Ierapetra is a town and municipality on the south coast of Crete. The town of Ierapetra is located along the beach of Ierapetra Bay, it is an important regional centre. With its 16,139 inhabitants it is the most populous town in the regional unit of Lasithi, the fourth town of Crete. Ierapetra is nicknamed "bride of the Libyan Sea" because of its position as the only town on the south coast of Crete. Ierapetra has had a place in the history of Crete since the Minoan period; the Greek and Roman town of Hierapytna was on the same site as present day Ierapetra. In the Classical Age Hierapytna became the strongest town of eastern Crete and, as a Dorian city in continual rivalry with Praisos, the last Minoan city in the island. In the 3rd century BC, Hierapytna was notorious for its tendency to piracy and took part in the Cretan War along with other Cretan cities in the side of Philip V of Macedon against Knossos and Rhodes, its importance as independent state ended when it was conquered by the Romans in 67 BC and was surpassed by the city of Gortyn.
The Roman conquest of Ierapetra occurred at about the same time as that of Knossos and Lato. Today remains of the Roman harbor can still be seen in the shallow bay. In AD 824 it was destroyed by Arab invaders. In the Venetian Age, from the 13th to the 17th centuries, Ierapetra - now known by its present name - became prosperous again; the Fortress of Kales, built in the early years of Venetian rule and strengthened by Francesco Morosini in 1626 to protect the harbor, is a remnant of this period, although local myth says it was built by the Genoese pirate Pescatore in 1212. In July 1798 Ierapetra made a small step into world history: Napoleon stayed with a local family after the Battle of the Pyramids in Egypt; the house where he stayed can still be seen. In the Ottoman period a mosque was built in the town. Finds from Ierapetra's past can be found in the local Museum of Antiquities a school for Muslim children; the centrepiece of the exhibition is a well-preserved statue of Persephone. Present day Ierapetra consists of Kato Mera and Pano Mera.
Kato Mera is the old town on the southwestern headland. It is characterized by a medieval street layout with narrow alleyways, cul-de-sacs and small houses, creating a village-like atmosphere; the former mosque and the "house of Napoleon" can be found in this neighbourhood, as can Aghios Georgios metropolitan church in the town's center. It is considered one of the most interesting churches of Crete; the ceiling of the church has many "blind" domes. Those, as well as the central dome, are wooden. Pano Mera is the much bigger new town, with three and four storey houses. Pano Mera is still expanding towards the west and east. Ierapetra's main shopping street is Koundouriotou. In the center, the town hall, the museum and one cinema can be found; the local hospital lies in Pano Mera. To the west is the southern headland with the fortress, a port for fishing boats and ´Navmachia´ area, where sea fights among slaves for citizens´ entertainment were taking place during the Roman period. Further east is a short beach with bars and restaurants, followed by the quay for ferries to Chrissi.
Further on lies the main boulevard with hotels, bars and souvenir shops. At its end, a new promenade leads alongside Ierapetra Bay's long beach; the local government has planned the development of a new international port. This plan is being opposed by some citizens who think it will destroy the local environment and scenery, they are supported by the local environmental tribune. In 2003 the Technological Educational Institute of Marketing and Commerce was opened. In the wake of the financial crisis, in early 2013 the government decided to merge or close down a number of schools, including TEI of Marketing in Ierapetra; this sparked a round of protests. Around 7,000 people staged a peaceful protest on 8 February 2013 holding torches. Local authorities and local media described that march as "the biggest rally in Ierapetra to date". On 12 February 2013 the town of Ierapetra witnessed a big protest rally, as thousands of people took to the streets once again demanding the TEI school to stay in town and the hospital to be upgraded.
The local hospital was set up in 1955 with funds coming from Cretans who lived in the USA. In 2010 it was announced that under a government plan for new administrative divisions, called "the Kallikratis Project", the hospital was to shut down; this sparked an unprecedented wave of protests within the region, as the hospital serves 40,000 people, including some from the neighbouring prefecture of Agios Nikolaos. The protests culminated in a march that took place on 25 January 2011. Another march from Ierapetra to Iraklion followed on the same day, where over 2,500 people from and around the town and showed their anger for the decision by the central government to close the hospital. Protests included occupation of the building where the Decentralised Administration is located and an outdoors theatrical play by the protestors. Following those incidents, it was announced that the authorities had decided to halt the process of degrading and closing the hospital. Instead, the latter was funded with 1 million euros and more doctors were to be sent.
