Eucalyptus oleosa known as the red mallee, glossy-leaved red mallee, acorn mallee, oil mallee or giant mallee. is a native tree of Australia The leaves were once harvested for the production of cineole based eucalyptus oil. Eucalyptus cneorifolia is now the predominant strain used in production due to a higher oil content in new growth; the multi-stemmed tree or mallee grows to a height of 11 to 12 metres and has rough fibrous brown bark at the base that becomes smooth and grey above. It blooms between December producing yellow flowers; the adult leaves are around 130 millimetres in 19 mm wide. They are glossy and green in colour; the flower are axillary found in groups of 7–11. Smooth buds form with a length of to 10 mm and a width of 4.5 mm. The bud-cap is cone-shaped to cylinder-shaped. Fruits are round-shaped with a diameter of about 7 mm with a descending disc and 3 or 4 valves exserted with attenuate tips; the seeds are a length of 2 mm. It is one of the most widespread mallee species in Australia.
In Western Australia it is found on hills, sand plains and gravel pits in the southern Wheatbelt, Great Southern and Goldfields-Esperance regions growing in sandy or loamy soils over limestone. The species range extends east into most of southern and central South Australia and into northern and eastern Victoria and south western New South Wales south of Coonbah and west of Koraleigh, it is part of a codominant community of mallee shrubland on red aeolian sands. The species is associated with the chenopod mallee subgroup; the western mallee subgroup is characterised by several eucalypts including Eucalyptus eremophila, Eucalyptus moderata, Eucalyptus incrassata, Eucalyptus foecunda, Eucalyptus redunca and Eucalyptus uncinata. The understorey is predominantly shrubby with species of Melaleuca and Acacia along with the occasional Triodia; the chenopod mallee subgroup has E. oleosa along with other trees including Eucalyptus gracilis, Eucalyptus dumosa and Eucalyptus calycogona the understorey includes species of Maireana, Enchylaena and Zygophyllum.
The species was first formally described by the Dutch botanist Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel in 1856 in the work Stirpes Novo-Hollandas a Ferd Mullero collectas determinavit. Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief. Several different synonyms are known including Eucalyptus oleosa var. angustifolia Maiden, Eucalyptus laurifolia Blakely, Eucalyptus turbinata Behr & F. Muell. Ex Miq. and Eucalyptus socialis var. laurifolia F. Muell. Ex Maiden; the name oleosa comes from the Latin word meaning full of oil, referring to the adult leaves containing plenty of essential oils. The species is similar to and confused with E. socialis through misinterpretation of the type. Eucalyptus oleosa is distinguished in the field by the glossy green leaves. There are four known subspecies: Eucalyptus oleosa subsp. Ampliata L. A. S. Johnson & K. D. Hill Eucalyptus oleosa subsp. Corvina L. A. S. Johnson & K. D. Hill Eucalyptus oleosa subsp. Cylindroidea L. A. S. Johnson & K. D. Hill Eucalyptus oleosa F. Muell. Ex Miq. subsp. Oleosa Aside from Eucalyptus oil production E.oleosa is suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons per hectare per year.
In wheatbelt regions it is beneficial as the tree will reduce salinity, give shade to stock, act as a windbreak and reduce erosion. The seeds are sold for cultivation as a garden plant; the seeds germinte and the plant is known to be hardy as well as salt and frost resistant. It can be used for honey production. List of Eucalyptus species
Eucalyptus socialis known as the pointed mallee, grey mallee, or red mallee, is a tree native to inland Australia. The mallee grows to a height of 5 to 7 metres, but can reach as high as 12 metres; the canopy of the mallee is around 5 metres wide. Like other mallees it can form multiple trunks; the species has grey bark, rough on the trunk but smooth dull grey above and sheds in long thin ribbons. It produces inflorescences with yellow cream flowers; the grey-green, concolorous adult leaves have a disjunct arrangement. The leaf blade has a lanceolate to broad-lanceolate shape and are 6 to 10 centimetres in length and 1.2 to 2 cm wide. The inflorescences are found on seven to thirteen flowered umbellasters; the buds have an ovoid to fusiform shape and are 9 to 14 millimetres in length with a diameter of 4 to 5 mm. It will form globose shaped fruit with a length of a 5 to 8 mm diameter; the fruit have a depressed disc exserted valves with attenuate tips. Following bushfires the species can resprout basally and has a mortality rate of less than 30% when 100% of leaves are scorched.
The species was first formally described by the botanist Miquel in 1856 as part of the work Stirpes Novo-Hollandas a Ferd Mullero collectas determinavit as published in Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief. The species name socialis is from the Latin word meaning friendly. There are four identified subspecies of the mallee: Eucalyptus socialis subsp. Eucentrica D. Nicolle Eucalyptus socialis subsp. Socialis Eucalyptus socialis subsp. Victoriensis D. Nicolle Eucalyptus socialis subsp. ViridansE. Socialis and E. gillii have undergone extensive hybridisation in parts of the Barrier Range of New South Wales. It is one of the most wide-spread mallee species in Australia. In Western Australia it is found on calcareous flats and rocky scree slopes in the Pilbara and Goldfields-Esperance regions where it grows in red-grey loam over limestone, it is found through much of South Australia in southern areas such as the Eyre Peninsula, Gawler Range, Flinders Ranges and Adelaide foothills where it is common. The range extends into the southern part of the Northern Territory, where it is found in the Alice Springs region and into parts of Queensland where it is found in open woodlands where occurs with E. dumosa, E. gracilis and E. leptophylla.
In New South Wales it is found west from Condoblin with a sporadic distribution from Wilcannia. In these areas it is found in mallee shrubland communities on red aeolian sands. In Victoria it is found in the north west of the state extending from the Murray Mallee bioregion east to the Victorian riverina. E. socialis is suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons per hectare per year. In wheatbelt regions it is beneficial as the tree will reduce salinity, give shade to stock, act as a windbreak and reduce erosion. Indigenous Australians used the tree for making bowls and medicines from the leaves and spears from the bark and obtained water from roots; the plant is noted for its ability to grow in poor soils. It is attractive to bees and butterflies who use the nectar for food from spring to summer during flowering, it will grow in full sun in well drained soils. It is slow growing but used as a small garden tree. List of Eucalyptus species
Eucalyptus dumosa known as the Walkerie mallee, Congoo mallee, Cong mallee, Dumosa mallee or the White Mallee, is a mallee of south eastern Australia. Mallee is the Wergaui/ Wotjobaluk word for this species; the tree grows to a height of 4 to 8 metres and 12 metres and a width of 4 to 5 metres and has an open canopy. It has an open, spreading habit; the bark is smooth, whitish or yellow-white, weathering to grey or pinkish-grey, on larger stems there is a stocking of thin grey-brown fibrous bark. The bark sheds in long thin ribbons. Adult leaves are stalked, lanceolate 10 centimetres long and 2 centimetres wide, concolorous dull green to grey-green. Clusters of white flowers appear in late summer to mid autumn; the infloresences are seven-flowered umbellasters with a terete or angular peduncle, 10 to 16 mm long. It has pedicels that are terete and 1 to 3 mm cylindrical buds; the fruit that forms is cylindrical or ovoid and 6 to 9 mm in length with a diameter of 5 to 7 mm. It is found in the dry country of South Australia from the northern Flinders Ranges and Murray Mallee eastwards to central western New South Wales and north western Victoria.
E. Dumosa is co-dominant in mallee shrubland on red aeolian sands, it is one of the most wide-spread mallee species. The leaves are steam distilled as a commercial source of cineole based eucalyptus oil, it is used as a component of mass plantings along with other mallee species on wide roadside verges as a screen, wind-break, erosion control or a shade tree. Indigenous Australians use the tree as a source of food, medicines and to make containers and implements. A sweet manna-like substance is produced upon the leaves of the tree, it is made into a drink; the bark of young roots is baked and eaten, it is sweet, resembling malt in flavour. The 1889 book'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that common names included "Bastard Box" and "Coolibah" and that "These Eucalypts, amongst others, yield water from their roots, it mentions that, "This shrub yields a kind of manna called Lerp or Larp by the aboriginals. It is the nidus of an insect, consists of starch-like substance, eaten in summer by the aborigines of the mallee country of Victoria.
It somewhat resembles in appearance small shells. According to Dr. Thomas Dobson, of Hobart, the insect which causes the Lerp to form is Psylla Eucalypti, it is formed on the leaves of other mallee Eucalypts. This substance occurs on the leaves, consists of white threads clotted together by a syrup proceeding from the insect which spins those threads, it contains, in round numbers, of water 14 parts, thread-like portion 33 parts, sugar 53 parts. The threads possess many of the characteristic properties of starch, from which, they are distinguished by their form; when lerp is washed with water the sugar dissolves and the threads swell but but dissolve to a slight extent, so that the solution is coloured blue by iodine. The threads freed from sugar by washing consist of a substance called Lerp-amylum. " Lerp-amylum is slightly soluble in cold water, not perceptibly more so in water at 100°"It is suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons per hectare per year.
