Eastern Time Zone
Places that use Eastern Standard Time when observing standard time are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. Eastern Daylight Time, when observing daylight saving time DST is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, in the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2,00 a. m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3,00 a. m. EDT leaving a one-hour gap, on the first Sunday in November, at 2,00 a. m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1,00 a. m, southern parts of the zone do not observe daylight saving time. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 ruled that daylight saving time would run from the last Sunday of April until the last Sunday in October in the United States, the act was amended to make the first Sunday in April the beginning of daylight saving time as of 1987. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended daylight saving time in the United States beginning in 2007. So local times change at 2,00 a. m. EST to 3,00 a. m. EDT on the second Sunday in March, in Canada, the time changes as it does in the United States.
However, a handful of communities unofficially observe Eastern Time because they are part of the Columbus, Georgia metropolitan area – Phenix City, Smiths Station and Valley. Florida, All of Florida is in the Eastern Time zone except for the portion of the Florida Panhandle west of the Apalachicola River, as the Eastern–Central zone boundary approaches the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the Bay/Gulf county line. Indiana, All of Indiana observes Eastern Time except for six counties in the Chicago metropolitan area. Kentucky, the half of the state, including all of metropolitan Louisville, is in the Eastern Time Zone. Historically the entire state observed Central Time, when daylight saving time was first introduced, the Lower Peninsula remained on DST after it formally ended, effectively re-aligning itself into the Eastern Time Zone. The Upper Peninsula continued to observe Central Time until 1972, when all, Most of the eastern third of Tennessee is legally on Eastern Time. Eastern Time is used somewhat as a de facto official time for all of the United States, since it includes the capital and the largest city.
Major professional sports leagues post all game times in Eastern time, for example, a game time between two teams from Pacific Time Zone will still be posted in Eastern time. Most cable television and national broadcast networks advertise airing times in Eastern time, national broadcast networks generally have two primary feeds, an eastern feed for Eastern and Central time zones, and a tape-delayed western feed for the Pacific Time Zone. The prime time is set on Eastern and Pacific at 8,00 p. m. with the Central time zone stations receiving the eastern feed at 7,00 p. m. local time. Mountain Time Zone stations receive a separate feed at 7,00 p. m. local time, as Arizona does not observe daylight saving time, during the summer months, it has its own feed at 7,00 p. m. local time
1990 United States Census
Approximately 16 percent of households received a long form of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. It was the first census to designate Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander as a group separate from Asians. To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2062. The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election. Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats, eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat.
The final result involved 19 seats being switched
Saratoga Springs, New York
Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census, the name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. The city is just north of Albany, in the heart of New Yorks Capital Region, Saratoga Springs was ranked tenth in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto. The picturesque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Indians before they were pushed out by European settlement and they eventually moved east and became allied with other remnant peoples and became known as the Stockbridge Indians, as they settled near Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The British built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River, the current village of Schuylerville was settled about a mile south by British colonists shortly after the fort, it was known as Saratoga until 1831.
In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier who was a hero of the French and they treated his war wounds, as the spring was thought to have medicinal properties. Now known as High Rock Spring, it may still be visited today, in 1756 Johnson had been appointed British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast region due to his success in building alliances with the Mohawk and other Iroquois tribes. He had learned the language, and created many trading relationships and he achieved great wealth from trading and landholdings, and was knighted for his service to the Crown with the Iroquois. The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776, the springs attracted tourists, and Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces, the Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater, a museum dedicated to the two battles is located on the fields where the battles were fought.
The British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles east of the city, in Schuylerville, the surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville. Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a portion of the Town of Saratoga. Its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the region became a city in 1915. Tourism was greatly aided after 1832 by the arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. In the 19th century, the noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel. The latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world, in 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened, moving to its current location the following year
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density
Saratoga, New York
Saratoga is a town in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 5,141 at the 2000 census and it is the commonly used, but not official, name for the neighboring and much more populous city, Saratoga Springs. The major village in the town of Saratoga is Schuylerville which is often, Saratoga contains a second village named Victory. Saratoga is a corruption of a Native American word from the Mohawk language and it was the name of Indian hunting grounds located along both sides of the Hudson River. Saratoga is located on the border of the county and is located east of Saratoga Springs, and is bordered by Saratoga Lake. The town sends students to Saratoga Springs City School District, Schuylerville Central School District, the name may derive from the Iroquoian Se-rach-ta-gue or Sa-ra-ta-ke, which the early Dutch settlers rendered as Sarachtoge. A second early version of the name is, Saraghtogo but the origin remains unproven, the location was first settled at the end of the 17th Century as Fort Saratoga.
