of fifty-five. Pant Pratinidhi family Udgaonkar, P. B. Political Institutions & Administration. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. Bond, J. W. Indian States: A Biographical and Administrative Survey. Asian Educational Services. Pant, Apa. An Extended Family Or Fellow Pilgrims.
Sangam Books. Kulkarni, A. R.. The Marathas. Diamond Publications. Vaidya, Sushila. Role of women in Maratha politics, 1620-1752 A. D. Sharada Publication House
The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, becane Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India. The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, rose to the ranks of Subedar; the name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, known informally as Holkar Maharaja. Malhar Rao Holkar, a Maratha chief serving Peshwa Baji Rao, established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies in Malwa region, in 1733 was granted 9 parghanas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa; the township of Indore had existed as an independent principality established by Nandlal Mandloi of Kampel, Nandlal Mandloi was won by the Maratha force and allowed them to camp across the Khan River. In 1734, Malhar Rao established a camp called Malharganj.
In 1747, he started the construction of the Rajwada. By the time of his death, he ruled much of Malwa, was acknowledged as one of the five independent rulers of the Maratha Confederacy, he was succeeded by his daughter-in-law. She was born in the Chaundi village in Maharashtra, she moved the capital to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Rani Ahilyabai was a prolific patron of Hindu temples in Maheshwar and Indore, she built temples at sacred sites outside her kingdom, from Dwarka in Gujarat east to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi on the Ganges. The adopted son of Malhar Rao Haolkar, Tukoji Rao Holkar succeeded Rani Ahilyabai upon her death. Tukoji Rao had been a commander under Ahilyabai for her entire rule, his son Yashwantrao Holkar succeeded him upon his death. He tried to free the Delhi Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from the British in the unsuccessful Second Anglo-Maratha War; the grateful Shah Alam gave him the title of Maharajadiraj Rajrajeshwar Alija Bahadur in honor of his bravery.
Attempts by Yashwantrao Holkar to unite the kings failed, he was approached to sign a peace treaty with the British. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed late December 1805, recognised him as a sovereign king. In 1811, the four-year-old Maharaja Malharrao Holkar II succeeded Yashwantrao Holkar, his mother, Maharani Tulsabai Holkar, looked after the administration. However, with the help of Pathans and the British, Dharama Kunwar and Balaram Seth plotted to imprison Tulsabai and Malharrao; when Tulsabai learnt about this, she appointed Tantia Jog. As a result, Gaffur Khan Pindari secretly signed a treaty with the British on 9 November 1817 and killed Tulsabai on 19 December 1817; the treaty was signed on 6 January 1818 at Mandsaur. Bhimabai Holkar did not accept the treaty, kept attacking the British by guerilla methods. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhanshi took inspiration from Bhimabai Holkar and fought against the British. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Holkars lost much of their territory to the British and were incorporated into the British Raj as a princely state of the Central India Agency.
The capital was shifted from Bhanpura to Indore. Malharrao Holkar III entered Indore on 2 November 1818. Tantia Jog was appointed his Diwan; as the old palace was destroyed by the army of Daulat Rao Scindia, a new palace was constructed in its place. Malharrao III was succeeded by Martandrao Holkar, who formally ascended to the throne on 17 January 1834, but he was replaced by Harirao Holkar, nephew of Yashwantrao, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. He adopted Khanderao Holkar on 2 July 1841 and died on 24 October 1843. Khanderao was formally installed as the ruler on 13 November 1843, but he died on 17 February 1844. Tukojirao Holkar II was installed on the throne on 27 June 1844. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was loyal to the British East India Company. In October 1872, he appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore, he succeeded by his eldest son, Shivajirao. Yashwantrao Holkar II ruled Indore state until shortly after India's independence in 1947, when he acceded to the Indian Government.
Indore became a district of Madhya Bharat state, merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956. Malhar Rao Holkar I. Born 16 March 1693, died 20 May 1766 Male Rao Holkar. Born 1745, died 5 April 1767 Ahilya Bai Holkar. Born 1725, died 13 August 1795 Tukoji Rao Holkar I. Born 1723, died 15 August 1797 Kashi Rao Holkar Born before 1776, died 1808 Khande Rao Holkar Born in 1798, died 1807 Yashwant Rao Holkar I. Born 1776, died 27 October 1811 Malhar Rao Holkar II Born 1806, died 27 October 1833 Marthand Rao Holkar. Born 1830, died 2 June 1849 Hari Rao Holkar. Born 1795, died 24 October 1843 Khande Rao Holkar II. Born 1828, died 17 March 1844 Tukoji Rao Holkar II. Born 3 May 1835, died 17 June 1886 Shivaji Rao Holkar. Born 11 November 1859, died 13 October 1908 Tukoji Rao Holkar III. Born 26 November 1890, died 21 May 1978 Yashwant Ra
Rajaram Raje Bhosale was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, half-brother of Sambhaji Maharaj. He took over the Maratha Empire as its third Chhatrapati after his brother's death at the hands of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689, his eleven-year reign was marked with a constant struggle against the Mughals. Rajaram was born to Shivaji and his younger wife, Soyarabai on 24 February, 1670, he was thirteen years younger than Sambhaji. Given the ambitious nature of Soyarabai, Rajaram was installed on the Maratha throne upon the death of his father in 1680. However, Sambhaji won over the Maratha generals to his side and claimed the throne. Upon Sambhaji's death, Rajaram was crowned as Chhatrapati of the Maratha state.. Rajaram married three times, his first marriage was at the age of ten to Jankibai, the five-year-old daughter of Shivaji's army chief, Prataprao Gujar. His other wives were Tarabai, the daughter of Hambirrao Mohite, the army chief who succeeded Prataprao, Rajasbai from the influential Ghatge family of Kagal.
Rajaram had three sons, Raja Karna, born out of wedlock to a slave woman, Shivaji II with Tarabai, Sambhaji II with Rajasbai. After the death of Sambhaji, Rajaram was crowned at Raigad on 12 March 1689; as the Mughals started laying siege to the region around Raigad on 25 March 1689, the widow of Sambhaji and her minister Ramchandra Pant Amatya sent young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya ghat. The Maratha army fought with the Mughals and led the new Maratha king, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the fort of Jinji in present-day state of Tamil Nadu via Pratapgad and Vishalgad forts, Rajaram reached Keladi in disguise and sought refuge from Keladi Chennamma - The brave queen fought the Mughals and ensured safe passage and escape of Rajaram to Jinji where he reached after a month and a half on 1 November 1689, Keladi Chennamma fought the jungle warfare which frustrated the Mughals and the Mughals proposed peace accord for the first time with an Indian ruler, Keladi Chennamma.
Details of this escape are known from the incomplete poetical biography of Rajaram, the Rajaramacharita written by his Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, in Sanskrit. Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jung against the Marathas in the Deccan, specially sent Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung to capture the Jingi Fort, he laid siege to it in September, 1690. After three failed attempts, it was captured after seven years on 8 January 1698. Rajaram, however and fled first to Vellore and to Vishalgarh. Rajaram occupied the fort at Jinji from 11 Nov. 1689, but left before it fell in 1698, setting up his court at fort Satara. During that period when Jinji remained unconquered, "the intrepid Maratha commanders, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, wrought havoc in the Karnataka and Maharashtra by defeating the Mughal generals and cutting off their lines of communication." Rajaram died of lung disease in 1700 at Sinhagad near Pune in Maharashtra leaving behind widows and infants. Janakibai, one of his widows, committed Sati upon Rajaram's death.
Another of Rajaram's widows, Tarabai proclaimed her young son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati and ruled as his regent. However, the release of Shahu, by the successors of Aurangzeb led to an internecine conflict between Tarabai and Shahu with the latter becoming the winner and occupant of the throne. Tarabai installed her son as the rival Chhatrapati, she was shortly deposed by the other surviving widow of Rajaram. Rajasbai installed; the Kolhapur line has continued to this day through natural succession and adoptions per Hindu custom. Rajaram commissioned a history of his father, known as Sabhasad Bakhar after the writer of the work, Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad, an officer in the service of Rajaram; this is the only Marathi historical work about Shivaji, written by an author, a contemporary of Shivaji. All biographies were written decades or centuries after Shivaji's death and use content from Sabhasad Bakhar. Khando Ballal List of people involved in the Maratha Empire Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 440