However, despite the promises of the government, problems loomed surrounding health services and the l
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Tylisos is a town and a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Malevizi, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 131.064 km2. Population 2,867 in 2011, it is town. The Municipality of Tylisos includes 11 villages; the economy is based on agriculture grape cultivation and olive cultivation. At the same time stock farming of sheep and chickens and beehive farms are abundant. Tylisos was excavated 1909-1913 by Joseph Hadzidakis, 1953-1955 by Nicholas Platon and in 1971 by A. Kanta; the town was in use Early Minoan II to Late Minoan IIIA, the peak sanctuary,excavated in 1963 by Alexiou was in use until at least Late Minoan IA. Structures include a cistern and an aqueduct with clay pipes. Excavation finds have included a pithos with Linear A inscriptions, stone horns, clay human and animal figurines. There are a significant number of caves including the Kamilari Cave, Hainospilios Cave, Trapeza Cave and Arkaliospilio.
There are two gorges which are namely: the Almiros gorge, the Gonies gorge. Agrotourism is a popular among visitors all year round. Arolithos village, Ktima Kares and Agrotikon are the most visited sites for this and other leisure activities. Nearby is Sklavokampos. Jones, Donald W. 1999 Peak Sanctuaries and Sacred Caves of Minoan Crete ISBN 91-7081-153-9 Kyriakidis, Evangelos, 2005, Ritual in the Aegean: The Minoan Peak Sanctuaries, London: Duckworth publishers Kyriakidis, Evangelos 2007, ‘Finding Ritual: Calibrating the Evidence’, in Kyriakidis, E. 2007. The Archaeology of Ritual, Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology UCLA publications, pp. 9–22 Minoan Crete, Tylissos page
Krousonas is a village and a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Malevizi, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 65.033 km2. Population 2,776
Gavdos is the southernmost Greek island, located to the south of its much larger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the regional unit of Chania. It was part of the former Selino Province; the island is situated at the southern tip of Greece, thus making it the southernmost point of the entire European continent. Gavdos has been known by a wide variety of names. For example, it appears in the biblical account of Paul's journey to Rome in Acts 27 as "Clauda" or "Cauda"; the island was referred to as "Cauda" by Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, as "Gaudos" by Pliny. Ptolemy called Gavdos "Claudos"; the Venetians called it "Gotzo" in imitation of the Maltese island "Gozo". From the 17th to the 19th centuries, the island was known as "Gondzo". A Turkish name of Godzo was "Bougadoz"; the island is 26 nautical miles south of Chora Sfakion. The area of the municipality, which includes the small island Gavdopoula, is 32.424 square kilometres. The island is triangular in shape, its highest point is 345 metres.
The southeastern corner is a rocky peninsula with a natural arch carved by the elements, called Trypiti. A sculpture of an oversized chair sits on top of Trypiti. There is an islet called Gavdopoula to the north west of Gavdos. Gavdos and Gavdopoula are covered with low-lying shrubs. Both are important stops for migrating birds. Local birds include the European shag. Gavdos has a variety of other vegetation, such as maquis as well as forests of pines and junipers. Gavdos is the southernmost island in Greece and all of Europe, with a warm Mediterranean subtropical climate typical of the Greek islands, summers are hot with daily temperatures reaching 32 ° C in August and mild winters by European standards, the coldest month has an average temperature of 17 ° C; the Mediterranean Sea is an important thermal regulator that surrounds it island in all its directions, while maintaining the high temperature of the sea in summer passing from 26 ° C. The mild climate is aided by hot winds blowing from the Sahara Desert.
The countless mountains of the Balkans protect from the cold, continental air, in addition to its island condition. As a result of the Subtropical High of the Azores precipitation is concentrated in winter, making summers dry with no precipitation days during June and August months, it is the sunniest place in Europe and with the highest number of radiation: between 1800 and 1900 kWh/m², values closer to North Africa and the Middle East. There are only a small number of year-round residents of services for tourists are basic; as of 2011, the total population of Gavdos was 152. In reality, fewer than 50 people live permanently on the island. In the summer the total people on the island can reach over 3,500, most of whom are campers and tourists; the largest man-made harbour for ferries is Karave. The island's capital is Kastri; the southernmost populated village is Vatsiana, with a total permanent population of 31 people. Gavdos has supported a permanent population since Neolithic times. However, the island has few permanent residents.
