Firefox is a 1982 American action techno-thriller film produced, directed by and starring Clint Eastwood in Panavision. It is based upon the 1977 novel of the same name by Craig Thomas; the film was set in Russia, but Cold War considerations had Eastwood's and Fritz Manes's Malpaso Company using Vienna and other locations in Austria to double for many of the Eurasian story locations. The film was shot on a $21 million budget, the largest production budget for Malpaso. Of that amount, over $20 million was spent on special effects. A joint British-American plot is devised to steal a advanced Soviet fighter aircraft, capable of Mach 6, is invisible to radar, carries weapons controlled by thought. Former United States Air Force Major Mitchell Gant, a Vietnam veteran and former POW, infiltrates the Soviet Union, aided by his ability to speak Russian and a network of Soviet dissidents, three of whom are key scientists working on the fighter itself, his goal is to fly it back to friendly territory for analysis.
However, the KGB has gotten wind of the operation and is looking for Gant. It is only through the dissidents that Gant remains one step ahead of the KGB and reaches the air base at Bilyarsk, where the Firefox prototype is under heavy guard; the dissidents working on the Firefox help Gant infiltrate the base. Dr. Pyotr Baranovich, one of the scientists, informs Gant that there is a second prototype in the hangar that must be destroyed; the diversion will allow Gant to escape with the first Firefox. Gant knocks out Lt. Colonel Yuri Voskov, a Soviet pilot assigned to take the first prototype on its maiden flight during a visit from the Soviet First Secretary; the scientists cause an explosive disruption. As the guards kill the scientists, Gant uses the commotion to enter the Firefox and fly it off the base. Evading the Soviets' attempts to stop him, Gant reaches the Arctic ice pack and lands, making a rendezvous with a US submarine whose crew refuels and rearms the aircraft. However, Gant's last-minute refusal to kill Voskov has consequences.
Gant is on the way home when Voskov engages him in a dogfight. After a long battle, Gant remembers to fire one of his rearward missiles and Voskov's plane is destroyed. Satisfied that there are no other Soviet forces chasing him, Gant begins his flight to safety; the film was based on the creation of a "mythical" super fighter: the MiG-31 Firefox. The original Firefox from the novel was, nearly identical to the MiG-25; the more intimidating version seen in the movie was created for the film, takes many of its design cues from the SR-71 Blackbird. In the sequel novel, Firefox Down, the Firefox's appearance is described as matching the one in the film. For filming, four large-scale replicas were created, along with one full-size model that had dimensions of 66 feet long, 44 feet wide, 20 feet high; the full-size model was built from a radio station broadcast-antenna skeleton and was capable of taxiing at 30–40 mph. Filming occurred in 1981 at a number of locations including Austria. Hollywood aerial cinematographer Clay Lacy flew second unit aerial sequences in a Learjet 23 high-speed aerial platform, for scenes that were integrated into the film.
Special effects supervisor John Dykstra pioneered a new technique for shooting the complex flying sequences, called reverse blue-screen photography. This involved coating the model with phosphorus paint and photographing it first with strong lighting against a black background and with ultraviolet light to create the necessary male and female mattes to separate the foreground model and the background footage; this enabled the shiny black model to be photographed flying against a clear blue sky and gleaming white snow. The original scale model made by Gregory Jein used in the bluescreen work is now on display at the Warner Bros. Museum. Author Howard Hughes gave Firefox a negative review, "Watch the trailer, read the book, play the game — just avoid the film, it's another Eiger Sanction. Less a'Firefox', it's more of a damp squib, or at best a smoldering turkey." Vincent Canby's review in The New York Times made a similar assessment, zeroing in on Eastwood's lack of control over the plot line.
"Firefox is only more suspenseful than it is plausible. It's a James Bond movie without girls, a Superman movie without a sense of humor." However, Roger Ebert gave the film a positive review, describing it as "A slick, muscular thriller that combines espionage with science fiction. The movie works like a well-crafted machine."Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 42% based on reviews from 12 critics. List of American films of 1982 Clint Eastwood in the 1980s Firefox on IMDb Firefox at AllMovie Firefox at the TCM Movie Database Firefox at the American Film Institute Catalog Firefox at Box Office Mojo
Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner was an American lyricist and librettist. In collaboration with Frederick Loewe, Burton Lane, he created some of the world's most popular and enduring works of musical theatre both for the stage and on film, he won three Tony Awards and three Academy Awards, among other honors. Born in New York City, he was the son of Jewish parents Edith Adelson Lerner and Joseph Jay Lerner, whose brother, Samuel Alexander Lerner, was founder and owner of the Lerner Stores, a chain of dress shops. One of Lerner's cousins was the radio comedian and television game show panelist Henry Morgan. Lerner was educated at Bedales School in England, The Choate School in Wallingford and Harvard, he attended both Camp Camp Greylock. At both Choate and Harvard, Lerner was a classmate of John F. Kennedy's. Like Cole Porter at Yale and Richard Rodgers at Columbia, his career in musical theater began with his collegiate contributions, in Lerner's case to the annual Harvard Hasty Pudding musicals. During the summers of 1936 and 1937, Lerner studied music composition at Juilliard.
While attending Harvard, he lost his sight in his left eye due to an accident in the boxing ring. In 1957, Lerner and Leonard Bernstein, another of Lerner's college classmates, collaborated on "Lonely Men of Harvard," a tongue-in-cheek salute to their alma mater. Due to his eye injury, Lerner could not serve in World War II. Instead he wrote radio scripts, including Your Hit Parade, until he was introduced to Austrian composer Frederick Loewe, who needed a partner, in 1942 at the Lamb's Club. While at the Lamb's, he met Lorenz Hart, with whom he would collaborate. Lerner and Loewe's first collaboration was a musical adaptation of Barry Conners's farce The Patsy called Life of the Party for a Detroit stock company; the lyrics were written by Earle Crooker, but he had left the project, with the score needing vast improvement. It enjoyed a nine-week run and encouraged the duo to join forces with Arthur Pierson for What's Up?, which opened on Broadway in 1943. It ran for 63 performances and was followed two years by The Day Before Spring.
Their first hit was Brigadoon, a romantic fantasy set in a mystical Scottish village, directed by Robert Lewis. It was followed in 1951 by the Gold Rush story Paint Your Wagon. While the show ran for nearly a year and included songs that became pop standards, it was less successful than Lerner's previous work, he said of Paint Your Wagon, it was "a success but not a hit."Lerner worked with Kurt Weill on the stage musical Love Life and Burton Lane on the movie musical Royal Wedding. In that same year Lerner wrote the Oscar-winning original screenplay for An American in Paris, produced by Arthur Freed and directed by Vincente Minnelli; this was the same team who would join with Lerner and Loewe to create Gigi. In 1956, Lerner and Loewe unveiled My Fair Lady. By this time, too and Burton Lane were working on a musical about Li'l Abner. Gabriel Pascal owned the rights to Pygmalion, unsuccessful with other composers who tried to adapt it into a musical. Arthur Schwartz and Howard Dietz first tried, Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II attempted, but gave up and Hammerstein told Lerner, "Pygmalion had no subplot".
Lerner and Loewe's adaptation of George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion retained his social commentary and added appropriate songs for the characters of Henry Higgins and Eliza Doolittle, played by Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews. It set box-office records in New London; when brought to the screen in 1964, the movie version won eight Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Actor for Rex Harrison. Lerner and Loewe's run of success continued with their next project, a film adaptation of stories from Colette, the Academy Award-winning film musical Gigi, starring Leslie Caron, Louis Jourdan and Maurice Chevalier; the film won all of its nine Oscar nominations, a record at that time, a special Oscar for co-star Maurice Chevalier. The Lerner-Loewe partnership cracked under the stress of producing the Arthurian Camelot in 1960, with Loewe resisting Lerner's desire to direct as well as write when original director Moss Hart suffered a heart attack in the last few months of rehearsals and died shortly after the show's premiere.
Lerner was hospitalized with bleeding ulcers. Camelot was a hit nonetheless, following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, his widow told reporter Theodore H. White that JFK's administration reminded her of the "one brief shining moment" of Lerner and Loewe's Camelot; as of the early 21st century, Camelot was still invoked to describe the idealism and tragedy of the Kennedy years. Loewe retired to Palm Springs, while Lerner went through a series of musicals—some successful, some not—with such composers as André Previn, John Barry, Leonard Bernstein, Burton Lane and Charles Strouse. Most biographers blame Lerner's professional decline on the lack of a strong director with whom Lerner could collaborate, as Neil Simon did with Mike Nichols or Stephen Sondheim with Harold Prince. In 1965 Lerner collaborated again with Burton Lane on the musical On a Clear Day You Can See Forever, adapted for film in 1970. At this time, Lerner was hired by film producer Arthur P. Jacobs to write a t
Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Coogan's Bluff (film)
Coogan's Bluff is a 1968 American action thriller film directed by Don Siegel, starring Clint Eastwood, Lee J. Cobb, Don Stroud and Susan Clark; the film marks the first of five collaborations between Siegel and Eastwood, which continued with Two Mules for Sister Sara, The Beguiled and Dirty Harry, Escape from Alcatraz. Eastwood plays the part of a veteran deputy sheriff from a rural county in Arizona who travels to New York City to extradite an apprehended fugitive named Jimmy Ringerman, played by Stroud, wanted for murder; the name of the film itself is a reference to a New York City natural landmark, Coogan's Bluff, a promontory in upper Manhattan overlooking the site of the former long-time home of the New York Giants baseball club, the Polo Grounds, with a double-meaning derived from the name of the lead character. The television series McCloud, starring Dennis Weaver, was loosely adapted from this movie. Arizona deputy sheriff Walt Coogan is sent to New York City to extradite escaped killer James Ringerman.
Detective Lieutenant McElroy informs him that Ringerman is recovering from an overdose of LSD, cannot be moved until the doctors release him, that Coogan needs to get extradition papers from the New York State Supreme Court. Coogan flirts with probation officer Julie Roth bluffs his way to Ringerman, tricks the attendants into turning him over, sets out to catch a plane for Arizona. Before he can get to the airport, Ringerman's girlfriend Linny and a tavern owner named Pushie ambush Coogan and enable Ringerman to escape. Detective McElroy is furious. Coogan obtains her address from Roth's home files, he tracks Linny to a nightclub. Instead she takes Coogan to a pool hall where he is attacked by Pushie and a dozen men in a bloody battle. Coogan holds his own for a while but is overpowered. After hearing sirens the men not before the beaten Coogan kills Pushie and two others. Detective McElroy finds a cowboy hat on the floor. Coogan threatens to kill her if she does not lead him to Ringerman, she takes him to Ringerman, armed with a gun stolen from Coogan.
Ringerman gets away on his motorcycle and Coogan commandeers a motorcycle of his own. Coogan gives chase through Fort Tryon Park and captures Ringerman, he hands the fugitive over to McElroy, who once again tells him to go to the DA's office and to let "the system handle this." Some time Coogan, with Ringerman in cuffs, prepares to leave for the airport via helicopter. His last view is Julie Roth waving goodbye from the helipad. Before Hang'Em High had been released, Eastwood had set to work on Coogan's Bluff, a project which saw him reunite with Universal Studios after an offer of $1 million, more than doubling his previous salary. Jennings Lang was responsible for the deal. Lang was a former agent of Don Siegel, a Universal contract director, invited to direct Eastwood's second major American film. Eastwood was not familiar with Siegel's work but Lang arranged for them to meet at Clint's residence in Carmel. Eastwood had seen three of Siegel's earlier films, was impressed with his directing and the two became friends, forming a close partnership in the years that followed.
The idea for Coogan's Bluff originated in early 1967 as a TV series and the first draft was drawn up by Herman Miller and Jack Laird, screenwriters for Rawhide. It is about a character named a lonely deputy sheriff working in New York City. After Siegel and Eastwood had agreed to work together, Howard Rodman and three other writers were hired to devise a new script as the new team scouted for locations including New York City and the Mojave desert. However, Eastwood surprised the team one day by calling an abrupt meeting and professed to dislike the script, which by now had gone through seven drafts, preferring Herman Miller's original concept; this experience would shape Eastwood's distaste for redrafting scripts in his career. Eastwood and Siegel hired a new writer, Dean Riesner, who had written for Siegel in the Henry Fonda TV film Stranger on the Run. Eastwood did not communicate with the screenwriter until one day Riesner criticized a scene Eastwood had liked which involved Coogan having sex with Linny Raven in the hope that she would take him to her "boyfriend."
According to Riesner, Eastwood's "face went white and gave me one of those Clint looks". The two soon reconciled their differences and worked on a script in which Eastwood had considerable input. Don Stroud was cast as the psychopathic criminal Coogan is chasing, Lee J. Cobb as the disagreeable New York City Police Department lieutenant, Susan Clark as a probation officer who falls for Coogan and Tisha Sterling as the drug-using lover of Stroud's character. Filming began in November 1967 before the full script had been finalized. Coogan's Bluff was released in the United States in October 1968, where it grossed over $3.1 million. The film was controversial for its portrayal of violence, but it had launched a collaboration between Eastwood and Siegel that lasted more than ten years, set the prototype for the macho hero that Eastwood would play in the Dirty Harry films; the script of the film inspired the McCloud television series. The DVD version of Coogan's Bluff is edited by three minutes in all regions for unknown reasons.
The missing scenes include Coogan receiving his assignment to return Ringerman from New York, a short scene in a hospital, a scene in which Julie talks about Coogan's Bluff, a lookout point over the ocean near New York, tying the location into the film's title. The ear
Political life of Clint Eastwood
American actor and director Clint Eastwood has long shown an interest in politics. He won election as the nonpartisan mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California in April 1986 and in 2001, Governor Gray Davis appointed the Oscar-winner to the California State Park and Recreation Commission. Eastwood endorsed Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election and delivered a prime time address at the 2012 Republican National Convention, where he delivered a speech addressed to an empty chair representing Barack Obama. During a screening of his 1992 film Unforgiven at the Cannes Film Festival on May 21, 2017, as part of the film's 25th anniversary, Eastwood decried what he saw as political correctness within society. Recalling the release of Dirty Harry, Eastwood commented, "A lot of people thought was politically incorrect; that was at the beginning of the era. We are killing ourselves, we’ve lost our sense of humor, but I thought it was interesting and it was daring." Eastwood registered as a Republican in order to vote for Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and he passively supported Richard Nixon's 1968 and 1972 presidential campaigns.
He criticized Nixon's morality and his handling of the Vietnam War and his morality during Watergate, calling it "immoral". An avowed anti-interventionist, Eastwood has expressed disapproval of America's wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq, believing that the United States should not be overly militaristic or play the role of global policeman. Furthermore, Eastwood's 2014 movie American Sniper was met with strong critical praise from many Republicans who called it a pro-War on Terror, pro-Republican, patriotic film. Democrats in the media were labeling the film Republican propaganda, saying that Eastwood was a warmonger. Eastwood responded to critics of American Sniper by saying his film was "the biggest anti-war statement any film can make", that the film depicts "the fact of what does to the family and the people who have to go back into civilian life like Chris Kyle did" and "what it does to the people left behind." Eastwood further explained his anti-war stance by saying "I was a child growing up during World War II.
That was supposed to be the one to end all wars. And four years I was standing at the draft board being drafted during the Korean conflict, after that there was Vietnam, it goes on and on forever... I just wonder... does this stop? And no, it doesn’t. So each time we get in these conflicts, it deserves a lot of thought before we go wading in or wading out. Going in or coming out, it needs a better thought process, I think." He describes himself as a libertarian in interviews and in the spring of 1999, he told Premiere magazine that "I guess I was a social liberal and a fiscal conservative before it became fashionable." In 2009, Eastwood said. He has referred to himself as "...too individualistic to be either right-wing or left-wing," describing himself in 1974 as "a political nothing" and "a moderate" and in 1997 as a "libertarian." "I don't see myself as conservative," Eastwood has stated, while noting in the same breath that he is not an "ultra-leftist," either. He told USA Weekend in 2004, "I don't see myself as conservative, but I'm not ultra-leftist....
I like the libertarian view, to leave everyone alone. As a kid, I was annoyed by people who wanted to tell everyone how to live."In 1992, Eastwood told writer David Breskin that his political views represented a fusion of Milton Friedman and Noam Chomsky and suggested that they would make for a worthwhile presidential ticket. At times, he has supported California Democrats, including Senator Dianne Feinstein in 1994, liberal and environmentally concerned Representative Sam Farr in 2002. Eastwood contributed $1,000 to Farr's successful re-election campaign that year and on May 23, 2003, he hosted a $5,000-per-ticket fundraiser for California's Democratic governor, Gray Davis; that year, Eastwood offered to film a commercial in support of the embattled governor, in 2001, the star visited Davis' office to support an alternative energy bill written by another Democrat, California State assemblyman Fred Keeley. In general, Eastwood has favored less governmental interference in both the private economy and the private lives of individuals.
He has disapproved of a reliance on welfare, feeling that the government should help citizens make something of themselves via education and incentives. He has, approved of unemployment insurance, bail-outs for homeowners saddled with unaffordable mortgages, environmental conservation, land preservation, alternative energy incentives, gun control measures such as California's Brady Bill. A longtime liberal on civil rights, Eastwood has stated that he has always been pro-choice on abortion, he has endorsed the notion of allowing gays to marry, he contributed to groups supporting the Equal Rights Amendment for women. Despite being associated with firearms in his Westerns and police movies, Eastwood has publicly endorsed gun control since at least 1973. In the April 24, 1973, edition of The Washington Post, the star said, "I'm for gun legislation myself, it don't hunt." Two years in 1975, Eastwood told People magazine that he favors "gun control to some degree." About a year Eastwood remarked that "All guns shoul
Two Mules for Sister Sara
Two Mules for Sister Sara is a 1970 American-Mexican western film directed by Don Siegel and starring Shirley MacLaine set during the French intervention in Mexico. The film was to have been the first in a five-year exclusive association between Universal Pictures and Sanen Productions of Mexico; the film marked the second of five collaborations between Siegel and Eastwood, following Coogan's Bluff. The collaboration continued with The Beguiled and Dirty Harry and Escape from Alcatraz; the plot follows an American mercenary who gets mixed up with a nun and aids a group of Juarista rebels during the puppet reign of Emperor Maximilian in Mexico. The film featured both American and Mexican actors and actresses, including being filmed in the picturesque countryside near Tlayacapan, Morelos. Ennio Morricone composed the film’s music. Just after the American Civil War, a former soldier, rides up on a naked woman about to be raped by bandits. Hogan kills the bandits, showing not only that he can shoot, but that he is an expert with explosives.
