Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska and Greenland. Their religion shares many similarities with religions of other North Polar peoples. Traditional Inuit religious practices include animism and shamanism, in which spiritual healers mediate with spirits. Today many Inuit follow Christianity, but traditional Inuit spirituality continues as part of a living, oral tradition and part of contemporary Inuit society. Inuit who balance indigenous and Christian theology practice religious syncretism. Inuit cosmology provides the place of people within it. Rachel Attituq Qitsualik writes: The Inuit cosmos is ruled by no one. There are father figures. There are solar creators. There are no eternal punishments in the hereafter, as there are no punishments for children or adults in the here and now. Traditional stories and taboos of the Inuit are precautions against dangers posed by their harsh Arctic environment. Knud Rasmussen asked his guide and friend Aua, an angakkuq, about Inuit religious beliefs among the Iglulingmiut and was told: "We don't believe.
We fear." Authors Inge Kleivan and Birgitte Sonne debate possible conclusions of Aua's words, because the angakkuq was under the influence of Christian missionaries, he converted to Christianity. Their study analyses beliefs of several Inuit groups, concluding that fear was not diffuse. First were unipkaaqs: myths and folktales which took place "back then" in the indefinite past. Among the Canadian Inuit, a spiritual healer is known as an angakkuq or Inuvialuk: ᐊᖓᑦᑯᖅ angatkuq; the duties of an angakkuq includes helping the community when marine animals, kept by Takanaluk-arnaluk or Sea Woman in a pit in her house, become scarce, according to the Aua, an informant and friend of the anthropologist Rasmussen. Aua described the ability of an apprentice angakkuq to see himself as a skeleton, naming each part using the specific shaman language; the Inuit at Amitsoq Lake had other prohibitions for sewing certain items. Boot soles, for example, could only be sewn far away from settlements in designated places.
Children at Amitsoq once had a game called tunangusartut in which they imitated the adults behavior towards the spirits reciting the same verbal formulae as angakkuit. According to Rasmussen, this game was not considered offensive because a "spirit can understand the joke." The homelands of the Netsilik Inuit have long winters and stormy springs. Starvation was a common danger. While other Inuit cultures feature protective guardian powers, the Netsilik have traditional beliefs that life's hardships stemmed from the extensive use of such measures. Unlike the Iglulik Inuit, the Netsilik used a large number of amulets. Dogs could have amulets. In one recorded instance, a young boy had 80 amulets, so many. One particular man had 17 names intended to protect him. Tattooing among Netsilik women provided power and could affect which world they went to after their deaths. Nuliajuk, the Sea Woman, was described as "the lubricous one". If the people breached certain taboos, she held marine animals in the tank of her lamp.
When this happened the angakkuq had to visit her to beg for game. In Netsilik oral history, she was an orphan girl mistreated by her community. Moon Man, another cosmic being, is benevolent towards humans and their souls as they arrived in celestial places; this belief differs from that of the Greenland Inuit, in which the Moon’s wrath could be invoked by breaking taboos. Sila associated with weather, is conceived of as a power contained within people. Among the Netsilik, Sila was imagined as male; the Netsilik believed Sila was a giant baby whose parents died fighting giants. Caribou Inuit is a collective name for several groups of inland Alaskan Natives living in an area bordered by the tree line and the west shore of Hudson Bay, they do not form a political unit and maintain only loose contact, but they share an inland lifestyle and some cultural unity. In the recent past, the Padlermiut took; the Caribou have a dualistic concept of the soul. The soul associated with respiration is called umaffia and the personal soul of a child is called tarneq.
The tarneq is considered so weak. The presence of the ancestor in the body of the child was felt to contribute to a more gentle behavior among boys; this belief amounted to a form of reincarnation. Because of their inland lifestyle, the Caribou have no belief concerning a Sea Woman. Other cosmic beings, named Sila or Pinga, control the caribou, as opposed to marine animals; some groups have made a distinction between the two figures, while others have considered them the same. Sacrificial offerings to them could promote luck in hunting. Caribou angakkuit performed fortune-telling through qilaneq, a technique of asking questions to a qila; the angakkuq raised his staff and belt over it. The qila entered the glove and drew the staff to itself. Qilaneq was practiced among several other Alaskan Native groups and provided "yes" or "no" answers to questions. Spiritual beliefs and practices among Inuit are diverse, just like the cultures themselves. Similar remarks apply for other beliefs: term silap inua / sila, hillap inua / hilla (among Inuit
Canadian Indian residential school system
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches; the school system was created for the purpose of removing Indigenous children from the influence of their own culture and assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, about 30 per cent of Indigenous children were placed in residential schools nationally; the number of school-related deaths remains unknown due to an incomplete historical record, though estimates range from 3,200 upwards of 6,000. The system had its origins in laws enacted before Confederation, but it was active from the passage of the Indian Act in 1876. An amendment to the Indian Act in 1884 made attendance at day schools, industrial schools, or residential schools compulsory for First Nations children. Due to the remote nature of many communities, school locations meant that for some families residential schools were the only way to comply.
The schools were intentionally located at substantial distances from Indigenous communities to minimize contact between families and their children. Indian Commissioner Hayter Reed argued for schools at greater distances to reduce family visits, which he thought counteracted efforts to civilize Indigenous children. Parental visits were further restricted by the use of a pass system designed to confine Indigenous peoples to reserves; the last federally operated residential school closed in 1996, called Gordon Indian Residential School and was located in Punnichy, Saskatchewan. Schools operated in every province and territory with the exception of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; the residential school system harmed Indigenous children by removing them from their families, depriving them of their ancestral languages, exposing many of them to physical and sexual abuse, forcibly enfranchising them. Disconnected from their families and culture and forced to speak English or French, students who attended the residential school system graduated unable to fit into either their communities and still subject to racist attitudes in mainstream Canadian society.
The system proved successful in disrupting the transmission of Indigenous practices and beliefs across generations. The legacy of the system has been linked to an increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress, substance abuse, suicide, which persist within Indigenous communities today. On June 11, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered a public apology on behalf of the Government of Canada and the leaders of the other federal parties in the House of Commons. Nine days prior, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to uncover the truth about the schools; the commission gathered about 7,000 statements from residential school survivors through public and private meetings at various local and national events across Canada. Seven national events held between 2008 and 2013 commemorated the experience of former students of residential schools. In 2015, the TRC concluded with the establishment of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, the publication of a multi-volume report detailing the testimonies of survivors and historical documents from the time.
The TRC report found. Attempts to assimilate Indigenous peoples were rooted in imperial colonialism, which centred around a European worldview of cultural practice and an understanding of land ownership based on the doctrine of Discovery; as explained in the executive summary of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada's final report: "Underlying these arguments was the belief that the colonizers were bringing civilization to savage people who could never civilize themselves. The'civilizing mission' rested on a belief of racial and cultural superiority."Assimilation efforts began as early as the 17th century with the arrival of French colonists in New France. They were resisted by Indigenous communities who were unwilling to leave their children for extended periods and who came to associate missionaries with the diseases devastating Indigenous populations; the establishment of day and boarding schools by groups including the Récollets and Ursulines was abandoned by the 1690s. The political instability and realities of colonial life played a role in the decision to halt the education programs.
An increase in orphaned and foundling colonial children limited church resources, colonists benefited from favourable relations with Indigenous peoples in both the fur trade and military pursuits. After a failure to assimilate Indigenous children by early missionaries in the 17th century, educational programs were not attempted again by religious officials until the 1820s, prior to the introduction of state-sanctioned operations. Included among them was a school established by John West, an Anglican missionary, at the Red River Colony in what is today Manitoba. Protestant missionaries opened residential schools in the current Ontario region, spreading Christianity and working to encourage Indigenous peoples to adopt subsistence agriculture as a way to ensure they would not return to their original, nomadic ways of life upon graduation. Although many of these early schools were open for only a short time, efforts persisted; the Mohawk Institute Residential School, the oldest, continuously operated residential school in Canada, opened in 1834 on Six Nations of the Grand River near Brantford, Ontario.
Administered by the Anglican Church, the facility opened as the Mechanics' Institute, a day school for boys, in 1828 and became a boarding school four years when it accepted
Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)
The Saint John River is a 673 kilometres long river that flows from Northern Maine into Canada, runs south along the western side of New Brunswick, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean in the Bay of Fundy. Eastern Canada's longest river, its drainage basin is one of the largest on the east coast at about 55,000 square kilometres. A tributary forms 55km of the border between Quebec and Maine, much of the border between New Brunswick and Maine follows the river. New Brunswick settlements through which it passes include, moving downstream, include Edmundston, Fredericton and Saint John, it is regulated by hydro-power dams located at Mactaquac and Grand Falls, New Brunswick. Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the river on the feast day of John the Baptist in 1604 and named it the Rivière Saint-Jean, now known in English as the Saint John River. Many waterways in the system retain their original pre-European names; the Maliseet seek to restore this name. The headwaters are in the New England/Acadian forests of Maine and Quebec, including the Southwest and Baker branches, the Allagash River flowing into New Brunswick at Edmundston where it is joined by the Madawaska River.
The middle section runs from the confluence of the Aroostook and Tobique rivers, flowing southeast to Mactaquac Dam. Other tributaries in this section include the Meduxnekeag River; this area is the only place in Atlantic Canada. Plants rare for the province include wild ginger, black raspberry, wild coffee, maindenhair fern, showy orchis and others; this forest type known as the Saint John River Valley Hardwood Forest, once spread of much of the area and has been reduced to less than one percent of the land area because of human activities. This is an area of rolling hills and soils that are the most fertile and farmed in New Brunswick. Soils are fine and well-drained glacial tills overlaying limestone and sandstone; the climate here is warmer than surrounding regions. The lower basin, 140 kilometres to Saint John Harbour on the Bay of Fundy, consisting of lakes, wetlands and a tidal estuary. Tributaries in this section include Belleisle Bay; the final tributary, the Kennebecasis River, is a fjord with a sill, or rise in depth near the mouth of a fjord caused by a terminal moraine.
From Grand Bay, the waterway becomes narrower and deeper forming a gorge where at the Reversing Falls incoming tide forces the flow of water to reverse against the prevailing current. A wedge of salt water, below a surface covering of fresh water, extends upriver to the 10m shallows at Oak Point beyond which it cannot advance; the drainage basin is 55,000 square kilometres. The average discharge is 1100 m3/s. Water flow is lowest in the autumn, higher than average during the spring freshet at 6800 m3/s. In early spring, upper sections of the river can experience ice jams causing flooding. In the lower sections in the broader floodplain, flooding may occur during late spring from the volume of water which must make its way through the narrow gorge at the Reversing Falls. All of the river downstream of a point between Fredericton and Mactaquac Provincial Park is considered tidal; the river is calm, except for waterfalls at Grand Falls and at the Beechwood Dam. With the water flow in the spring being six times the average rate, the valley has always been prone to flooding in the spring.
Surface runoff from heavy rainfall is the main cause of flooding, can be exacerbated by ice jams, high tides, rapid snowmelt. Floods have been documented for more than 300 years. Flooding has occurred in Edmundston, Grand Falls, Perth-Andover and Woodstock, most around Fredericton. Major flooding has occurred with water 8 metres above normal winter low. In 1936 high temperatures quickened snowmelt, heavy rain raised the water level to 8.9 metres, about 7.6 metres above summer level. Similar circumstances led to the same level of high water in the 1973 flood. In the 2008 flood the water level reached 8.36 in Fredericton. Similar flooding occurred again in 2018; the severity and frequency of flooding is expected to increase, with climate change. It is predicted that New Brunswick's average temperature will increase by 5 C by the year 2100, that precipitation will increase. At the end of the last glacial period, following the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet about 13,000 years ago, the area was stripped bare of vegetation and soil.
By about 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indians occupied what is now New Brunswick. Although the basin has been subject to human influence for thousands of years, the Maliseets' impact was minimal because of their small numbers, because they practised low intensity agriculture. Major disturbances did not begin until the early 1800s with the arrival of large numbers of Europeans; when the Europeans arrived, they found that the Saint John River basin was the homeland of the Maliseet tribes, who practiced hunting and gathering and farmed near the banks of the river. European colonists may have used fields and town sites prepared by the natives. Archaeological evidence is that the Maliseet had economic and cultural ties with large portion of North America; the Maliseet dealt with freshets by having their village above the floodplain, for example Meductic, while cultivating at a lower elevation where the fields were fertilized by the floodwaters. The Maliseet were mobile and the Saint John River was a primary means of transportation.
While the Maliseet saw themselves as part of the ecosystem, the Europeans' Judeo-Christian
Indigenous music of Canada
Indigenous music of Canada encompasses a wide variety of musical genres created by Canada's Indigenous people. Before European settlers came to what is now Canada, the region was occupied by a large number of First Nations, including the West Coast Salish and Haida, the centrally located Iroquois and Huron, the Dene to the North, the Innu and Mi'kmaq in the East and the Cree in the North; each of the indigenous communities had their own unique musical traditions. Chanting – singing is popular and most use a variety of musical instruments. Traditionally, Indigenous Canadians used the materials at hand to make their instruments for centuries before Europeans immigrated to Canada. First Nation bands made gourds and animal horns into rattles, many rattles were elaborately carved and beautifully painted. In woodland areas, they made horns of birchbark and drumsticks of carved antlers and wood. Drums were made of carved wood and animal hides. Drums and rattles are percussion instruments traditionally used by First Nations people.
These musical instruments provide the background for songs, songs are the background for dances. Many traditional First Nations people consider dance to be sacred. For many years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations people were forbidden to practice their ceremonies; that is one reason why little information about First Nations music and musical instruments is available. Traditionally Inuktitut did not have a word for what a European-influenced listener or ethnomusicologist's understanding of music, "and ethnographic investigation seems to suggest that the concept of music as such is absent from their culture." The closest word, includes music, the sound of speech, noise. Today, a revival of pride in First Nations art and music is taking and beauty of traditional First Nations art and musical instruments. Drums are associated with First Nations people; some people say, "Drumming is the heartbeat of Mother Earth." First Nations made a great variety of drums. Healers sometimes use miniature drums.
There are tambourine-shaped hand drums, war drums, water drums, large ceremonial drums. Their size and shape depends on the First Nation's particular culture and what the drummer wants to do with them. Many are beautifully decorated. In many First Nations cultures, the circle is important, it is the shape of the sun and moon, of the path they trace across the sky. Many First Nations objects, such as tipis and wigwams, are circular in shape. Traditional villages were place. First Nations people are recovering the knowledge, history arranged with the dwellings placed in a circle. To this day, many First Nations people hold meetings sitting in a circle. Meetings begin with a prayer, with the people standing in a circle holding hands. Hand carved wooden flutes and whistles are less common than drums, but are a part of First Nations traditional music. Chippewa men played flutes to serenade girlfriends and to soothe themselves and others during hard times; the Cree and Maliseet made and used whistles. Archaeologists have found evidence that both wooden whistles and flutes were used by the Beothuk, an extinct tribe who lived in Newfoundland until the early days of European settlement.
The human voice is the primary instrument of all First Nations. As it is in most ancient music, singing is the heart of First Nations traditions; every song had an original owner. Songs belonged to a society, rite, ceremony or individual. In some cultures, one could buy the right to sing a song owned by an individual; the original owner would teach the buyer to sing the song. Many traditional songs are still sung by First Nations people. Many artists now combine First Nations music with mainstream popular music genres such as country, hip hop or electronic dance music. Between 2014 and 2018, the Polaris Music Prize has been won three times by First Nations or Inuit musicians; the compilation album Native North America, Vol. 1, released by Light in the Attic Records in 2014, collects many rare and out-of-print songs by First Nations and Inuit musicians from the era in which the rock and country and folk genres were beginning to emerge as influences on Indigenous music. Inhabiting a wide swath of the United States and Canada, Eastern Woodlands natives, according to Nettl, can be distinguished by antiphony, which does not occur in other areas.
Their territory includes Maritime Canada, New England, U. S. Mid-Atlantic, Great Lakes and Southeast regions. Songs are rhythmically complex, characterized by frequent metric changes and a close relationship to ritual dance. Flutes and whistles are solo instruments, a wide variety of drums and striking sticks are played. Nettl describes the Eastern music area as the region between the Atlantic; the most complex styles being that of the Southeastern Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw and their language group, the simpler style being that of the Algonquian language group including Delaware and Penobscot. The Algonquian speaking Shawnee have a complex style influenced by the nearby southeastern tribes; the characteristics of this entire area include short iterative phrases, reverting relationships, shouts before and after singing, anhematonic pentatonic scales, simple rhythms and meter and, according to Nettl, antiphonal or responsorial techniques including "rudimentary imitative polyphony". Melodic movement tends to be gr
Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas comprise numerous different cultures. Each has its own mythologies; some are quite distinct. There is no single mythology of the Indigenous North American peoples, but numerous different canons of traditional narratives associated with religion and beliefs; such stories are based in Nature and are rich with the symbolism of seasons, plants, earth, fire and the heavenly bodies. Common elements are the principle of an all-embracing and omniscient Great Spirit, a connection to the Earth and its landscapes, a belief in a parallel world in the sky, diverse creation narratives, visits to the'land of the dead', collective memories of ancient sacred ancestors A characteristic of many of the myths is the close relationship between human beings and animals, they feature shapeshifting between animal and human form. Marriage between people and different species is a common theme. In some stories, animals foster human children. Although most Native North American myths are profound and serious, some use light-hearted humour – in the form of tricksters – to entertain, as they subtly convey important spiritual and moral messages.
The use of allegory is common, exploring issues ranging from love and friendship to domestic violence and mental illness. Some myths are connected to traditional religious rituals involving dance, music and trance. Most of the myths from this region were first transcribed by ethnologists during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; these sources were collected from Native American elders who still had strong connections to the traditions of their ancestors. They may be considered the most authentic surviving records of the ancient stories, thus form the basis of the descriptions below. All the original sources quoted are now available to read online through websites such as archive.org Myths from this region feature female deities such as the creator Big Turtle, First Mother from whose body grew the first corn and tobacco. The two great divine culture heroes are Manabus. Other stories explore the complex relationships between human beings; some myths were recited as verse narratives. Iroquois mythology Ho-Chunk mythology Wyandot religion Seneca mythology Stories unique to this region feature buffalo – the animals whose bodies provided the Plains peoples with food, clothing and utensils.
In some myths they are benign, in others malevolent. The Sun is an important deity. A common theme is the making of a journey to a supernatural place across the landscape or up to the parallel world in the sky. One of the most dominant tricksters of the Plains is Old Man, about whom numerous humorous stories are told. An important supernatural hero is the Blood Clot Boy, transformed from a clot of blood. Important myths of this region deal with the origin of hunting and farming, the origin of sickness and medicine. See also: Cherokee mythology Choctaw mythology Creek mythology Myths of this region are dominated by the sacred creator / trickster Coyote. Other significant characters include the Star Women and Darkness. See also: Kuksu – a religion in Northern California practiced by members within several Indigenous peoples of California. Miwok mythology – a North American tribe in Northern California. Ohlone mythology – a North American tribe in Northern California. Pomo religion – a North American tribe in Northern California.
Myths of the Navajo and Pueblo peoples tell how the first human beings emerged from an underworld to the Earth. According to the Hopi Pueblo people, the first beings were the Sun, two goddesses known as Hard Being Women and Spider Woman, it was the goddesses who created human beings. Other themes include the origin of tobacco and corn, horses; some stories describe parallel worlds in underwater. See also: Ute mythology – a North American tribe located in both the Northwestern and Southwestern United States. Diné Bahaneʼ – a North American nation from the Southwestern United States. Hopi mythology – a North American tribe in Arizona. Zuni mythology – a North American tribe in New Mexico. Myths of the Plateau region express the people's intense spiritual feeling for their landscapes, emphasise the importance of treating with respect the animals that they depend upon for food. Sacred tricksters here include Fox. See also: Salish mythology – a North American tribe or band in Montana, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada The myths of this region are set in the landscape of tundra and ice.
Memorable stories feature the moon and giants. Some accounts say that Anguta is the supreme being, who created the Earth and heavenly bodies, his daughter, Sedna created all living things -- plants. She is regarded as the protecting divinity of the Inuit people. Here some myths reflect the extreme climate and the people's dependence on salmon as a major food resource. In imagination, the landscape is populated by both malevolent giants. In this region the dominant sacred trickster is Raven, who brought daylight to the world and appears in many other stories. Myths explore the people's relationship with the coast and the rivers along which they traditionally built their towns. There are stories of visits to parallel worlds beneath the sea. and up in the sky See also: Kwakwaka'wakw mythology – an Indigenous peoples of the Pacif