Gavdos has been identified as a possible site of the mythical Ogygia where Kalypso held Odysseus prisoner. Archaeological evidence showed. During that time the flora of the island was overexploited and that started a process of erosion which has continued to this day. Gavdos had 8,000 inhabitants by 900 AD. During the Ottoman Empire's reign on the island, which lasted from 1665 until 1895, Gavdos was known as Gondzo. During this period the population decreased to only 500 by 1882. A reference to Saracens on the island survives: the beach Sarakiniko. In the 1930s the island was used as a place of exile of communists. During World War II, allied forces evacuated some forces to Gavdos following the German victory in the battle of Crete. On, the general phase of urbanization that started in other parts of Greece in the 1960s took place in the 1950s on Gavdos. During that period the islanders exchanged their land on Gavdos with ex-Turkish land on Crete, which had now become exchangeable via the state.
Upon settling in Crete they created a community known as Gavdiotika, part of the town of Paleochora. There are many abandoned terraces on Gavdos. There still is some agriculture on Gavdos. During the summer, the population of the island swells to a few thousand because of tourists, although there are few facilities for tourists. There is one year-round cafe in Carave on Gavdos run by Evangelina Tsigonakis. There is a modern non-functioning reproduction lighthouse tower on Gavdos which now serves as a cafe during the summer season. Gavdos has an FM radio station, Gavdos FM 88.8, available online. Following years of isolation, in 1996 the island came to media prominence. In a NATO exercise Gavdos was the focal point of a confrontation between Turkey. Following that, Prime Minister Costas Simitis visited Gavdos and announced a five-year, €1.5 million plan for the island's development. In 2001, Costis Stephanopoulos, the Greek President, inaugurated a telemedicine centre on Gavdos, an
Kissamos is a town and municipality, multiple bishopric and Latin titular see in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. It is part of the Chania regional unit and of the former Kissamos Province which covers the northwest corner of the island; the city of Kissamos is known as Kastelli Kissamou and known as Kastelli after the Venetian castle, there. It is now a fishing harbour, with a regular ferry from the Peloponnese via Kythira. A town museum is located in the old Venetian governor's palace and there have been important archaeological finds in the town, including fine mosaics, dating from the Roman city of Kisamos; the head town of the municipality is Kastelli-Kissamos itself. Strabo said that ancient Cisamus was its naval arsenal; the Peutinger Table distinguishes two port towns in Crete called Cisamus, Modern Kissamos is much further west than where Aptera is now placed. It was excluded by Pashley in 1837 as being, of the two ancient maritime Cretan cities named Kisamos, the one associated with Aptera.
In the past, when the port of Aptera was thought to be present-day Kissamos, some supposed Aptera to be identical with Polyrrhenia, Kissamos to be the port of Polyrrhenia. However and other ancient sources say that Polyrrhenia's port was at Phalasarna on the west coast. Ancient Cisamus became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Gortyna, the capital of the Roman province of Crete. Only two of its first-millennium bishops are named in extant contemporary documents: Theopemptus, Nicetas at the Trullan Council in 692, Leo at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787; the bishopric is still a residential. After the Venetian conquest of Crete in 1212, Cisamus became a Latin Church diocese; the names of more than 20 residential Latin bishops from until the end of the 16th century are known, including: Suffragan Bishops of Kisamo... Angelo Barbarigo Bishop of Verona, Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede in commendam (1415.07.04 – 1418.08.16... Prospero Santacroce, Apostolic Nuncio to Austria-Hungary, Apostolic Nuncio to France, Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal, again Apostolic Nuncio to France, created Cardinal-Priest of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, Apostolic Administrator of Arles, transferred Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli, Cardinal-Priest of S. Adriano al Foro pro hac vice Title, Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente, promoted Cardinal-Bishop of Albano Apostolic Administrator Gerolamo Ragazzoni, former Coadjutor Bishop of Famagosta, Bishop of Novara, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo&Bergamo, Apostolic Nuncio to France No longer a residential bishopric, Cisamus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular bishopric, since it was suppressed as residential see around 1600 AD.
It has been vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest rank: Fortunato Bisleti, no office recorded Miguel Anselmo Álvarez de Abreu y Valdéz, as Auxiliary Bishop of Tlaxcala. S. Casquete Prado; the municipal unit of Kissamos includes the Gramvousa peninsula in the northwest and the adjacent Gramvousa islets, as well as the islet of Pontikonisi, the villages of Sfinari, Polirinia, Lousakia, Sirikari and Kalathena. It forms the extreme western part of the region, of Crete, it is bordered by Platanias to the East, by Kantanos-Selino to the south. The province of Kissamos was one of the provinces of the Chania Prefecture, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality of Kissamos, the municipal units of Kolymvari and Voukolies. It
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla