The Bangalore Cantonment was a military cantonment of the British Raj based in the Indian city of Bangalore. The cantonment covered an area of 13 square miles, extending from the Residency on the west to Binnamangala on the east and from the Tanneries in the north to Agram in the south. By area, it was the largest British military cantonment in South India; the British garrison stationed in the cantonment included three artillery batteries, regiments of the cavalry, sappers, mounted infantry and transport corps and the Bangalore Rifle Volunteers. The Bangalore Cantonment was directly under the administration of the British Raj, while Bangalore City itself was under the jurisdiction of the Durbar of the Kingdom of Mysore. Prior to the arrival of the British, Bangalore had been the stronghold of several Hindu dynasties including the Gangas, Cholas and the Vijayanagara Empire. In the 18th century, the dominion of Bangalore passed on to Haider Ali. After a series of successive wars known as the Anglo-Mysore Wars with Haider Ali's son, Tipu Sultan, the British captured the city and all of the Kingdom of Mysore in 1799.
Bangalore was the strongest fort of Tipu Sultan and during the Third Anglo-Mysore War, Lord Cornwallis decided to reduce this fort before the storming of Srirangapatna. Tipu Sultan followed Cornwallis' army, placing him in the awkward position of having an undefeated enemy army at his back while besieging the a strong fortification. Tipu kept away hoping to take assault in flank. Over the next twelve days, two companies of the Madras Pioneers provided sappers for eight batteries, dug several parallels and a trench up to the fort ditch. Cornwallis attacked secretly on the night of 21 March 1791; the Madras Pioneers, led by Lt Colin Mackenzie, crossed the ditch with scaling ladders, mounted the breach and entered the fort, while the artillery engaged the fort with blank ammunition. With a breach made, the main stormers rushed in and the fort was captured after a hand-to hand fight in which a thousand defenders were killed. Cornwallis secured the force against Tipu; the Madras Pioneers, went on to make Bangalore their permanent home.
The British found Bangalore to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their garrison to Bangalore from Srirangapatna. The origin of the word cantonment comes from the French word canton, meaning district; each cantonment was a well-defined and demarcated unit of territory set apart for the quartering and administering of troops. The heart of the Bangalore Cantonment was the Parade Ground; the Civil and Military Station grew around the Parade Ground. The installation of the Bangalore Cantonment attracted a large number of migrant workers from Tamil Nadu and other neighboring states of the Kingdom of Mysore. Bangalore became the largest city in the Kingdom of Mysore. In 1831, the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore was moved from Mysore city to Bangalore; the Bangalore Cantonment grew independent of its twin-city, referred to as Bangalore pete. The pete was populated with the native Kannadiga population, while the Bangalore Cantonment, had a colonial design with a population that consisted of residents from other parts of India and Britain.
In the 19th century, the Bangalore Cantonment had clubs, bungalows and cinemas. The Bangalore Cantonment had a strong European influence with public residence and life centered on the South Parade, now referred to as MG Road; the area around the South Parade was famous for its bars and restaurants with the area known as Blackpally becoming a one-stop shopping area The Cubbon Park was built in the Bangalore Cantonment in 1864 on 120 acres of land. The St. Mark's Cathedral was built on the South Parade grounds; the settlements adjacent to the South Parades was known as Mootocherry, occupied by Tamil settlers from the North Arcot and South Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu. The names of many of the cantonment's streets were derived from military nomenclature such as Artillery Road, Brigade Road, Infantry Road and Cavalry Road; the city of Bangalore still retains many of the colonial names of its streets. A resident to the King of Mysore, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV lived within the cantonment area and his quarters was called the "Residency" and hence the name Residency Road.