He is taken aback. Sister Sara is raising money to assist Mexican revolutionaries; when Sara requests that Hogan take her to a Mexican camp, he agrees because he had arranged to help the Mexican revolutionaries attack the French garrison in exchange for half the garrison's treasury, if they are successful. As the duo heads towards the camp, Hogan is surprised. Before he attempts to detonate a charge to destroy a French ammunition train, he is shot with an arrow in the shoulder. Sara is able to bandage him, but he is still unable to shoot the charge to disable the train himself. Sara assists him in aiming his rifle, the two succeed in destroying the train together; the two reach Juarista commander Col. Beltran's camp and Sara reveals the layout of the French garrison, she reveals to Hogan that she is not a nun but a prostitute posing as a nun. Although Hogan is shocked, the two team up, infiltrate the fortress and open the gates for the Mexican revolutionary forces to swarm through. A battle ensues.
Hogan singlehandedly guns down several French soldiers. The French retreat and the Mexicans capture the fort; as promised, Hogan receives half the riches. Now wealthy and his job completed, Hogan sets off with Sara, whom he has fallen in love with, to open a gambling house in San Francisco. Clint Eastwood as Hogan Shirley MacLaine as Sara Manuel Fábregas as Col. Beltrán Alberto Morin as Gen. LeClaire Armando Silvestre as 1st American John Kelly as 2nd American Enrique Lucero as 3rd American David Estuardo as Juan Ada Carrasco as Juan's mother Pancho Córdova as Juan's father José Chávez as Horacio José Ángel Espinosa as French Officer Rosa Furman as Sara's friend Budd Boetticher, a long term-resident of Mexico renowned for his series of Randolph Scott westerns, wrote the original 1967 screenplay, bought with the provision that he would direct. Boetticher had planned the film for Robert Mitchum and Deborah Kerr, who had played a man of action and a nun in Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison. Kerr's character was a member of the Mexican aristocracy escaping the vengeance of the Mexican Revolution, with Mitchum's cowboy protecting her as he led her to safety to the United States.
Carrol Case sold the screenplay to Martin Rackin, who had Albert Maltz living in Mexico, rewrite the story. Maltz's version had Clint Eastwood playing a soldier of fortune for the Juaristas and Shirley MacLaine playing a revolutionary prostitute now set during the French intervention in Mexico; the film saw Eastwood embody the tall mysterious stranger once more, wearing a serape-like vest and smoking a cigar and the film score was composed by Ennio Morricone. Although the film had Leonesque dirty Hispanic villains, the film was less crude and more sardonic than those of Leone. Boetticher expressed disgust with MacLaine's bawdy character not looking like a nun as opposed to his idea of a genteel lady whose final revelation would have been more of a surprise to the audience. Though Boetticher was friends with both Eastwood and director Don Siegel, Siegel understood Boetticher's dislike of the final film. Boetticher asked Siegel how he could make an awful film like that with Siegel replying that it was a great feeling to wake up in the morning and know there was a check in the mail, while Boetticher replied it was a better feeling to wake up in the morning and be able to look at yourself in the mirror.
Eastwood had been shown the script by Elizabeth Taylor during the filming of Where Eagles Dare with the view of Taylor playing the female role. The role of Sister Sara was offered to Taylor, but she had to turn down the role because she wanted to shoot in Spain where Burton was making his latest film. Sister Sara was supposed to be Shirley MacLaine was cast instead. Although they were unconvinced with her pale complexion, Eastwood believed that the studio was keen on MacLaine as they had high hopes for her film Sweet Charity, in which she played a taxi dancer. Both Siegel and Eastwood felt intimidated by her on set, Siegel described Clint's co-star as, "It's hard to feel any great warmth to her, she has too much balls. She's very hard." Two Mules for Sister Sara marked the last time that Eastwood would receive second billing for a film and it would be 25 years until he risked being overshadowed by a leading lady again in The Bridges of Madison County. The film was cost around $4 million. Many of the cast and crew, inclu
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi