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Mare Boreum quadrangle

The Mare Boreum quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Mare Boreum quadrangle is referred to as MC-1, its name derives from an older name for a feature, now called Planum Boreum, a large plain surrounding the polar cap. The quadrangle covers all of the Martian surface north of latitude 65°, it includes the north polar ice cap, which has a swirl pattern and is 1,100 kilometres across. Mariner 9 in 1972 discovered a belt of sand dunes that ring the polar ice deposits, 500 kilometres across in some places and may be the largest dune field in the solar system; the ice cap is surrounded by the vast plains of Vastitas Borealis. Close to the pole, there is a large valley, Chasma Boreale, that may have been formed from water melting from the ice cap. An alternative view is. Another prominent feature is a smooth rise called Olympia Planitia. In the summer, a dark collar around the residual cap becomes visible.

The quadrangle includes some large craters that stand out in the north because the area is smooth with little change in topography. These large craters are Korolev. Although smaller, the crater Stokes is prominent; the Phoenix lander landed on Vastitas Borealis within the Mare Boreum quadrangle at 68.218830° N and 234.250778° E on May 25, 2008. The probe collected and analyzed soil samples in an effort to detect water and determine how hospitable the planet might once have been for life to grow, it remained active there. After the mission ended the journal Science reported that chloride, magnesium, sodium potassium and sulfate were detected in the samples analyzed by Phoenix; the pH was narrowed down to 7.7±0.5. Perchlorate, a strong oxidizer at elevated temperatures, was detected; this was a significant discovery because the chemical has the potential of being used for rocket fuel and as a source of oxygen for future colonists. Under certain conditions perchlorate can inhibit life; the chemical when mixed with water can lower freezing points, in a manner similar to how salt is applied to roads to melt ice.

So, perchlorate may be allowing small amounts of liquid water to form on Mars today. Gullies, which are common in certain areas of Mars, may have formed from perchlorate melting ice and causing water to erode soil on steep slopes. Much direct evidence was found for water at this location. Research based on slight changes in the orbits of spacecraft around Mars over 16 years found that when one hemisphere experiences winter 3 trillion to 4 trillion tons of carbon dioxide freezes out of the atmosphere onto the northern and southern polar caps; this represents 12 to 16 percent of the mass of the entire Martian atmosphere. These observation support predictions from the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model—2010. Strong evidence for a one time ancient ocean was found in Mare Boreum near the north pole. In March 2015, a team of scientists published results showing that this region was enriched with deuterium, heavy hydrogen, by seven times as much as the Earth; this means. The water for a time would have formed an ocean in the low-lying Mare Boreum.

The amount of water could have covered the planet about 140 meters, but was in an ocean that in places would be 1 mile deep. This international team used ESO's Very Large Telescope, along with instruments at the W. M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, to map out different forms of water in Mars's atmosphere over a six-year period. From observations with the Shallow Radar instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, researchers determined that the total volume of water ice in the northern ice cap is 821000 cubic kilometers; that is equal to 30% of the Earth's Greenland ice sheet, or enough to cover the surface of Mars to a depth of 5.6 meters Sand dunes have been found in many places on Mars. The presence of dunes shows that the planet has an atmosphere with wind, for dunes require wind to pile up the sand. Most dunes on Mars are black because of the weathering of the volcanic rock basalt. Black sand can be found on Earth on some tropical South Pacific islands.

Sand is common on Mars due to the old age of the surface. Dunes on Mars have been observed to move many meters; some dunes move along. In this process, sand moves up the windward side and falls down the leeward side of the dune, thus caused the dune to go toward the leeward side; when images are enlarged, some dunes on Mars display ripples on their surfaces. These are caused by sand grains bouncing up the windward surface of a dune; the bouncing grains tend to land on the windward side of each ripple. The grains do not bounce high so it does not take much to stop them

Hellmouth (film)

Hellmouth is a 2014 Canadian horror film, directed by John Geddes, based on a script written by Tony Burgess. The film had its world premiere on 17 October 2014 at the Toronto After Dark Film Festival and stars Stephen McHattie as a grave-keeper that finds himself traveling to hell to save the soul of a beautiful woman. Funding for Hellmouth was raised through an Indiegogo campaign. Terminally ill and stuck with a depressing job as a grave-keeper, Charlie only wants to retire to Florida and live out the rest of his remaining days in peace, his hopes are dashed, when his boss Mr. Whinny has forced Charlie to take on a job at another cemetery and postpone his retirement plans for the indefinite future. While traveling to the cemetery Charlie meets a beautiful hitchhiker, they share an instant romantic connection but their happiness is threatened by the fact that Charlie's new cemetery is a gateway to hell that puts both of them at risk. Stephen McHattie as Charlie Baker Siobhan Murphy as Faye Boyd Banks as Mr. Whinny Julian Richings as Smiley Mark Gibson as Cliff Ryan Ari Millen as Harry Tony Burgess as Tips Adam Seybold as Mr. Praut Kate Fenton as Mrs. Praut Bruce McDonald as Kemp Jason David Brown as The Bargeman Critical reception for Hellmouth has been positive.

Dread Central praised the film for its visuals and for McHattie's acting, stating that they felt he was "quite the best man for this role". Bloody Disgusting was more mixed in their review praising McHattie while stating that "Ultimately the film suffers under both its heavy exposition and muddled second half." Hellmouth on IMDb

DENIS-P J020529.0−115925

DENIS-P J020529.0−115925 is a brown dwarf system in the constellation of Cetus. It is located 64 light-years away, based on the system's parallax, it was first found in the Deep Near Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky. This is a triple brown dwarf system: objects that do not have enough mass to fuse hydrogen like stars; the two brightest components, designated A and B are both L-type objects. As of 2003, the two were separated 0.287° along a position angle of 246°. Component B was observed suggesting a third component; this third component, named C, is a T-type object. It is separated about 1.9 astronomical units from B, based on a total mass of 0.1 M☉, the two may orbit each other every 8 years. DENIS-P J1058.7−1548 DENIS-P J1228.2−1547 DENIS-P J082303.1−491201 b DENIS-P J101807.5−285931

Vulgata Sixtina

The Sixtine Vulgate or Sistine Vulgate is the edition of the Vulgate, published in 1590, prepared by a commission on the orders of Pope Sixtus V and edited by himself. It was the first edition of the Vulgate authorised by a pope, its official recognition was short-lived. The Sixtine Vulgate is cited in the Novum Testamentum Graece, or "Nestle-Aland", only when it differs from the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, is designated in said Nestle-Aland by the siglum vgs, it is cited in the Oxford Vulgate New Testament, where it is designated by the siglum S. It is not cited in the Stuttgart Vulgate; the Council of Trent decreed the Vulgate authoritative and "authentic" on 8 April 1546, ordered it to be printed "quam emendatissime". There was no authoritative edition of the Vulgate in the Catholic Church at that time. Three pontifical commissions were successively charged to elaborate the text of the edition of the Vulgate for which the Council of Trent had requested publication. Up until the commissions of S. Pius V and Sixtus-Quintus, work was done without any coordination.

After Sixtus V's death in 1590, two other commissions were organised, one after the other, under Gregory XIV in 1591. In 1561, Pius IV created a commission at Rome composed of four cardinals: Amulio, Morone and Vitelli; this committee had only a general role: to correct and print the ecclesiastical books which the Holy See had decided to reform or publish. In 1566, another commission was appointed by Pope Pius V. Gregory XIII did not appoint a commission for the Vulgate, soon Gugliemo Sirleto "was the only one remaining to take care of the revision" in Rome. Gregory XIII issued a commission for the emendation of the LXX after being convinced to do so by Cardinal Montalto. At the time Sixtus V became pope, in 1585, work on the edition of the Vulgate had begun. Sixtus V took pride in being a competent text editor; when he was only a minor friar, he had started editing the complete work of St. Ambrose, the sixth and last volume of, published after he became pope; this edition produced by Sixtus is regarded as the worst published.

In 1586, Sixtus V appointed a commission. The commission was under the presidency of Cardinal Carafa, was composed of Flaminius Nobilius, Antonius Agellius, Lelio Landi, Bartholomew Valverde, Petrus Morinus, they were helped by Fulvio Orsini. The commission worked on the basis of the 1583 edition by Franciscus Lucas Brugensis of the Leuven Vulgate and "ood manuscripts were used as authorities, including notably the Codex Amiatinus." By the end of 1588, Sixtus began to lose patience due to the slow progress of the commission. He was dissatisfied and told Carafa that the latter had to either give him a completed revised edition or stop working on said edition; the commission presented the result of their work to Sixtus at the beginning of 1589. Sixtus was not satisfied with the results of the commission's work. Sixtus was an "impetuous pontiff". Sixtus made the corrections working quickly, he used the Codex Carafianus — the codex which contained the propositions made to Sixtus V by the commission presided over by Cardinal Carafa –, a 1583 edition of the Leuven Vulgate, emended by the third commission under Carafa.

Sixtus was helped in his editing work by a few people he trusted, including Toledo and Rocca but excluding the members of the commission and Carafa. In May 1590 the completed work was issued in three volumes in a folio edition. Regardless after printing, Sixtus continued to tinker with the text, revising it either by hand or by pasting strips of paper on the text; the Sixtine Vulgate was free of typographical errors. This edition is known as Sixtine Vulgate, or Sistine Vulgate; the full title of the Sixtine Vulgate is: Biblia sacra Vulgatae Editionis ad Concilii Tridentini praescriptum emendata et a Sixto V P. M. recognita et approbata. The edition was preceded by the bull Aeternus Ille, in which the Pope declared the authenticity of the new Bible; the bull stipulated "that it was to be considered as the authentic edition recommended by the Council of Trent, that it should be taken as the standard of all future reprints, that all copies should be corrected by it." "This edition was not to be reprinted for 10 years except at the Vatican, after that any edition must be compared with the Vatican edition, so that'not the smallest particle should be altered, added or removed' under pain of the'greater excommunication'."

This was the first time. Based on his study of testimonies by those who surrounded the pope during the making of the Sixtine Vulgate, the fact that the bull Aeternus Ille is not present in the bullarium, Jesuit Xavier-Marie Le Bachalet claims the publication of this Bible does not have papal infallibility because the bull establishing this edition as the standard was never promulgated by Sixtus V. Le Bachalet says that the bull was only printed within the edition of the Bible at the order of Sixtus V so as not to delay the printing and that the publish

The Human Bean

The Human Bean is an American national coffee company and coffeehouse chain based in Ashland, Oregon. The Human Bean has 79 drive-thru coffee locations in 10 U. S. states. In 1998, The Human Bean opened its first store in Oregon. In early 2002, the company began franchising their brand throughout nationwide; the Human Bean has 99 locations, of which 86 are franchised and 13 are corporate owned. The franchise is located in 11 U. S. states including Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Ohio, Texas and Washington. The Human Bean has their own coffee sourcing program called Farm Friendly Direct; this program works directly with farmers around the world to form long-term relationships and support the farming community. This ensures a good supply of coffee beans from the farmers and helps the farming community have a better life; some of the projects have been building water systems and community centers, paying teachers wages and providing schools supplies. Farm Friendly Direct funds have built a water treatment plant in Guatemala, completed deep solar water wells in Tanzania and Kenya, planted 15,000 trees in the region of El Salvador, built a new schoolhouse and supported the salary of a teacher in the Papua New Guinea community.

While most locations are drive through only, there are a few locations that offer indoor seating in addition to the drive through. The chain sponsors men's health initiatives. List of companies based in Oregon Official website The Human Bean on Facebook