In wheatbelt regions it is beneficial as the tree will reduce salinity, give shade to stock, act as a windbreak and reduce erosion. List of Eucalyptus species
Mallee Woodlands and Shrublands
Mallee Woodlands and Shrublands is a Major Vegetation Group which occurs in semi-arid areas of southern Australia. The vegetation is dominated by mallee eucalypts which are over 6 metres high. Other dominant plant genera are Melaleuca and Hakea; the composition of the understorey depends on factors such as rainfall, soil composition as well as fire frequency and intensity. In subhumid areas, a variety of grasses and shrubs predominate, while in semi-arid areas hummock grasses predominate. In 2001, the area covered by this vegetation group was estimated to be 65% of its pre 1788 coverage; the most extensive extant area of this group in Australia today is found in the Great Victoria Desert. Prior to 1788, the largest area occurred in the Murray-Darling basin; the Major Vegetation Subgroups for this group are: Mallee with hummock grass Mallee with a dense shrubby understorey Mallee with an open shrubby understorey Mallee with a tussock grass understorey. Environment.gov.au: Mallee Woodlands and Shrublands plant communities — range maps, plant species, images, +conservation
Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced wood, called a copse, young tree stems are cut down to near ground level, known as a stool. New growth emerges and after a number of years, the coppiced tree is harvested and the cycle begins anew. Pollarding is a similar process carried out at a higher level on the tree. Many silviculture practices involve regrowth; the widespread and long-term practice of coppicing as a landscape-scale industry is something that remains of special importance in southern England. Many of the English-language terms referenced in this article are relevant to historic and contemporary practice in that area. A coppiced woodland is harvested in sections or coups on a rotation. In this way, a crop is available each year somewhere in the woodland. Coppicing has the effect of providing a rich variety of habitats, as the woodland always has a range of different-aged coppice growing in it, beneficial for biodiversity.
The cycle length depends upon the species cut, the local custom, the use to which the product is put. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a three- or four-year cycle, whereas oak can be coppiced over a fifty-year cycle for poles or firewood. Coppicing maintains trees at a juvenile stage, a coppiced tree will never die of old age; the age of a stool may be estimated from its diameter, some are so large—perhaps as much as 5.4 metres across—that they are thought to have been continually coppiced for centuries. Evidence suggests. Coppiced stems are characteristically curved at the base; this curve occurs as the competing stems grow out from the stool in the early stages of the cycle up towards the sky as the canopy closes. The curve may allow the identification of coppice timber in archaeological sites. Timber in the Sweet Track in Somerset has been identified as coppiced lime; the silvicultural system now called coppicing was practiced for small wood production. In German this is called Niederwald.
On in Mediaeval times farmers encouraged pigs to feed from acorns and so some trees were allowed to grow bigger. This different silvicultural system is called in English coppice with standards. In German this is called Mittelwald; as modern forestry seeks to harvest timber mechanically, pigs are no longer fed from acorns, both systems have declined. However, there are cultural and wildlife benefits from these 2 silvicultural systems so both can be found where timber production or some other main forestry purpose is not the sole management objective of the woodland. In the 16th and 17th centuries the technology of charcoal iron production became established in England, continuing in some areas until the late 19th century Along with the growing need for oak bark for tanning, this required large amounts of coppice wood. With this coppice management, wood could be provided for those growing industries in principle indefinitely; this was regulated by a statute of 1544 of Henry VIII, which required woods to be enclosed after cutting and 12 standels to be left in each acre, to be grown into timber.
Coppice with standards has been used throughout most of Europe as a means of giving greater flexibility in the resulting forest product from any one area. The woodland provides not only the small material from the coppice but a range of larger timber for jobs like house building, bridge repair, cart-making and so on. In the 18th century coppicing in Britain began a long decline; this was brought about by the erosion of its traditional markets. Firewood was no longer needed for domestic or industrial uses as coal and coke became obtained and transported, wood as a construction material was replaced by newer materials. Coppicing died out first in the north of Britain and contracted towards the south-east until by the 1960s active commercial coppice was concentrated in Kent and Sussex; the shoots may be used either in their young state for interweaving in wattle fencing or the new shoots may be allowed to grow into large poles, as was the custom with trees such as oaks or ashes. This creates long, straight poles which do not have the bends and forks of grown trees.
Coppicing may be practiced to encourage specific growth patterns, as with cinnamon trees which are grown for their bark. Another, more complicated system is called compound coppice. Here some of the standards would be left; some of the coppice would be allowed to grow into new standards and some regenerated coppice would be there. Thus there would be three age classes. Coppiced hardwoods were used extensively in carriage and shipbuilding, they are still sometimes grown for making wooden buildings and furniture. Withies for wicker-work are grown in coppices of various willow species, principally osier. In France, chestnut trees are coppiced for use as canes and bâtons for the martial art Canne de combat; some Eucalyptus species are coppiced in a number of countries. The Sal tree is coppiced in India, the Moringa oleifera tree is