Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition. Malnutrition is used to refer to undernutrition where an individual is not getting enough calories, protein, or micronutrients. If undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development. Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body poor energy levels, swollen legs and abdomen. People often get infections and are cold; the symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient, lacking. Undernourishment is most due to not enough high-quality food being available to eat; this is related to high food prices and poverty.
A lack of breastfeeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia and measles, which increase nutrient requirements. There are two main types of undernutrition: protein-energy dietary deficiencies. Protein-energy malnutrition has two severe forms: kwashiorkor. Common micronutrient deficiencies include: a lack of iron and vitamin A. During pregnancy, due to the body's increased need, deficiencies may become more common. In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition. Other causes of malnutrition include bariatric surgery. Efforts to improve nutrition are some of the most effective forms of development aid. Breastfeeding can reduce rates of malnutrition and death in children, efforts to promote the practice increase the rates of breastfeeding. In young children, providing food between six months and two years of age improves outcomes. There is good evidence supporting the supplementation of a number of micronutrients to women during pregnancy and among young children in the developing world.
To get food to people who need it most, both delivering food and providing money so people can buy food within local markets are effective. Feeding students at school is insufficient. Management of severe malnutrition within the person's home with ready-to-use therapeutic foods is possible much of the time. In those who have severe malnutrition complicated by other health problems, treatment in a hospital setting is recommended; this involves managing low blood sugar and body temperature, addressing dehydration, gradual feeding. Routine antibiotics are recommended due to the high risk of infection. Longer-term measures include: improving agricultural practices, reducing poverty, improving sanitation, the empowerment of women. There were 821 million undernourished people in the world in 2018; this is a reduction of about 176 million people since 1990 when 23% were undernourished, but an increase of about 36 million since 2015, when 10.6% were undernourished. In 2012, it was estimated that another billion people had a lack of vitamins, minerals.
In 2015, protein-energy malnutrition was estimated to have resulted in 323,000 deaths—down from 510,000 deaths in 1990. Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 83,000 deaths. In 2010, malnutrition was the cause of 1.4% of all disability adjusted life years. About a third of deaths in children are believed to be due to undernutrition, although the deaths are labelled as such. In 2010, it was estimated to have contributed to about 1.5 million deaths in women and children, though some estimate the number may be greater than 3 million. An additional 165 million children were estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in 2013. Undernutrition is more common in developing countries. Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women—in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding—children under five years of age, the elderly. In the elderly, undernutrition becomes more common due to physical and social factors.
Unless mentioned otherwise, the term malnutrition refers to undernutrition for the remainder of this article. Malnutrition can be divided into two different types, SAM and MAM. SAM refers to children with severe acute malnutrition. MAM refers to moderate acute malnutrition. Malnutrition is caused by eating a diet in which nutrients are not enough or is too much such that it causes health problems, it is a category of diseases that includes overnutrition. Overnutrition can result in being overweight. In some developing countries, overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition. However, the term malnutrition is used to refer to undernutrition only; this applies to the context of development cooperation. Therefore, "malnutrition" in documents by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Save the Children or other international non-governmental organizations is equated to undernutrition. Undernutrition is sometimes used as a synonym of protein–energy malnutrition.
While other include both micronutrient deficiencies and protein energy malnutrition in its definition. It differs from calorie restriction in that calorie restriction may not result in negative health effects; the term hypoalimentation means underfeeding. The term "severe malnutrition" or "severe undernutrition" is oft
Henrik Birnbaum was an American linguist and historian. Birnbaum was born in today's Wrocław, Poland, he received his PhD in Slavic Philology in 1954. He worked as a docent at the University of Stockholm in 1958-1961, as an Associate Professor of Slavic languages and literature at the University of California at Los Angeles, as a tenured professor at the same university in 1964-1994, he was a guest professor at many European universities. From 1992 he led the Department of Medieval Studies at Central European University in Budapest, he authored more than 300 scientific publications in the fields of phonology, comparative grammar of Slavic languages and culture of the Slavs, 18 of which are books and monographs. Since 1992 he was a regular member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, since 1981 a corresponding member of the Swedish Academy, since 1986 a corresponding member of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, since 1988 a corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Untersuchungen zu den Zukunftsumschreibungen mit dem Infinitiv im Altkirchenslavischen. Ein Beitrag zur historischen Verbalsyntax des Slavischen, Stockholm, 1958. Slaverna och deras grannfolk. En kort orientering, Uppsala, 1961. Studies on Predication in Russian I, Santa Monica, CA, 1964. Studies on Predication in Russian II, Santa Monica, CA, 1965. Problems of Typological and Genetic Linguistics Viewed in a Generative Framework, The Hague, 1970. On Medieval and Renaissance Slavic Writing. Selected Essays, The Hague, 1974. Common Slavic: Progress and Problems in its Reconstruction, Cambridge, MA, 1975, 21979. Doktor Faustus und Doktor Schiwago. Versuch ueber zwei Zeitromane aus Exilsicht, Lisse, 1976. Linguistic Reconstruction: Its Potentials and Limitations in a New Perspective, Washington, D. C. 1977. Lord Novgorod the Great: Essays in the History and Culture of a Medieval City-State. Part One: The Historical Background, Columbus, OH, 1981. Essays in Early Slavic Civilization / Studien zur Fruehkultur der Slaven, Munich, 1981.
Recent Advances in the Reconstruction of Common Slavic, Columbus, OH, 1984. Lord Novgorod the Great: Sociopolitical Experiment and Cultural Achievement, Los Angeles, 1985. Praslavianskii iazyk. Dostizhenia i problemy v ego rekonstruktsii, Moscow, 1987. Novgorod and Dubrovnik: Two Slavic City Republics and Their Civilization, Zagreb, 1989. Aspects of the Slavic Middle Ages and Slavic Renaissance Culture, New York, 1992. Novgorod in Focus, Columbus, OH, 1996. Birnbaum's UCLA webpage, in memoriam Ladić, Zoran, "Henrik Birnbaum. In memoriam", Papers and Proceedings of the Department of Historical Research of the Institute of Historical and Social Research of Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 21: 369–372 Greenberg, Marc L. Henrik Birnbaum–Remembering a Great Teacher Andersen, Henning, "Henrik Birnbaum in memoriam", Scando-Slavica, 48: 147–148 Flier, Michael S. "Obituary: Prof. Henrik Birnbaum", The Slavic and East European Journal, American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, 46: 765–767, JSTOR 3219912
Holly Gleason is an American music critic and music industry consultant. Focused on country and roots music, she has written for Rolling Stone, the New York Times, Spin, among others; as a publicist, Gleason has worked with artists including Kenny Chesney, Brooks & Dunn, Emmylou Harris, John Prine, Rodney Crowell. Under the name Lady Goodman, she co-wrote "Better as a Memory," a #1 hit on the Billboard Hot Country charts for Chesney in 2008. Gleason grew up in Ohio, she earned a BA in communications from the University of Miami and an MFA in writing from Spalding University. While still in college, Gleason began her career as a music critic for the Miami Herald. From 1990 through 1993, she worked as a publicist for Sony Music Nashville, subsequently founded Joe's Garage, a Nashville-based public relations and artist development agency. While the company was active, she additionally served as the features editor for Hits, founded a blog, The Yummy List. Gleason has freelanced as a music critic and journalist since 1993.
She was nominated for Best Cultural Reporting for her 2015 essay, “The Impossible Lightness of Being Taylor Swift,” by the International Network of Street Papers. In 2016, she was awarded a fellowship by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s CWRU Center for Pop Music Studies. Gleason edited Woman Walk the Line: How the Women in Country Music Changed Our Lives, a collection of essays by female music writers on the artists that inspired them, it was published in September 2017 by the University of Texas Press as part of their American Music Series. Gleason writes songs under the pen name Lady Goodman, a character in the film Almost Famous, she has collaborated with Guy Clark, Rodney Crowell, Bill Deasy, Matchbox 20's Kyle Cook, Restless Heart's Larry Stewart, Marc Lee Shannon and Andrea Zonn. After working as Chesney's publicist, she co-wrote "Better as a Memory" with Travis Hill. Chesney recorded the song unaware that Gleason had written it, included it on his 2007 album Just Who I Am: Poets and Pirates.
Official site The Yummy List