The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel
The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel is a historic hotel located at 7000 Hollywood Boulevard in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, California. It opened on May 15, 1927, is the oldest continually operating hotel in Los Angeles; the hotel was built in 1926, in what is known as the Golden Era of Los Angeles architecture, was named after the 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. It was financed by a group that included Louis B. Mayer, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and Sid Grauman, it cost $2.5 million to complete and opened on May 15, 1927. The hotel went into a decline in the 1950s. An owner around that time demolished its archways, covered up its elaborately painted ceilings and painted the entire hotel seafoam green. Radisson Hotels purchased the hotel in 1985 and, using original blueprints and historic photos of the hotel's Spanish Colonial architecture, undertook a $35 million renovation, restoring the lobby's coffered ceiling and adding a three-tiered fountain, among other improvements.
The million-dollar mural at the bottom of the hotel's Tropicana Pool was painted by David Hockney in 1987. On August 13, 1991, the City of Los Angeles declared the hotel building Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #545. In 1995, the hotel was purchased from Clarion Hotels by Goodwin Gaw, with David Chang becoming co-owner. In 2005, the hotel's management was taken over by the Thompson Hotel Group. A $30 million renovation of the hotel was embarked upon in 2005, led by the Dodd Mitchell Design Group, David Siguaw. Since 2015, the hotel has been run independently by its own management company. In 2015, the hotel completed a $25 million renovation with rooms designed by Yabu Pushelberg, plans for a new poolside food and beverage outlet; the 12-story hotel has 63 suites. It sits across the street from the TCL Chinese Theatre; the building has a Spanish Colonial Revival Style interior, with leather sofas, wrought-iron chandeliers and colorful tiled fountains. The Gable-Lombard penthouse, a 3,200 square-foot duplex with an outdoor deck with views of the Hollywood Hills and the Hollywood sign, is named for Clark Gable and Carole Lombard, who used to stay in the room for five dollars a night.
The Marilyn Monroe suite is named for the actress, who lived at the hotel for two years early in her career. Other accommodations include vintage 1950s poolside cabanas; the hotel has a total of eight restaurant and lounges. 25 Degrees is a 24-hour hamburger restaurant located just off the hotel lobby. It was opened in 2005. Public Kitchen & Bar features American food in an Old Hollywood-style dining room. Tim Goodell is the head chef of both restaurants; the Spare Room is a gaming cocktail lounge. Beacher's Madhouse is a vaudeville-inspired theater operated by Jeff Beacher. Teddy's, a nightclub located right off the lobby, was considered, it opened in 2005, was remodeled in 2012 and closed in 2015. The first Academy Awards ceremony was held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on May 16, 1929, inside the Blossom Ballroom. A private ceremony open only to Academy members, it was hosted by Academy president Douglas Fairbanks and held three months after the winners were announced, with 270 people in attendance.
At the time, the "Oscar" nickname for the award had not yet been invented. Facing heavy debt in 1986, five-time Academy Award winner Lyle Wheeler sold off boxes of his possessions, including his five Oscars, his award for art direction for The Diary of Anne Frank was auctioned off for $21,250 to William Kaiser. Kaiser returned the award to Wheeler at a ceremony held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in 1989; the hotel has hosted the Golden Raspberry Awards, the ceremony recognizing the year’s worst in film, on numerous occasions. The pool at the Roosevelt Hotel was featured in a 1955 episode of I Love Lucy when the Ricardos and Mertzes came to Hollywood. Several scenes from the 1988 film Sunset, starring Bruce Willis and James Garner, were filmed at the hotel, including a recreation of the 1929 Academy Awards ceremony; the scene of the 1989 film The Fabulous Baker Boys where Susie sings "Makin' Whoopie" while Jack plays piano was shot at the Cinegrill nightclub in the hotel. The hotel's hallway can be seen in episode 7 of the 2016 FX true crime anthology television series The People v. O.
J. Simpson: American Crime Story, as a substitute for an Oakland hotel where Christopher Darden and Marcia Clark spend the night. Other films shot on location at the hotel include Internal Affairs, Beverly Hills Cop II and Catch Me If You Can. Other television shows shot at the hotel include Knots Landing and Curb Your Enthusiasm. Prince performed five shows at the hotel in 2007, which included dinner with his personal chef, a two-hour performance and a post-set jazz jam. Marilyn Monroe lived at the hotel for two years early in her career, posed for her first commercial photography shoot by the pool, she and Arthur Miller were said to have met at the hotel's Cinegrill nightclub. Montgomery Clift stayed at the hotel for three months in 1952 during the filming of From Here to Eternity. Frances Farmer was honored at a party there in 1958, the night she appeared on Ralph Edwards' This Is Your Life. Errol Flynn is rumored to have created his recipe for bootleg gin in a tub in the hotel's barbershop.
Shirley Temple learned to do her famous stairstep dance routine on the hotel stairs. Astrologer and writer Linda Goodman wr
Culture of Egypt
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Middle Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique and stable culture that influenced cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity, Christian culture. Arabic is Egypt's official language, it came to Egypt in the 7th century, the Egyptian Arabic dialect today has become the modern speech of the country. Of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most spoken second dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Egypt's position in the heart of the Arab world has had reversed influence, adopting many words and proverbs from neighboring Arabic speaking areas such as the Maghreb area and the Mashriq. Today the daily Egyptian Arabic adopted several French, Greek, Turkish and English words to its dictionary, as well as keeping several other words from its own ancient languages such as Coptic and Demotic.
The Egyptian language, which formed a separate branch among the family of Afro-Asiatic languages, was among the first written languages and is known from the hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. The Coptic language, the most recent stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church; the "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, was studied by Arabic scholars. In the lower Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages Nobiin, but Kenuzi-Dongola; the Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken by about 20,000 around the Siwa Oasis. Other minorities include 60,000 Greek speakers in Alexandria and Cairo as well as 10,000 Armenian speakers. Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, they would have to bury the Pharaoh deep inside the Pyramid; the ancient Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC.
Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts. The oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts: the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers; the secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the'wisdom texts', forms of philosophical instruction. The Instruction of Ptahhotep, for example, is a collation of moral proverbs by an Egto seem to have been drawn from an elite administrative class, were celebrated and revered into the New Kingdom. In time, the Pyramid Texts became Coffin Texts, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, the Book of the Dead, during the New Kingdom; the Middle Kingdom was the golden age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions of Amenemhat I, the Tale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor and the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior; the Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any are well-known examples from this period.
During the Greco-Roman period, Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes the Rosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship; the great city of Alexandria boasted its famous Library of half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandria's center of learning produced the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint. Drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in the Coptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated many Syriac words, which are now only extant in Coptic. Under Islam, Egypt continued to be a great source of literary endeavor, now in the Arabic language. In 970, al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo, which to this day remains the most important center of Sunni Islamic learning. In 12th-century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholar Maimonides produced his most important work.
In contemporary times, Egyptian novelists and poets were among the last to experiment with modern styles of Arabic-language literature, the forms they developed have been imitated. The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Many Egyptian books and films are available throughout the Middle East. Other prominent Egyptian writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist works and activism, Alifa Rifaat who writes about women and tradition. Vernacular poetry is said to be the most popular literary genre amongst Egyptians, represented most by Bayram el-Tunsi, Ahmed Fouad Negm, Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. About 75% of Egypt's population is Muslim, with a Sunni majority. About 22% of the population is Coptic Christian. Sunni Islam sees Egypt as an important part of its religion due to not only Quranic verses mentioning the country, but due to the Al-Azhar University, one of the earliest of the world universities, the longest functioning.
It was created as a school for religion works. The Egyptians were one of th
The Mayan Theater in Los Angeles, California, is a landmark former movie palace. Designed by Stiles O. Clements of Morgan, Walls & Clements and opened in August 1927, the façade of the Mayan Theater includes stylized pre-Columbian patterns and figures designed by sculptor Francisco Cornejo; this is his major work. A legitimate theater, the Mayan Theater is a prototypical example of the many excessively ornate exotic revival-style theaters of the late 1920s, Mayan Revival in this case; the well-preserved lobby is called "The Hall of Feathered Serpents," the auditorium includes a chandelier based on the Aztec calendar stone, the original fire curtain included images of Mayan jungles and temples. In the 1980s the theatre featured pornographic films. Source: Los Angeles Times movie ads The theater has been a location in many films including The Bodyguard, Save the Tiger, Unlawful Entry, Rock'n' Roll High School, A Night at the Roxbury. In 1990, the Mayan Theater, with most of its lavish ornament intact, became a nightclub.
It is designated as a Historic Cultural Monument. List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles Mayan Revival architecture-related topics Media related to Mayan Theater at Wikimedia Commons
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, relative position of figures, the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. Islamic scientists expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.
While geometry has evolved throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, planes, surfaces and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric. Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. Contemporary geometry has many subfields: Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense; the mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, planes, triangles, similarity, solid figures and analytic geometry. Euclidean geometry has applications in computer science and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of linear algebra to study problems in geometry, it has applications in physics, including in general relativity. Topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, such as connectedness and compactness.
Convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis and functional analysis and important applications in number theory. Algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques, it has applications including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned with questions of relative position of simple geometric objects, such as points and circles, it shares many principles with combinatorics. Computational geometry deals with algorithms and their implementations for manipulating geometrical objects. Although being a young area of geometry, it has many applications in computer vision, image processing, computer-aided design, medical imaging, etc; the earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 2nd millennium BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction and various crafts.
The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, or frustum. Clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiter's position and motion within time-velocity space; these geometric procedures anticipated the Oxford Calculators, including the mean speed theorem, by 14 centuries. South of Egypt the ancient Nubians established a system of geometry including early versions of sun clocks. In the 7th century BC, the Greek mathematician Thales of Miletus used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School, credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history.
Eudoxus developed the method of exhaustion, which allowed the calculation of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures, as well as a theory of ratios that avoided the problem of incommensurable magnitudes, which enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances. Around 300 BC, geometry was revolutionized by Euclid, whose Elements considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time, introduced mathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, that of definition, axiom and proof. Although most of the contents of the Elements were known, Euclid arranged them into a single, coherent logical framework; the Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. Archimedes of Syracuse used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, gave remarkably accurate approximations of Pi.
He studied the sp
A ceramic is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware and brick; the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from oriented to semi-crystalline and completely amorphous. Most fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast, identifiable attributes are difficult to specify for the group as a whole. General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family.
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica and sintered in fire. Ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, amorphous ceramic coatings on top of the crystalline ceramic substrates. Ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering, such as in semiconductors; the word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, "of pottery" or "for pottery", from κέραμος, "potter's clay, pottery". The earliest known mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word "ceramic" may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more as the plural noun "ceramics".
A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material. Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension, they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments. Ceramics can withstand high temperatures, ranging from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the ceramic process, its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide, more known as alumina; the modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations.
Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries and body armor. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a great range of processing. Methods for dealing with them tend to fall into one of two categories – either make the ceramic in the desired shape, by reaction in situ, or by "forming" powders into the desired shape, sintering to form a solid body. Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand, slip casting, tape casting, injection molding, dry pressing, other variations. Noncrystalline ceramics, being glass, tend to be formed from melts; the glass is shaped when either molten, by casting, or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity, by methods such as blowing into a mold. If heat treatments cause this glass to become crystalline, the resulting material is known as a glass-ceramic used as cook-tops and as a glass composite material for nuclear waste disposal; the physical properties of any ceramic substance are a direct result of its crystalline structure and chemical composition.
Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, toughness, dielectric constant, the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials. Ceramography is the art and science of preparation and evaluation of ceramic microstructures. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic microstructures is implemented on similar spatial scales to that used in the emerging field of nanotechnology: from tens of angstroms to tens of micrometers; this is somewhere between the minimum wavelength of visible light and the resolution limit of the naked eye. The microstructure includes most grains, secondary phases, grain boundaries, micro-
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, mathematics and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador; this region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages; the Preclassic period saw the establishment of the first complex societies in the Maya region, the cultivation of the staple crops of the Maya diet, including maize, beans and chili peppers. The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades.
Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates; this period saw the Maya civilization develop a large number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful; the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a widespread political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities, a northward shift of population; the Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, the expansion of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.
Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the "divine king", who acted as a mediator between mortals and the supernatural realm. Kingship was patrilineal, power would pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a closed system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had increased, resulting in the corresponding reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king; the Maya civilization developed sophisticated artforms, the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, obsidian, sculpted stone monuments and finely painted murals. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, surrounded by an irregular sprawl of residential districts. Different parts of a city would be linked by causeways; the principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, structures aligned for astronomical observation.
The Maya elite were literate, developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing, the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, of which only three uncontested examples remain, the rest having been destroyed by the Spanish. There are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics; the Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars, employed mathematics that included one of the earliest instances of the explicit zero in the world. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice; the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide; the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems. The set of traits shared by Mesoamerican cultures included astronomical knowledge and human sacrifice, a cosmovision that viewed the world as divided into four divisions aligned with the cardinal directions, each with different attributes, a three-way division of the world into the celestial realm, the earth, the underworld.
By 6000 BC, the early inhabitants of Mesoamerica were experimenting with the domestication of plants, a process that led to the establishment of sedentary agricultural societies. The diverse climate allowed for wide variation in available crops, but all regions of Mesoamerica cultivated the base crops of maize and squashes. All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology. Mesoamerica lacked draft animals, did not use the wheel, possessed few domesticated animals. Mesoamericans viewed the world as hostile and governed by unpredictable deities; the ritual Mesoamerican ballgame was played. Mesoamerica is linguistically diverse, with most languages falling within a small number of language families—the major families are Mayan, Mixe–Zoquean and Uto-Aztecan.
Malibu tile refers to a type of ceramic tile that takes its inspiration from the tiles that were produced at Malibu Potteries in Malibu, during the latter half of the 1920s. These tiles reflect a style of design, referred to as Hispano-Moresque or Arabesque exhibiting bright contrasting glaze colors in geometric patterns that are reminiscent of tiles produced many centuries ago in the Near and Middle East, North Africa and southern Spain; the Adamson House in Malibu, now the Malibu Lagoon Museum, contains the largest and most varied display of Malibu Potteries tile. The Adamson House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977 and became a California Historical Landmark in 1985; this type of tile was introduced to the American public in San Diego at the Panama California Exposition in 1915 as it adorned the Santa Fe Railroad Depot and what is now the San Diego Museum of Man. These tiles were produced by California China Products Company in National City and were designed by architectural firms in San Francisco and New York City, respectively.
The aesthetic represented by these tiles had an immediate appeal to architects and homeowners as they blended beautifully into the increasing popular Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, introduced at the exposition. A severe fire at the Malibu Potteries in 1931 led to the closure of the pottery the following year after only six years of production. Several of the tile makers found jobs at other tile companies in the Los Angeles area, some of which were making similar products, but the Great Depression curtailed construction and diminished the need and desire for decorative tiles. By the time the United States became engaged in World War II all of the remaining tile works had either closed or shifted to producing products that supported the war effort. Another fire, this one a major wild fire in September 1970, swept through Malibu Canyon exposing in its aftermath a massive stash of Malibu Potteries tile heretofore unknown except to the heirs of the Potteries’ owners. Although unnoticed for several years, the vast majority of the tiles were unscathed by the fire.
By the mid-70s rumors aroused interest in this unique collection and tiles began appearing in both publicly viewable installations and in private collections. Robert Harris, a sound technician in the movie industry, found himself irresistibly attracted by the incomparable aesthetic qualities of the tiles and purchased a large collection. In 1979, using his collection of original tile from Malibu Potteries as inspiration, Harris founded Malibu Ceramic Works in Topanga Canyon and began the slow process of reverse engineering all of the steps in re-producing Malibu tile; the original tiles provided models of what made them popular: the sizes, the patterns and, maybe above all else, the glaze colors and their application. His goal was to reproduce a product comparable to the tiles produced at Malibu Potteries. Within a year of the founding of this fledgling enterprise nestled precariously along Topanga Creek, an event took place in downtown Los Angeles that had a major impact on the public’s awareness of Malibu Potteries and its splendid array of ceramic products.
A fellow collector, David Greenberg, another beneficiary of the stash of tiles left exposed following the fire of 1970, mounted an exhibition of his collection at the Craft and Folk Art Museum in Los Angeles, which opened in June 1980 accompanied by a colorful catalog of objects. The impact on the development and success of Malibu Ceramic Works cannot be underestimated. In time, Harris was able to replicate nearly all of the many ceramic tile and related products of Malibu Potteries by developing processes and techniques, some advantaged by modern technology, while others still relying on old-fashioned artisan methods. Many companies producing Malibu style tile use the methods and techniques that Harris recreated. In the case of the'Green Man' or'Eternal Man' on display at the Adamson House in Malibu, a replica was created by making a mold from the original Green Man fountain, including a functional water spout; that clay mold is still used to make green man fountains. Many 21st century artisans have recreated variations on one of the most popular murals, the'Peacock' fountain, found in the rear courtyard of the Adamson House.
Despite exposure to the elements, these early 20th century tiles still much of their original color and aesthetic features. The first step in producing ceramic tile is making the clay body on which patterns of glazes can be applied and heated to a high temperature in a kiln. In the Spanish Revival tradition, dark red is the standard clay, although Malibu Potteries did create buff clay bodies on occasion. Harris purchased a tile manufacturing plant in Long Beach, California which would produce the smaller “deco” tile as well as the traditional red floor tile, one hallmark of Malibu style tile. Malibu Potteries produced a wide array of floor tile, in a variety of shapes and patterns, including hexagon and octagon that were installed in geometric patterns, ranging from simple to complex. Geometric patterns were typical of the original Saracen and Spanish floors as illustrated by the picture of a patio at the Adamson House and detailed in multiple vicissitudes in the Malibu Potteries Catalog. Malibu Ceramic Works floor tiles are comparable to those of Malibu Potteries since both achieve a high level of hardness, needed when used for purposes of public foot traffic, back splashes, stair risers, other daily use functions.
These floor tiles can be contrasted with common floor tiles used in Southern California, which are known as Mexican pavers, but which do not have the same dark red tones and would seem to be lacking in the same degree of strength and dur