Areas around the South Parade that were public living areas were named after their European residents. A municipal corporation was established for the Bangalore Cantonment in 1863. After Indian independence in 1947, corporation merged with the Bangalore pete municipal corporation to form the Bangalore City Corporation, now known as Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike. Bangalore was part of the Madras Presidency, in 1864, the city was connected to Madras by rail. Still called the Bangalore Cantonment Railway Station, it is one of many railway stations servicing the city of Bangalore. Around 1883, Richmond Town, Benson Town and Cleveland Town were added to the cantonment; the population of the Bangalore pete and cantonment fell in 1898 when a bubonic plague epidemic broke out. The epidemic took a huge toll and many temples were built during this time, dedicated to the goddess Mariamma; the crisis caused by this epidemic catalyzed the improvement and sanitation of Bangalore and, in turn, improvements in sanitation and health facilities helped to modernize Bangalore.
Telephone lines were laid to help coordinate anti-plague operations. Regulations for building new houses with proper sanitation facilities came into effect. A health officer was appointed in 1898 and the city was divided into four wards for better coordination and the Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzo
Lakes in Bangalore
Lakes in Bangalore, Karnataka are numerous, there are no rivers close by. Most lakes in the Bangalore region were constructed in the sixteenth century by damming the natural valley systems by constructing bunds; the effect of urbanization has taken some heavy toll on the Beautiful lakes in Bangalore. The lakes in the city have been encroached for urban infrastructure and as result, in the heart of the city only 17 good lakes exist as against 51 healthy lakes in 1985. Urban development has caused 19 lakes getting converted to bus stands, Golf courses and residential colonies, few tanks were breached under the malaria eradication programme. In recent years, the Management of Lakes traditionally done by the government agencies witnessed experimentation by the Lake Development Authority with a limited public–private sector participation in respect of three lakes, which has proved controversial and resulted in a reversal of the policy; the earliest history of creation of lakes in and around the city is traced to the founders of Bangalore or Bengaluru –the Kempe Gowdas– in the Sixteenth century and by the Wodeyars of Mysore Kingdom and the British.
Most of the lakes and tanks were man made for purposes of drinking water and fishing needs and they have favorably influenced microclimate of the city. The lake waters have served as "Dhobhi Ghats" or places where washer–men, have traditionally used them as a means of livelihood for washing clothes and drying them; the lakes have served to replenish ground water resources in the vicinity, which are tapped through wells for drinking water. In the 1960s the number of tanks and lakes was 280 and less than 80 in 1993; until 1895 unfiltered water was supplied from tanks like Dharmambudhi, Millers tank and Ulsoor tanks. From 1896 water was supplied from Hessarghtta and from 1933 it was obtained from Thippagondanahalli. In the 1970s the scheme to pump water from the Cauvery river 100 kilometres away was begun; the water needed to be raised up by 500 metres. The water demand in 2001 was 750 million litres per day and the actual supply is only 570 million litres per day and the per capita usage is about 105 litres per day.
The national standard is 150 litres per day while the international standard is 200 litres per capita per day. Most of the lakes have vanished due to encroachment and construction activity for urban infrastructure expansion; the city once had 280-285 lakes of which 7 cannot be traced, 7 are reduced to small pools of water, 18 have been unauthorisedly encroached by slums and private parties, 14 have dried up and are leased out by the Government. 28 lakes have been used by the Bangalore Development Authority to distribute sites and build extensions for residential areas. The remaining lakes are in advanced state of deterioration. Challaghatta lake changed to Karnataka Golf Association Koramangala lake changed to National Games Complex in Ejipura Siddikatte Lake has now become KR Market Karanji tank is the Gandhi Bazar area Kempambudhi is now a sewerage collection tank Nagashettihalli lake changed to Space department Kadugondanahalli lake changed to Ambedkar Medical College Domlur lake changed to BDA layout Millers lake changed to Guru Nanak Bhavan, Badminton Stadium Subhashnagar lake changed to Residential layout Kurubarahalli lake changed to Residential layout Kodihalli lake changed to Residential layout Sinivaigalu lake changed to Residential layout Marenahalli lake changed to Residential layout Shivanahalli lake changed to Playground, Bus stand Chenamma tank changed to a burial ground, Banashankari 2nd Stage Puttennahalli tank changed to J.