Saratoga soon became contested land between British and French colonial forces, and the village of Saratoga was destroyed by the French in 1745 during King Georges War. Saratoga was originally a district of Albany County stretching from north of the Mohawk River to Northumberland, in 1775, there were three district – Ballstown and Saratoga. Much of the fighting took place in the town of Stillwater to the south, however the final seven days of the Battles and the actual sword surrender took place in Saratoga. In 1788, an act was passed organizing towns in place of districts and Stillwater was created from the Saratoga District and these four mother towns were subdivided into the present nineteen towns. The original town of Saratoga included the modern day towns of Easton, Moreau, portions of Greenfield and Corinth, the first loss of territory was in 1789 to the town of Easton. In 1798, the towns of Corinth, Northumberland, Moreau, in 1805 a narrow strip in the southwestern part of Saratoga was annexed to the town of Malta.
In 1819, the town of Saratoga Springs was formed from the rest of the part of the town of Saratoga. Later this would become the city of Saratoga Springs, the Saratoga Race Course in the adjoining city of Saratoga Springs is the oldest operating sports venue in the country. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 42.9 square miles. The town line is formed by the Hudson River and is the border of Washington County, fish Creek, a tributary of the Hudson River, is the outflow of Saratoga Lake. U. S. Route 4 follows the Hudson River along the part of the town
2000 United States Census
This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States. Approximately 16 percent of households received a form of the 2000 census. Full documentation on the 2000 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Microdata from the 2000 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, personally identifiable information will be available in 2072. The U. S. resident population includes the number of people in the 50 states. The Bureau enumerated the residents of the U. S. territory of Puerto Rico, its population was 3,808,610, the 2000 Census was the first time survey options for multiracial Americans were provided. S. Households had access to computers, 42% have Internet access, the South and West experienced the bulk of the nations population increase,14,790,890 and 10,411,850, respectively.
This meant that the center of U. S. population moved to Phelps County. The Northeast grew by 2,785,149, the Midwest by 4,724,144, the results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned. Congress defines the formula, in accordance with Title 2 of the U. S. Code, each member of the House represents a population of about 647,000. The populations of the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico are excluded from the apportionment population because they do not have voting seats in the U. S, since the first census in 1790, the decennial count has been the basis for the United States representative form of government. Article I, Section II specifies that The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, in 1790, each member of the House represented about 34,000 residents. Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, each member represents about 20 times as many constituents. This recommendation was followed by the Secretary of Commerce, after the census was tabulated, Utah challenged the results in two different ways.
Utah was extremely close to gaining a fourth seat, falling 857 people short. The margin was shortened to 80 people, after the government discovered that it overcounted the population of North Carolina by 2,673 residents. Utah claimed that individuals traveling abroad as religious missionaries should be counted as residents, almost half of all Mormon missionaries, more than 11,000 individuals, were from Utah, only 102 came from North Carolina
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
New York State Route 67
New York State Route 67 is an east–west state highway in eastern New York in the United States. The western terminus of the route is at an intersection with NY5 in the town of St. Johnsville and its eastern terminus is at the Vermont state line in Hoosick, where it continues eastward as Vermont Route 67. NY67 begins at an intersection with NY5 east of the village of St. Johnsville in the town of the same name, the 0. 34-mile segment of New Turnpike Road between the county line and NY10 has no reference markers. This segment of the route lacks any shoulders, at NY10, maintenance of NY67 returns to NYSDOT as it turns north to overlap NY10 into the hamlet of Ephratah. In Ephratah, NY67 splits from NY10 and heads east as a narrow and it intersects the north end of NY334 before passing into the city of Johnstown. In the western part of the city, NY67 follows West Main Street for several blocks to William Street, after crossing downtown, the overlap with NY29 ends with NY29 continuing straight on East Main Street and NY67 veering southeast onto East State Street.
The route exits the city just southeast of a junction with NY 30A, NY67 proceeds onward, passing the Fulton County Airport, Hamilton–Fulton–Montgomery BOCES, and Fulton–Montgomery Community College before reentering Montgomery County. Once again in Montgomery County, NY67 follows a winding, one steep curve was eliminated in the early 2000s northwest of Fort Johnson. In Fort Johnson, NY67 joins NY5 toward Amsterdam, in Amsterdam, NY67 enters with NY5 as West Main Street. After passing an unusual flashing traffic light at Guy Park Manor, historically, NY5 and NY67 followed Main Street through the city. With the 1977 creation of the Amsterdam Mall, NY5 and NY67, after a left exit for NY30 southbound and a link to the Thruway, NY67 follows underneath NY30 southbound, takes a left exit next to the mall. NY67 follows NY30 North, crossing NY5 westbound, splitting off toward Ballston Spa, passing through the hamlet of Manny Corners, NY67 enjoys a wider route, enabling faster driving and more gentle curves, passing south of the village of Galway.
In Ballston Spa, NY67 meets NY50, turning south, NY67 splits off to the east, heading toward the Adirondack Northway at Malta. In the Malta Area, NY67 enters as Dunning Street, immediately before Interstate 87, there is a roundabout at State Farm Road. A second roundabout shortly thereafter handles the southbound ramp traffic of I-87 exit 12, a fourth roundabout handles an intersection with Malta Commons and Kelch Drive, and a fifth handles the intersection with U. S. Route 9, beginning the overlap with US9. After the final roundabout, NY67 turns south, concurrent with US9 for 1.5 miles, the route heads eastward, taking a winding path toward Mechanicville and the Hudson River. After entering the city, NY67 becomes concurrent with US4 and NY32 for less than 0.1 miles, heads east toward Schaghticoke, Old Schaghticoke Road carries NY67 eastward and uphill, meeting NY40 as Reservoir Road. Turning left and overlapping, the routes enter Schaghticoke upon crossing the Hoosic River, passing through the village, NY67 splits right at the Schaghticoke Fairgrounds, where County Route 125, an old routing of NY67, enters from the left
A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
Round Lake (village), New York
Round Lake is a village in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 604 at the 2000 census, the name is derived from a circular lake adjacent to the village. In 1975, the Round Lake Historic District, which encompasses the village, was added to the National Register of Historic Places, the Village of Round Lake is in the Town of Malta and is northeast of Schenectady. The village began in 1867 as a camp meeting locale for groups of Methodists. At first, visitors lived in tents, while visiting ministers could rent space in the story of the meetings passenger station. By 1868 more permanent structures including cottages, a two-story trustees office and bookstore, the village was owned and governed by the Round Lake Association. By 1881 lectures patterned after Chautauqua Institution were being conducted, in 1887 George West constructed the George West Museum of Art and Archaeology to enhance the cultural offerings. The organ is used for musical programs today. By mid 20th century, declining interest in the activities of the Round Lake Association led to its demise in the 1960s.
The museum was dismantled in 1965, after the association was dissolved, the village was incorporated in 1969 to take its place. Round Lake Historic District *** U. S.9, Round Lake and Historic Significance, Information Potential, Architecture/Engineering, Event Architect, builder, or engineer, Drube, H. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.2 square miles. The village is located on the west side of a lake called Round Lake, little Round Lake is a smaller lake northeast of Round Lake and connected by a short stream. New York State Route 67 passes the northeast side of the lake, U. S. Route 9 passes through the east side of the village and Interstate 87, the Adirondack Northway is a half mile to the west. County Roads 80 and 823, passing through the village, link US-9 to the Northway, as of the census of 2000, there were 604 people,257 households, and 160 families residing in the village. The population density was 558.7 people per square mile, there were 280 housing units at an average density of 259.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 96. 19% White,0. 50% African American,0. 83% Native American,1. 16% Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 99% of the population. 30. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.96
Wiggins-Collamer House is a historic home located at Malta in Saratoga County, New York. It was built about 1835 and is 1 1⁄2-story, five-by-two-bay and it has a rectangular main block and 1-story rear wing. It represents a transitional Federal / Greek Revival period residence and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. As of December 2014, it has restored and is the home of Collamer House Bike