Zakat is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer in importance. As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth, it is a mandatory charitable contribution considered to be a tax. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars. Zakat is based on the value of all of one's possessions, it is customarily 2.5% of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor, the needy, Zakat collectors, those sympathetic to Islam, to free from slavery, for debt relief, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller. Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful, zakat is mandated and collected by the state.
Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors. Zakat means "that which purifies". Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul, so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God." The Quran discusses charity in many verses. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is described as obligatory for Muslims, it is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between a Muslim. Verse 2.177 sums up the Quranic view of charity and alms giving: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West.
And those who keep their treaty when they make one, the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they; such are the God fearing. - 2:177 According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the Quran makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, practice zakat they are your brethren in faith". The Quran lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below; each of the most trusted. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24, Sahih Muslim's Book 5, Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much and what; the 2.5% rate is mentioned in the hadiths. The hadiths admonish those. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, God will not accept the prayers of such people; the sunna describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be punished.
The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment; the hadith warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it. The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses; the Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets is 2.5%. Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20%, depending on the type of goods. Zakat is payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops and minerals.
Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Unlike prayers, we observe that the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't; some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for women's jewelry; some require certain minimum for zakat
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, selling the item to the highest bidder. The open ascending price auction is arguably the most common form of auction in use today. Participants bid against one another, with each subsequent bid required to be higher than the previous bid. An auctioneer may announce prices, bidders may call out their bids themselves, or bids may be submitted electronically with the highest current bid publicly displayed. In a Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price for some quantity of like items. While auctions are most associated in the public imagination with the sale of antiques, rare collectibles and expensive wines, auctions are used for commodities, radio spectrum and used cars. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any set of trading rules for exchange; the word "auction" is derived from the Latin augeō, which means "I increase" or "I augment". For most of history, auctions have been a uncommon way to negotiate the exchange of goods and commodities.
In practice, both haggling and sale by set-price have been more common. Indeed, before the seventeenth century the few auctions that were held were sporadic. Nonetheless, auctions have a long history, having been recorded as early as 500 B. C. According to Herodotus, in Babylon auctions of women for marriage were held annually; the auctions began with the woman the auctioneer considered to be the most beautiful and progressed to the least. It was considered illegal to allow a daughter to be sold outside of the auction method. During the Roman Empire, following military victory, Roman soldiers would drive a spear into the ground around which the spoils of war were left, to be auctioned off. Slaves captured as the "spoils of war", were auctioned in the forum under the sign of the spear, with the proceeds of sale going towards the war effort; the Romans used auctions to liquidate the assets of debtors whose property had been confiscated. For example, Marcus Aurelius sold household furniture to pay off debts, the sales lasting for months.
One of the most significant historical auctions occurred in the year 193 A. D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On 28 March 193, the Praetorian Guard first killed emperor Pertinax offered the empire to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per guard, an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was beheaded two months when Septimius Severus conquered Rome. From the end of the Roman Empire to the eighteenth century auctions lost favor in Europe, while they had never been widespread in Asia. In some parts of England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries auction by candle began to be used for the sale of goods and leaseholds. In a candle auction, the end of the auction was signaled by the expiration of a candle flame, intended to ensure that no one could know when the auction would end and make a last-second bid. Sometimes, other unpredictable processes, such as a footrace, were used in place of the expiration of a candle.
This type of auction was first mentioned in 1641 in the records of the House of Lords. The practice became popular, in 1660 Samuel Pepys's diary recorded two occasions when the Admiralty sold surplus ships "by an inch of candle". Pepys relates a hint from a successful bidder, who had observed that, just before expiring, a candle-wick always flares up slightly: on seeing this, he would shout his final - and winning - bid; the London Gazette began reporting on the auctioning of artwork at the coffeehouses and taverns of London in the late 17th century. The first known auction house in the world was Stockholm Auction House, founded by Baron Claes Rålamb in 1674. Sotheby's the world's second-largest auction house, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of an acquaintance. Christie's, now the world's largest auction house, was founded by James Christie in 1766 in London and published its first auction catalog in that year, although newspaper advertisements of Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been found.
Other early auction houses that are still in operation include Dorotheum, Bonhams, Phillips de Pury & Company, Freeman's and Lyon & Turnbull. By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were held in taverns and coffeehouses; these auctions were held daily, auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution. During the American Civil War, goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the Colonel of the division. Thus, some of today's auctioneers in the U. S. carry the unofficial title of "colonel". The development of the internet, has led to a significant rise in the use of auctions as auctioneers can solicit bids via the internet from a wide range of buyers in a much wider range of commodities than was practical.
In 2008, the National Auctioneers Association reported that the gross revenue of the auction industry for that ye
Taxation in the Ottoman Empire
Taxation in the Ottoman Empire changed drastically over time, was a complex patchwork of different taxes and local customs. As the Ottoman Empire conquered new territories, it adopted and adapted the existing tax systems used by the previous governments. For instance, at the conquest of Belgrade, the Sultan instructed an official to gather information on the pre-conquest tax system, which would be replicated post-conquest. At the start of each area's tahrir was an outline of the traditional tax laws in that area; this led to a complex patchwork of different taxes in different parts of the empire, between different communities. In the Fertile crescent, the Ottomans inherited muqasama, a proportional tax on agricultural output, from the Mamluks; as farmers reacted to locally varying taxes on different farm products, this increased variations in agricultural output between areas, or between villages. Discriminatory rates tend to lead to production inefficiencies; the defter was a tax register. It recorded property/land ownership.
The names in defters names can give valuable information about ethnic background. The Ottoman double-entry accounting method, was inherited from the Abbasid empire; the primary role of the Timar system was to collect feudal obligations, before cash taxes became dominant. The Ottoman Empire had a hierarchy of different types of estate. In the Balkans, peasants on timars paid a tithe or a tax in kind, of around 10–25% of their farm produce; this system resembles the medieval Serb feudal system, which in turn inherited from the Byzantine. As well as regional variation, there were different taxes applied to different religious and ethnic groups; these taxes might be further graduated according to people's ability to pay. In 1530, the Eyalet of Rumelia had graduated taxes between different religious subsets of a small ethnic minority. In some cases, local taxes were imposed on nonmuslims to encourage conversion. There was a practice of making villages communally responsible for the haraç tax. In good years, community pressure would ensure compliance.
There was a special vlach tax, rusum-e eflak: one sheep and one lamb from each household on St Georges day each year. Because Vlachs were taxed differently, they were listed differently in defters. There could be considerable regional variance, local lords might try to line their own pockets. There was a patchwork of tax exemptions called muafiyet, which might be applied to towns, social groups, or individuals. Orthodox churches were allowed to raise taxes among their communities. Sometimes, the "taxation" of churches by the Ottoman authorities could be shockingly direct: in 1603 Franciscan friars in Bosnia were imprisoned until they paid an arbitrary fee of 3000 aspers for permission to stay in their monasteries. Waqfs were, in one sense, a form of tax avoidance. However, some were well-endowed, provided various local services such as education which compensated for the Ottoman government's inability to provide local services funded by taxation; some became so powerful. A well-endowed vakuf might take on the role of helping a community pay their annual tax obligations.
Taxes were difficult to collect from rebellious areas. Conversely, high taxes could provoke rebellion; the demand for taxes was higher during times of war. While the local pashas imposed new forms of requisitioning and fines, the state did the same thing on a larger scale, with a number of'extraordinary' taxes which became both ordinary and heavy; the Ottoman state went bankrupt in 1590.
An Ahdname, achtiname or ahidnâme is a type of Ottoman charter referred to as a capitulation. During the early modern period, the Ottoman Empire called it an Ahidname-i-Humayun or an imperial pledge and the Ahdname functioned as an official agreement between the Empire and various European states; the Ahdname still requires much detailed study regarding its historical background and about what type of document it was. What is known however is that the Ahdname was an important part of Ottoman diplomacy in that it set forth a contractual agreement between two states between the Ottoman Empire and European nations, like Venice, it was influential in the way it helped to structure society and maintained the agreements made between nation states. In Venice, Adhnames were used to maintain political and commercial links with the Ottoman Empire; this agreement between Venice and the Ottoman Empire ensured that Italian merchants were protected during their commerce trips into the Empire. These Ahdnames provided a certain level of physical protection as they helped provide Italian merchants with hospice.
After all, Venice was aware that in order to protect the strength of their commerce, it was imperative to remain to in good standing with the Ottoman Empire. By the 16th Century, Venice aimed its policy towards the preservation of peaceful relations with the Ottomans. After the 1453 Conquest of Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire had become Europe's most powerful force; as a result, Venice had to tread in order not to instigate any conflicts. Ahdnames became a useful tool in communication between the two competing forces; the majority of the Ahdnames that the Ottoman Empire and Venice drafted always occurred after a war between the two, such as the two wars they were embroiled in during 1503 and 1540. The remaining treaties were edited for better quality and protection willingly by both the Empire and Venice; the Ottoman Ahdname was broken down into several sections. Every Ahdname had several parts called the erkan, which were deemed to be the internal structuring of the document. Not every Ahdname had similar erkan however.
Instead the text was found between two protocols calls the introductory protocol and the final protocol or eschatocol. The introductory protocol, main text, eschatocol consisted of the several erkan: The invocation, where the name of God appeared The intitulatio, where the name and rank of the person to whom the document was meant for appeared, his official title and rank appeared. The inscriptio, where addresses of the person to whom the document was issued for appeared; the salutatio, where the formal greeting appeared. The Ahdname would continue on with the main text of the document and would include the following erkan: The expositio-narratio, where an explanation for the document is issued and any other events are described in detail; the dispositio, where a decision, made is detailed. The sanctio, both a confirming of the dispositio as well as a warning. At times it functioned as an oath; the corroboratio, an authentication of the document in question. It was an examination of the validity of the Ahdname.
The datatio, the date of which the document was issued to its receiver. The locatio, the place in which the document was issued; the legitimatio, again another form of authentication of the document. The authenticator was the Sultan or the Grand Vizier or a seal; this is the final part of the Ahdname to be written, so it is part of the eschatocol. It is important to note, that while this was the general makeup of the Ahdnames, it was not always stringently followed as such. Historian, Daniel Goffman, writes that those that composed Ahdnames seemed to have, "drawn upon Islamic and local legal codes as the situations warranted.", Suleyman Celebi, Suleyman Celebi, Musa Celebi, Mehmed I, Murad II, Mehmed II, Mehmed II, Mehmed II, Mehmed II, Bayezid II, Bayezid II, Selim I, Selim I, Suleyman I, Suleyman I, Selim II, Selim II, Murad III, Murad III, Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Osman II, Murad IV, Ibrahim I In 1454, Mehmed II gave the new Patriarch of Constantinople a new charter for the Greek Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox millet.
In 1458, the Ottoman Empire imposed an Ahdname on the Republic of Ragusa, Dalmatia that resembled the one they have given to Venice earlier. The city of Ragusa was required to give up their sovereignty to the Ottoman Empire because they had become a tributary state of the Empire. In 1470, Mehmed II gave rulers from the Republic of Genoa a document that guaranteed freedom if they performed a tribute for the Ottomans. In the 1620s, the Ottoman government presented an Ahdname to Ottoman Catholic monks to visit the Balkans in order to collect revenue from other Catholic followers. Goffman, Daniel. “Negotiating with the Renaissance State: the Ottoman Empire and the New Diplomacy.” In the Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge Goffman, Daniel; the Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Theunissen, Hans. Ottoman-Venetian Diplomatics: The Ahd-names. 1998. Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire Capitulation Economic history of the Ottoman Empire Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire Conclave capitulation Achtiname of Muhammad Ottoman Souvenir Logic of the Ottoman Capitulations The Capitulations
The Tanzimât was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimat era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire, it was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire and attempted to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the reforms sought to emancipate the empire's non-Muslim subjects and more integrate non-Turks into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the empire. In the midst of being forced to recognize the supremacy of Western power, the Ottoman elite intellectuals attempted to bring reconciliation between the West and the East within the framework of Islam.
Many changes were made to improve civil liberties, but many Muslims saw them as foreign influence on the world of Islam. That perception complicated reformist efforts made by the state. During the Tanzimat period, the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories; the Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Constantinople on 23 October 1840. The reforms emerged from the minds of reformist sultans like Mahmud II, his son Abdulmejid I and prominent European-educated bureaucrats, who recognised that the old religious and military institutions no longer met the needs of the empire. Most of the symbolic changes, such as uniforms, were aimed at changing the mindset of imperial administrators. Many of the officials affiliated with the government were encouraged to wear a more western style of dress. Many of the reforms were attempts to adopt successful European practices.
The reforms were influenced by the Napoleonic Code and French law under the Second French Empire as a direct result of the increasing number of Ottoman students being educated in France. Changes included the elimination of the devshirme system of conscription in favour of universal conscription. A policy called Ottomanism was meant to unite all the different peoples living in Ottoman territories, "Muslim and non-Muslim and Greek, Armenian and Jewish and Arab"; the policy began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839, declaring equality before the law for both Muslim and non-Muslim Ottomans. The ambitious project was launched to combat the slow decline of the empire that had seen its borders shrink and its strength weaken in comparison to the European powers. There were both external reasons for the reforms. Internally, the Ottoman Empire hoped that getting rid of the millet system would lead to direct control of all of its citizens by the creation of a more-centralized government and an increase of the legitimacy of Ottoman rule.
Another major hope was that by being more open to various demographics, more people would be attracted into the empire. There was fear of internal strife between Muslims and non-Muslims, allowing more religious freedom to all was supposed to diminish this threat. Giving more rights to the Christians was considered to reduce the danger of outside intervention on their behalf; the Ottomans became worried of an escalating intervention of the European powers in Ottoman affairs, another reason for the reforms. After the Crimean War, caused by Russia's incursion into the Ottoman Empire in the 1850s, Ottoman leaders tried to avoid a repeat, they thought. Although the motives for the implementation of Tanzimât were bureaucratic, it was impulsed by liberal ministers and intellectuals like Kabuli Mehmed Pasha, the secret society of the Young Ottomans, liberal minded like Midhat Pasha, often considered as one of the founders of the Ottoman Parliament. Thanks to the emerging internal and diplomatic crises of 1875–1876, Midhat Pasha introduced the constitution of 1876, ending the Tanzimat.
The Tanzimât reforms began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdulmejid I issued a hatt-i sharif or imperial edict called the Edict of Gülhane or Tanzimât Fermânı; this was followed by several statutes enacting its policies. In the edict the Sultan stated that he wished "to bring the benefits of a good administration to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire through new institutions". Among the reforms were: guarantees to ensure the Ottoman subjects perfect security for their lives and property.
Ottoman Public Debt Administration
The Ottoman Public Debt Administration, was a European-controlled organization, established in 1881 to collect the payments which the Ottoman Empire owed to European companies in the Ottoman public debt. The OPDA became a vast independent bureaucracy within the Ottoman bureaucracy, run by the creditors and its governing council was packed with European government officials, it employed 5,000 officials who collected taxes that were turned over to the European creditors. At its peak it had 9,000 employees, more than the empire’s finance ministry; the OPDA played an important role in Ottoman financial affairs. It was an intermediary with European companies seeking investment opportunities in the Ottoman Empire. In 1900, the OPDA was financing other industrial projects; the financial and commercial privileges of the non-Muslim foreigners were protected with the capitulations of the Ottoman Empire. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, between 1918 and 1924 Ottoman revenue stamps overprinted O.
P. D. A. or A. D. P. O. or stamps printed with those inscriptions, were issued for use in Palestine, Transjordan and Lebanon. Birdal, Murat. "The Political Economy of Ottoman Public Debt: Insolvency and European Financial Control in the late Nineteenth Century." 2010. Blaisdell D. "European Financial Control in the Ottoman Empire", 1929 Conte G. Sabatini G. "The Ottoman External Debt and Its Features Under European Financial Control", «The Journal of European Economic History», 3. Newspaper clippings about Ottoman Public Debt Administration in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics