Nana Sahib, born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of Maratha empire and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore during the 1857 uprising. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky; the Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender executed the survivors, gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days, he disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859. Nana was born on 19 May 1824 to Narayan Bhat and Ganga Bai. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Maratha War, the East India Company had exiled Peshwa Baji Rao II to Bithoor near Cawnpore, where he maintained a large establishment paid for in part out of a British pension.
Nana's father, a well-educated Deccani Brahmin, had travelled with his family from the Western Ghats to become a court official of the former Peshwa at Bithoor. Lacking sons, Baji Rao adopted Nana Sahib and his younger brother in 1827; the mother of both children was a sister of one of the Peshwa's wives. Nana Sahib's childhood associates included Tantya Tope, Azimullah Khan and Manikarnika Tambe who became famous as Rani Lakshmibai. Tantya Tope was the son of Pandurang Rao Tope, an important noble at the court of the Peshwa Baji Rao II. After Baji Rao II was exiled to Bithoor, Pandurang Rao and his family shifted there. Tantya Tope was the fencing master to Nana Sahib. Azimullah Khan joined the court of Nana Sahib as Secretary, after the death of Baji Rao II in 1851, he became the dewan in Nana Sahib's court. The Doctrine of lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, the British Governor-General of India between 1848 and 1856. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir".
The latter supplanted the long-established legal right of an Indian sovereign without an heir to choose a successor. In addition, the British were to decide; the doctrine and its application were regarded by Indians as illegitimate. At that time, the Company had absolute, imperial administrative jurisdiction over many regions spread over the subcontinent; the company took over the princely states of Satara and Sambalpur, Baghat and Jhansi using this doctrine. The British took over Awadh claiming; the Company added about four million pounds sterling to its annual revenue by the use of this doctrine. With the increasing power of the East India Company, discontent simmered amongst sections of Indian society and the indigenous armed Jhansi forces. Under the Peshwa's will Nana Sahib was, through his adoption, heir-presumptive to the Maratha's throne, eligible for his adoptive father's continuing annual pension of £80,000 from the East India Company. However, after the death of Baji Rao II, the Company stopped the pension on the grounds that the Nana was not a natural born heir and that the kingdom no longer existed.
The Nana, while still wealthy, was offended by both the termination of the pension and by the suspension of various titles and grants, retained by Baji Rao in exile. Accordingly, Nana Sahib sent an envoy to England in 1853 to plead his case with the British Government. However, Azimullah Khan was unable to convince the British to resume the pension, he returned to India in 1855. Nana Sahib won the confidence of the Collector of Kanpur, it was planned that Nana Sahib would assemble a force of 1,500 soldiers to support the British, in case the rebellion spread to Cawnpore. On 6 June 1857, at the time of the rebellion by forces of the East India Company at Cawnpore, the British contingent had taken refuge at an entrenchment in the northern part of the town. Amid the prevailing chaos in Cawnpore and his forces entered the British magazine situated in the northern part of the town; the soldiers of the 53rd Native Infantry, who were guarding the magazine, thought that Nana had come to guard the magazine on behalf of the Company.
However, once he entered the magazine, Nana Sahib announced that he was a participant in the rebellion against the Company, intended to be a vassal of Bahadur Shah II. After taking possession of the Company treasury, Nana advanced up the Grand Trunk Road stating that he wanted to restore the Maratha confederacy under the Peshwa tradition, decided to capture Cawnpore. On his way, Nana met the rebel Company soldiers at Kalyanpur; the soldiers were on their way to Delhi, to meet Bahadur Shah II. Nana wanted them to go back to Cawnpore, help him defeat the British; the soldiers were reluctant at first, but decided to join Nana when he promised to double their pay and reward them with gold, if they were to destroy the British entrenchment. On 5 June 1857, Nana Sahib sent a letter to General Wheeler informing him to expect an attack next morning at 10 am. On 6 June, his forces attacked the Company entrench
Bhanpura is a town and a nagar panchayat in Mandsaur district, located in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It was ruled by the Chandrawats of Mewar during the times of Rana Sanga's rule; the town is home to a number of historic places such as the Daraki-Chattan region, one of the world's oldest rock arts, Chaturbhujnath Nala rock art shelters, the Hinglajgarh Fort. Bhanpura has a museum that displays the popular arts of Mandsaur, including art from the Gupta era until the time of Pratiharas and Parmaras; the excavation at Daraki-Chattan revealed immense information on the cultural occupation of the site. Daraki-Chattan is a small and narrow cleft or cave in the tall cliff faces of Indragarh Hill in the Vindhya range, overlooking the Rewa river valley; the cave is 1.4 metres wide at its mouth, from where it continuously narrows down in width closing at the depth of 8.4 m from its mouth. The cave is 7.4 m in height. It bears more than five hundred patinated cupules on both of its vertical walls.
The Daraki-Chattan cupules were discovered by Ramesh Kumar Pancholi in 1992. The Archaeological Survey of India took up Daraki-Chattan region near Bhanpura as a case for the study of early petroglyphs in India, commenced excavation under Giriraj Kumar in 2002. Daraki-Chattan reveals the past of an extensive rock art in this cave; the collection of stone artifact assemblage from the excavation undoubtedly reveals that the shelter was occupied by the Acheulean man. The experts studying the petroglyphs claim it to be the "oldest rock art in the world", about 2 to 5 lakh years old. In order to study the early cupules in India, an international project called "Early Indian Petroglyphs" was established in 2000, it is a joint venture by researchers from Rock Art Society of India and Australian Rock Art Association, under the supervision of the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations, Robert Bednarik and Giriraj Kumar. Bhanpura gets its name from a king named Bhaman, it was ruled by the Chandrawats of Mewar in the 16th century.
Chandrawat of Bhanpura held the title of'Rao'. The Chandrawats descend from Chanda Singh, were powerful chiefs in Mewar, they migrated from Mewar due to internal strife. At that time, Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar, a strong nationalist, decided to drive the British out of India. After keeping the British out of his state, he built 200 cannons at a factory in Bhanpur, he gathered an army of 1 lakh soldiers to attack Calcutta. The stress of the work and the death of his nephews, Khanderao Holkar II on 3 February 1806 at Shahapura, Kashirao Holkar in 1808 at Bijagad, led to his sudden death in Mandsaur on 28 October 1811 at the age of 35. A Chhatri was constructed on the site of death of Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar in Bhanpura, completed in 1841; this Chhatri houses a marble statue of Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar. The ruins of the cannon factory can be seen in villages of Indragarh near Bhanpura. Bhanpura is located at 24.52°N 75.73°E / 24.52. It has an average elevation of 384 metres. Bhanpura is 127 km north-east of Mandsaur, south of Hinglajgarh and Navali in Mandsaur district.
As of 2001 India census, Bhanpura had a population of 16,493. Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Bhanpura had an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 13% of the population was under 6 years of age. The Chhatri of Yashwantrao Holkar houses a museum of popular arts of Mandsaur. Art from the Gupta era until the time of Pratiharas and Parmaras is on display. Sculpted portraits of Uma-Maheshwar, Vishnu and Nandi are displayed; the Bhanpura Museum has a collection of statues gathered from the nearby areas. The statues include depictions of Chamunda, Mahishasuramardini, gauri and Chaturbhuja Vishnu; the 11th-century Nandi statue is attractive. In front of the Nandi, there is laddus in a plate. Another statue of great importance is that of Uma-Maheshwar, adorned with ornaments, in which Uma-Maheshwar is depicted as riding the Nandi; the museum houses the archaeological material found during construction of Gandhi sagar dam. There is a collection of arms and ammunition from historic wars.