P. Nagar 6th Phase Jakkarayanakere has been converted into a sports ground Kamakshipalya Lake is converted into a sports ground Baalayyana Kere is converted into a sports ground Dasarahalli tank is converted into Dr. B. R Ambedkar Stadium Bagalagunte hosa-kere in sy No 83 changed to residential layout Bagalagunte Hale-kere in sY No.113 encroached all the side of lake Kacharkanahalli lake is the newest encroached Lake Jaraganahalli lake in survey number 29/2C of jaraganahalli village, uttarahalli hobli, Bangalore south taluk. This is on kanakapura road close to sarakki signal; the lake has been encroached. The topographic setting of the city has radial slopes towards east and west with a smooth ridge running north to south. Doddabettahalli 1,062 m is the highest point on this ridge; these undulating terrain of hills and valleys, lends itself to the development of lakes that can capture and store rainwater. Small streams are formed by each valley starting with the ridge at the top. A series of shallow tanks varying in size are developed.
The gentle topography has good potential of ground water development. Water resources are important for urban areas. Bangalore, with annual rainfall of 900 mm with three different rainy seasons covering nine months of the year. June to October is the rainy season accounting for 64% of the total annual rainfall in the S-W monsoon period and 324 mm during the N–E monsoons, it has a salubrious climate with an annual mean temperature of 24 °C with extremes ranging from 37 °C to 15 °C. The streams between ridges and valleys have been dammed at suitable locations creating a cascade of reservoirs in each of the three valley systems; each lake stores rain water from its catchments with excess flows spilling downstream into the next lake in the
Tipu Sultan known as the Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and India's first freedom fighter. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry, he expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, is considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam, he embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas and rulers of Malabar, Bednore and Travancore.
Napoleon learned a lot about Islam from Tipu Sultan. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power capturing Mysore, Tipu succeeded him as ruler of Mysore upon his father's death in 1782, he won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War which ended with the signing the Treaty of Gajendragad The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali. Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore.
He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the imperial forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas, they defeated Tipu, he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna. He was one of the few South Indian kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along with his father Hyder Ali, he is applauded as a ruler. Tipu has criticized for his repression of Hindus and Christians. Various sources describe the massacres, forced conversion, circumcision of Hindus and Christians and the destruction of churches and temples which are cited as evidence for his religious intolerance. Other sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in his administration and his endowments to Hindu temples, which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance. Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 at Devanahalli, in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km north of Bangalore city.
He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important military missions, he was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Arabic, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding and fencing. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766, he commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16.
He distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches. School and college textbooks in India recognize him as the first "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers. In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who wa
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Indian classical music
Indian classical music is the classical music of the Indian subcontinent. It has two major traditions: the North Indian classical music tradition is called Hindustani, while the South Indian expression is called Carnatic; these traditions were not distinct till about the 16th century. There on, during the turmoils of Islamic rule period of the Indian subcontinent, the traditions separated and evolved into distinct forms. Hindustani music emphasizes improvisation and exploring all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic performances tend to be short and composition-based. However, the two systems continue to have more common features than differences; the roots of the classical music of India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism and the ancient Natyashastra, the classic Sanskrit text on performance arts by Bharata Muni. The 13th century Sanskrit text Sangita-Ratnakara of Sarangadeva is regarded as the definitive text by both the Hindustani music and the Carnatic music traditions. Indian classical music has two foundational elements and tala.
The raga, based on swara, forms the fabric of a melodic structure, while the tala measures the time cycle. The raga gives an artist a palette to build the melody from sounds, while the tala provides them with a creative framework for rhythmic improvisation using time. In Indian classical the space between the notes is more important than the notes themselves, it does not have Western classical concepts such as harmony, chords, or modulation; the root of music in ancient India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism. The earliest Indian thought combined three arts, syllabic recital and dance; as these fields developed, sangeeta became a distinct genre of art, in a form equivalent to contemporary music. This occurred before the time of Yāska, since he includes these terms in his nirukta studies, one of the six Vedanga of ancient Indian tradition; some of the ancient texts of Hinduism such as the Samaveda are structured to melodic themes, it is sections of Rigveda set to music. The Samaveda is organized into two formats.
One part is based on another by the aim of the rituals. The text is written with embedded coding, where swaras are either shown above or within the text, or the verse is written into parvans in simple words this embedded code of swaras is like the skeleton of the song; the swaras have about 12 different forms and different combinations of these swaras are made to sit under the names of different ragas. The specific code of a song tells us what combination of swaras are present in a specific song; the lyrical part of the song is called "sahityam" and sahityam is just like singing the swaras altogether but using the lyrics of the song. The code in the form of swaras have the notation of which note to be sung high and which one low; the hymns of Samaveda contain melodic content, form and metric organization. This structure is, not unique or limited to Samaveda; the Rigveda embeds the musical meter too, without the kind of elaboration found in the Samaveda. For example, the Gayatri mantra contains three metric lines of eight syllables, with an embedded ternary rhythm.
In the ancient traditions of Hinduism, two musical genre appeared, namely Gana. The Gandharva music implied celestial, divine associations, while the Gana implied singing; the Vedic Sanskrit musical tradition had spread in the Indian subcontinent, according to Rowell, the ancient Tamil classics make it "abundantly clear that a cultivated musical tradition existed in South India as early as the last few pre-Christian centuries". The classic Sanskrit text Natya Shastra is at the foundation of the numerous classical music and dance traditions of India. Before Natyashastra was finalized, the ancient Indian traditions had classified musical instruments into four groups based on their acoustic principle for example flute which works with gracious in and out flow of air; these four categories are accepted as given and are four separate chapters in the Natyashastra, one each on stringed instruments, hollow instruments, solid instruments, covered instruments. Of these, states Rowell, the idiophone in the form of "small bronze cymbals" were used for tala.
The entire chapter of Natyashastra on idiophones, by Bharata, is a theoretical treatise on the system of tala. Time keeping with idiophones was considered a separate function than that of percussion, in the early Indian thought on music theory; the early 13th century Sanskrit text Sangitaratnakara, by Sarngadeva patronized by King Sighana of the Yadava dynasty in Maharashtra and discusses ragas and talas. He identifies seven tala families subdivides them into rhythmic ratios, presenting a methodology for improvization and composition that continues to inspire modern era Indian musicians. Sangitaratnakara is one of the most complete historic medieval era Hindu treatises on this subject that has survived into the modern era, that relates to the structure and reasoning behind ragas and talas; the centrality and significance of music in ancient and early medieval India is expressed in numerous temple and shrine reliefs, in Buddhism and Jainism, such as through the carving of musicians with cymbals at the fifth century Pavaya temple sculpture near Gwalior, the Ellora Caves.
The post-Vedic era historical literature relating to Indian classical music has been extensive. The ancient
The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent, that ruled most of what is now Karnataka, between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was located at Belur but was moved to Halebidu; the Hoysala rulers were from Malenadu, an elevated region in the Western Ghats. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the Western Chalukya Empire and Kalachuris of Kalyani, they annexed areas of present-day Karnataka and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri delta in present-day Tamil Nadu. By the 13th century, they governed most of Karnataka, minor parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in the Deccan Plateau; the Hoysala era was an important period in the development of art and religion in South India. The empire is remembered today for Hoysala architecture. Over a hundred surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka. Well known temples "which exhibit an amazing display of sculptural exuberance" include the Chennakeshava Temple, the Hoysaleswara Temple and the Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura.
The Hoysala rulers patronised the fine arts, encouraging literature to flourish in Kannada and Sanskrit. Kannada folklore tells a tale of a young man, who saved his Jain guru, Sudatta, by striking dead a tiger he encountered near the temple of the goddess Vasantika at Angadi, now called Sosevuru; the word "strike" translates to "hoy" in Old Kannada, hence the name "Hoy-sala". This legend first appeared in the Belur inscription of Vishnuvardhana, but owing to several inconsistencies in the Sala story it remains in the realm of folklore; the legend may have come into existence or gained popularity after King Vishnuvardhana's victory over the Cholas at Talakadu as the Hoysala emblem depicts the fight between the mythical warrior Sala and a tiger, the tiger being the emblem of the Cholas. Early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas were descendants of the Yadava by referring to the Yadava vamsa as the "Hoysala vamsa", but there are no early records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India.
Historians refer to the founders of the dynasty as natives of Malenadu based on numerous inscriptions calling them Maleparolganda or "Lord of the Male chiefs". This title in the Kannada language was proudly used by the Hoysala kings as their royal signature in their inscriptions. Literary sources from that time in Kannada and Sanskrit have helped confirm they were natives of the region known today as Karnataka; the first Hoysala family record is dated 950 and names Arekalla as the chieftain, followed by Maruga and Nripa Kama I. The next ruler, was succeeded by Nripa Kama II who held such titles as Permanadi that show an early alliance with the Western Ganga dynasty. From these modest beginnings, the Hoysala dynasty began its transformation into a strong subordinate of the Western Chalukya Empire. Through Vishnuvardhana's expansive military conquests, the Hoysalas achieved the status of a real kingdom for the first time, he moved the capital from Belur to Halebidu. Vishnuvardhana's ambition of creating an independent empire was fulfilled by his grandson Veera Ballala II, who freed the Hoysalas from subordination in 1187–1193.
Thus the Hoysalas began as subordinates of the Western Chalukya Empire and established their own empire in Karnataka with such strong Hoysala kings as Vishnuvardhana, Veera Ballala II and Veera Ballala III. During this time, the Deccan Plateau saw a four-way struggle for hegemony – Pandyan and Seuna being the other kingdoms. Veera Ballala II defeated the aggressive Pandya, he assumed the title "Establisher of the Chola Kingdom", "Emperor of the south" and "Hoysala emperor". He founded the city of Bangalore according to Kannada folklore; the Hoysalas extended their foothold in areas known today as Tamil Nadu around 1225, making the city of Kannanur Kuppam near Srirangam a provincial capital and giving them control over South Indian politics that began a period of Hoysala hegemony in the southern Deccan. Vira Narasimha II's son Vira Someshwara earned the honorific "uncle" from the Cholas; the Hoysala influence spread over Pandya kingdom also. Toward the end of the 13th century, Veera Ballala III recaptured territory in the Tamil country, lost to the Pandya uprising, thus uniting the northern and southern portions of the kingdom.
Major political changes were taking place in the Deccan region in the early 14th century when significant areas of northern India were under Muslim rule. Alauddin Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi, was determined to bring South India under his domain and sent his commander, Malik Kafur, on a southern expedition to plunder the Seuna capital Devagiri in 1311; the Seuna empire was subjugated by 1318 and the Hoysala capital Halebidu was sacked twice, in 1311 and 1327. By 1336, the Sultan had conquered the Pandyas of Madurai, the Kakatiyas of Warangal and the tiny kingdom of Kampili; the Hoysalas were the only remaining Hindu empire. Veera Ballala III stationed himself at Tiruvannamalai and offered stiff resistance to invasions from the north and the Madurai Sultanate to the south. After nearly three decades of resistance, Veera Ballala III was killed at the battle of Madurai in 1343, the sovereign territories of the Hoysala empire were merged with the areas administered by Harihara I in the Tungabhadra River region.
This new Hindu kingdom resisted the northern invasions and would pros
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under