Oil paintings from around Bhanpura have been displayed here. The Nandi and Uma-Maheshwar sculptures have been loaned to France and Washington, D. C. for display in Indian art festivals. Hinglajgarh or Hinglaj Fort is an ancient fort situated near Navali village in the Bhanpura tehsil of Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh, it is located at 25°30' N 65°31' E. It is situated at a distance of 165 km from 26 km from Bhanpura in Madhya Pradesh; this fort was at its peak of grandeur during the Parmara rule. There are many artistic sculptures of various periods in this fort; the Nandi and Uma-Maheshwar sculptures were sent from here to France and Washington for display in Indian festivals. Hinglajgarh has been the centre of excellence in craftsmanship of sculptures for about 800 years; the statues recovered from this fort are from Gupta period to the Parmara period. The most ancient statues are from 4th to 5th century AD. Chaturbhujnath Nala rock art shelters were discovered in 1973,by Dr. Ramesh kumar pancholi and are one of the Longest Rock Art Galleries in the world.
They are situated near the Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary, 30 kilometres from Bhanpura in the Mandsaur district of Madhya Pradesh. It is located along a perennial stream called the Chaturbhujnath Nala, stretching in a 5-kilometre-long rock art gallery, with thousands o
Shivaji Bhonsle was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence and building forts, forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations, he revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.
In Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth; the Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth. Shivaji was named after the goddess Shivai. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general, his mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri. At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur and Golkonda. Shahaji changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small army. Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, religious, his studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
He was interested in religious teachings, sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints. Shahaji, meanwhile had married Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur, he moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji. Many of Shivaji's comrades, a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career. Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained without success to Shahaji. In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, conquered from the nayaks who had taken control after the demise of the Vijayanagara Empire.
He was asked to settle the area. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji, his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained, he married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. As early as 1645, the teenage Shivaji expressed his concept in a letter. In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him; the Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor. On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adilshah's position in Karnataka. During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and consolidated his gains. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident.
Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, seized from him the valley of Javali. Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender; the two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.
The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him, o
Balaji Baji Rao
Balaji Baji Rao known as Nana Saheb, was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India. He was appointed as Peshwa in 1740 upon the death of his illustrious father, the Peshwa Bajirao I. During his tenure, the Chhatrapati was reduced to a mere figurehead. At the same time, the Maratha empire started transforming into a confederacy, in which individual chiefs — such as the Holkars, the Scindias and the Bhonsles of Nagpur kingdom — became more powerful. During Balaji Rao's tenure, the Maratha territory reached its zenith. A large part of this expansion, was led by the individual chiefs, whose acts of plundering alienated the masses. By the end of Balaji Baji Rao's tenure, the Peshwa was reduced to more of a financier than a general. Unlike his father, Balaji baji Rao was not a great military leader and failed to gauge the seriousness of Durrani invasions in northern India; this resulted in a massive Maratha defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat. Some judicial and revenue reforms were made during his tenure, but the credit for these goes to his cousin Sadashivrao Bhau and his associate Balshastri Gadgil.
Balaji Rao was born in the Bhat family, to Peshwa Baji Rao I, on 8 December 1720. After Baji Rao died in April 1740, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed 19-year old Balaji as the Peshwa in August 1740, despite opposition from other chiefs such as Shahu's own relative Raghoji I Bhonsle, he was married to Gopikabai. The couple had three sons, Vishwasrao who died in the battle of Panipat in 1761, Madhavrao who succeeded Nanasaheb as Peshwa and Narayanrao who succeeded Madhavrao in his late teens. Nanasaheb had an able brother called Raghunathrao whose ambitions to be the Peshwa became disastrous for the Maratha empire. In early years of Balaji Rao's tenure, Raghoji I Bhonsle helped extend Maratha influence in South and East India. However, he was not on good terms with the Peshwa. Shortly before Balaji's appointment as the Peshwa, Raghoji had led a Maratha force to South India, his mission was to help Pratap Singh of Thanjavur, a royal of the Bhonsle clan, against Dost Ali Khan. Raghoji killed Dost Ali in May 1740, installed Dost Ali's son Safdar Ali Khan as the Nawab of Arcot.
He returned to Satara, unsuccessfully lodged a protest against Balaji Rao's appointment as the Peshwa. He returned to South India, where he defeated Chanda Sahib in March 1741, before being forced to retreat by Chanda Sahib's French allies from Pondicherry. After returning to Satara, Raghoji continued to oppose Balaji Rao. In 1743, Raghoji Bhonsle attacked Alivardi Khan's forces in Orissa. Khan paid ₹ 2,000,000 to Balaji Rao, who helped him expel Raghoji from Orissa in 1744. Raghoji complained to Chhatrapati Shahu, got himself appointed the in-charge of Marathas in Orissa and Bihar. By 1752, Raghoji had taken over administration of Orissa, frequently raided Bengal and Bihar to collect chauth; the instability brought by him to Bengal paved way for the rise of the East India Company there. The Maratha noblewoman Tarabai was the head of a family, a rival claimant to the Chhatrapati title. A rival of Chhatrapati Shahu, she pretended reconciliation with him. In the 1740s, during the last years of Shahu's life, Tarabai brought a child to him: Rajaram II.
She presented the child as her grandson, thus, a direct descendant of Shivaji. Shahu adopted the child, after his death in 1749, Rajaram II succeeded him as the Chhatrapati; the next year, Peshwa Balaji Rao left to fight against the Nizam of Hyderabad. In his absence, Tarabai urged Rajaram II to remove him from the post of Peshwa; when Rajaram refused, she imprisoned him in a dungeon at Satara, on 24 November 1750. She claimed that he was an impostor, that she had falsely presented him as her grandson. Tarabai was unsuccessful in getting support from the Nizam Salabat Jung. However, she managed to enlist the help of Umabai Dabhade. Umabai Dabhade was the matriarch of the Dabhade family, whose members held the title of senapati and controlled several territories in Gujarat, her husband had been killed by the Mughals, her eldest son had been killed by Balaji Rao's father for a rebellion against Chhatrapati Shahu. However, Shahu had forgiven the Dabhades and allowed them to retain their jagirs and titles on the condition that they would remit half of the revenues collected from Gujarat to his treasury.
Umabai's minor son Yashwant Rao was made the titular senapati, while she held the actual executive power in Maratha territories of Gujarat. The Dabhades never shared any revenues, but Shahu did not want to take any action against a grieving mother. However, after Shahu's death Peshwa Balaji Rao faced an empty treasury and pressurized the Dabhades to share Gujarat revenues as per the agreement. Umabai met him in 1750 and argued that the agreement was void because the Dabhades had signed it under force; the Peshwa refused to entertain this argument. Umabai dispatched 15,000 troops led by her lieutenant Damaji Rao Gaekwad in support of Tarabai's rebellion. Gaekwad advanced towards Pune, prompting the Peshwa's mother Kashibai and his grandmother Radhabai to flee from Pune to Sinhagad. While encamped at Pargaon near Pune, he received a letter from the Peshwa loyalist Mahadji Purandare, who denounced him as a traitor. Subsequently, Gaekwad started advancing towards Satara. Mahadji's brother Trimbakrao Purandare led a 20,000-strong force against him.
Gaekwad defeated him at a small town north of Satara. He marched to Satara, where he was received by Tarabai. However, Trimbakrao re-formed his army and on 15 March 1751, he attacked Gaekwad's army, encamped on the banks of the Venna River. Gaekwad was de
H. H. Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Shrimant Yashwant Rao Holkar Bahadur, belonging to the subordinate feudatory Holkar dynasty of the Maratha Empires was the subordinate feudatory raja of the Maratha Empire, he was born on 3 December 1776. He was a gifted military leader and educated in accountancy as well as literate in Persian and Marathi. Yashwant Rao has been referred to by some Indian historians as the "Napoleon of India". In January 1799, Yashwant Rao Holkar was crowned King, as per Hindu Vedic rites and in May, 1799, he captured Ujjain, he started campaigning towards the north to expand his empire in that region. Yashwant Rao rebelled against the policies of the Peshwa Baji Rao II. In May 1802, he marched towards Pune the seat of the Peshwa; this gave rise to the Battle of Poona. After the defeat, the Peshwa fled from Pune; the Conquest of Pune left Yashwant Rao Holkar in charge of the administration and he made some constructive steps to rebuild the Maratha Empire. Realising the growing British strength in India, Yashwant Rao Holkar decided to make a stand against the British.
Accompanied by Raghuji Bhonsale and Daulat Scindia, Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar on 4 June 1803 decided to fight against the British force after their meeting at Bodwad. However, after a conspiracy against him, he decided not to be a part of the Maratha Confederacy. To curb the power of British, Maharaja Yashwant Rao Holkar wrote letters to different rulers and welcomed them to get unite and fight against the British power. But, all his plans and appeal went in vain as all the kings had signed treaties with the British. Afterwards, Yashwant Rao decided to fight against the British on his own, he defeated the British army, led by Colonel Fawcett, at Kunch, in Bundelkhand as well as attacked Delhi to free the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, imprisoned by the British and attacked the army of Colonel Ochterlony and Berne. This battle lasted for a week, but Yashwant Rao Holkar could not succeed because Colonel Ochterlony was supported by Lord Lake. Yashwant Rao Holkar won the title of "Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Alija Bahadur" as a token of admiration by Mughal Emperor Shah Alam for his bravery.
Afraid of the possibility of Yashwant Rao Holkar uniting the Indian rajas against them, the British decided to make peace with Maharaja Yashwant Rao Holkar. Yashwant Rao Holkar proceeded to sign a treaty with the British on 24 December 1805, at Rajghat. Yashwant Rao was known to be the only king in India whom the British approached to sign a peace treaty on equal terms; the British returned all his territory, accepted his dominion over Jaipur, Kota and affirmed not to interfere in matters relating to the Holkars. The victorious king started ruling his newly expanded kingdom. Though Yashwant Rao Holkar again tried to unite the Maratha Confederacy and appealed to Daulatrao Scindia, but Scindia gave the information about this letter to the local British resident, Marsor. Holkar and Scindia agreed on eleven defensive and offensive strategies on 14 November 1807. To make his plan a success he decided to stay in Bhanpura to form a large army and manufacture cannons, he was successful in his endeavour of keeping the British out of his state and started making preparations to drive the British out of India.
He assembled an army of 100,000 soldiers to attack Calcutta, however, on 27 October 1811 he died, unexpectedly. Kashi Rao Holkar was not an able ruler, but Malhar Rao Holkar had all the qualities of an able ruler and was a military leader. Malharrao and Yashwantrao opposed Kashirao and demanded that Malharrao should be the heir after Maharaja Tukojirao. Another reason was the courage and bravery shown by Malharrao in the Battle of Lakhairi, where the Holkars were defeated by the well-trained modern army of Scindia under the command of Benoît de Boigne, he stood till the last soldier fell in the battlefield, was wounded and fell unconscious there. Support was growing for Malharrao, Kashirao felt his authority was in danger—so he sought the help of the Scindia, who were considered jealous of the Holkars, due to the growing prominence and rising power of Holkars in North India; this move angered the people, as during the siege of the Kumher fort in 1754, Scindias had agreed to sign the treaty with Surajmal Jat though Malharrao's son Khanderao was killed during the siege.
On 14 September 1797, Daulat Rao Scindia attacked Malharrao and killed him. He imprisoned Malharrao’s pregnant wife, who gave birth to Khande Rao Holkar, Bhimabai Holkar, daughter of Yashwantrao Holkar. Nana Phadnawis condemned this, so Peshwa Bajirao II, Sarjarao Ghatke imprisoned him. Yashwantrao Holkar took shelter at Nagpur’s Raghoji II Bhonsle; when Scindia learned this, he asked Raghoji II Bhonsle to arrest Yashwantrao Holkar. Bhawani Shankar Khatri, with Yashwantrao, helped him to escape, both of them escaped from Nagpur on 6 April 1798. After these incidents, Yashwantrao Holkar never trusted anybody. Meanwhile, support for Yashwantrao Holkar was growing. Vithojirao Holkar, Fatthesinh Mane, Aamir Khan, Bhawani Shankar Bakshi, Zunzhar Naik, Govardhan Naik, Rana Bhau Sinha, Balaji Kamlakar, Abhay Sinha, Bharmal Dada, Parashar Dada, Govind Pant Ganu, Harmat Sinha, Shamrao Mahadik, Jiwaji Yashwant, Harnath Chela, Vazir Hussain, Shahmat Khan, Gaffur Khan, Fatteh Khan had joined the army of Yashwantrao Holkar.
The King of Dhar, Anandrao Pawar, requested Yashwantrao Holkar's help in curbing the rebellion of one of his ministers, Rangnath.
Madhav Rao I was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. During his tenure, the Maratha empire recovered from the losses they suffered during the Third Battle of Panipat, a phenomenon known as Maratha Resurrection, he is considered one of the greatest Peshwas in Maratha history. Madhavrao was second son of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he was born in Savnur in 1745. At the time of his birth, Maratha Empire was stretched across a sizeable portion of Western and Northern India. On December 9, 1753, Madhavrao married Ramabai in Pune. Nanasaheb had expanded the Maratha Empire and had tried to establish better governance. However, he was held responsible for the severe defeat of the Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali at the Third Battle of Panipat; the Marathas suffered heavy losses including Nanasaheb's eldest son and heir Vishwasrao and cousin Sadashivrao Bhau. He died on June 1761 at Parvati in Pune. After his father's death, the sixteen-year-old Madhav Rao was made the next Peshwa of Maratha Empire, his father's brother Raghunathrao was to act as regent.
At the ascendancy of Madhavrao, the Maratha empire was in complete shambles as their defeat at Panipat had accumulated big debts to their wealth. At Shaniwar Wada, the prime residence of Peshwa, religious rituals and ceremonies were being conducted; the discipline required for the smooth running of administrative affairs was non-existent. The security at the treasury was poor; when these weaknesses were brought to Madhavrao's notice and he introduced changes by looking into the administration and the treasury. He reduced the religious practices being followed at Shaniwar Wada. In February 1762, Peshwas set out to conquer Karnataka; this was one of the earliest wars against the Nizam when conflict arose between Madhavrao and his uncle Raghunathrao. Due to difference of opinion between the two, Raghunathrao decided to abandon the troop midway and return to Pune, while Madhavrao continued. A treaty was signed with the Nizam and Madhavrao returned. Both Madhavrao and Raghunathrao had their preferences over the Sardars.
Madhavrao preferred the company of Gopalrao Patwardhan, Tryambakrao Mama Pethe, Nana Fadnavis and Ramshastri Prabhune. The discord between Madhavrao and Raghunathrao was increasing and on August 22, 1762, Raghunathrao fled to Vadgaon Maval where he started grooming his own army. Raghunathrao's men started looting this act angered Madhavrao, he decided to wage a war against his uncle Ragunathrao on November 7, 1762. However, Madhavrao didn't wish to battle against his own uncle and thus, proposed for a treaty. Raghunathrao agreed to sign the treaty with Madhavrao and asked him to move back to a non-attacking position. Madhavrao did so. However, Raghunathrao deceived Madhavrao; when the Maratha camp under Madhavrao was relaxed and unsuspecting of a battle, they were caught unawared as Raghunathrao attacked treacherously. Thus, Madhavrao was defeated in this war and on November 12, 1762 surrendered himself to Raghunathrao near Alegaon. After the surrender, Raghunathrao decided to control all the major decisions under the assistance of Sakharam Bapu.
He decided to befriend Nizam, but this proved to be a wrong masterplan as Nizam started infiltrating the zones of Maratha Empire. As time slipped by, Madhavrao pointed out the gravity of the situation to his uncle. On March 7, 1763 the Peshwas, once again under Madhavrao's leadership, decided to attack Aurangabad to crush Nizam. After months of chasing, Peshwas faced Nizam's army on August 10, 1763 in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan near Aurangabad. Nizam's army suffered huge losses in Nizam retreated. In January 1764, for the second time, Madhavrao decided to gather up his defences and conquer Hyder Ali; this time his massive army included efficient generals like Gopalrao Patwardhan, Murarrao Ghorpade and Naro Shankar. Raghunathrao instead chose to visit Nashik; this was a long conquest which went for a year in and around the districts of Karnataka. However, Hyder Ali somehow managed to escape the clutches of the Peshwas. Madhavrao decided to call Raghunathrao for his assistance, but Raghunathrao only signed a treaty with Hyder Ali, much to Madhavrao's disappointment.
Raghunathrao intentionally made this move, since he was now fearfully aware of Madhavrao's burgeoning power. Additionally, his loyal assistant Sakharam bapu warned him against the consequences of conquering Hyder Ali. Peshwa's failure to impose authority over Hyder Ali triggered a major setback on Madhavrao's health. In 1767, Madhavrao I organized a 3rd expedition against Hyder Ali and inflicted defeats on Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri and made a surprise discovery of Queen Virammaji the last ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom and her son who were kept in confinement in the fort of Madgiri by Hyder Ali, they were sent to Pune for protection. Peshwas were expanding their territory in the northern regions of India. Raghunathrao and Shindes together marched towards Delhi with the intention of expanding the Maratha Empire in these territories. In the meanwhile, Madhavrao made a bold decision of bonding with his old rival, Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II; the Nizam genuinely expressed his desire to increase the relationship and thus the two met at Kurumkhed on February 5, 1766.
The next few days saw open expressions of concern. The levels of mutual understanding alleviated and this relationship started growing stronger. On December 3, 1767, British officer Mastin arr
Pratap Singh, Raja of Satara
Pratap Singh Bhosle was the Emperor of the Maratha Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819 but the main control was under the hands of the ministers who had carved out their own kingdoms like the Bhosle of Nagpur, Shindes of Gwalior, Holkars of Indore and Gaekwads of Baroda. The power of peshwas was reduced after 1761, he was Mahraja of Satara until 1839. Pratap Singh was the eldest son of Shahu II of Satara, whom he succeeded, a descendant of Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, the founder of the Maratha Empire. Pratap Singh has build Pune-Satara Road, Build New Palace called Rajwada, used as a court last 150 years, In that Rajwada a school started around 1851, named Pratapsinh High School in which Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar learned till 4th standard,his date of birth 14th April 1891 record we can see in that school record, Pratapsinh started a Private Library in Satara town, in 1851 given to common public of Satara by his wife, The library now known as Nagar Vachanalaya and now renamed as Chhatrapati Pratap Sinh Maharaj Nagar Vachanalay Satara.
He built Satara-Medha-Mahabaleshwar Road. In Mahabaleshwar State. Rajpath 2 ways from Rajwada to Powai Naka were built by him, he started 2 schools for English, Persian and Sanskrit in satara. Modern Satara is his creation as Chh Shahu's RangMahal was burned in a fire, So Jal Mandir Palace he built a residence for him and his family where now Chh Udayan Raje Bhosale lives, he was dethroned and stripped of his powers and personal possessions in 1839. He was granted an allowance for his maintenance. Rango Bapuji Gupte a loyal Sardar to him fight a lot in legal battles up to London but invain to give justice to his beloved king, he was succeeded by his brother, Appa Saheb, under the title Shreemant Maharaj Shaji Raja Chhatrapati of Satara. Appa Saheb became known as Raja Shahaji. Naregal, Veena. "The Mutiny in Western India: The'Marginal' as Regional Dynamic". In Bates, Crispin. Mutiny at the Margins: New Perspectives on the Indian Uprising of 1857. 1. SAGE Publications India. Pp. 169–188. ISBN 978-8-13211-336-2