Obsolete German units of measurement
The obsolete units of measurement of German-speaking countries consist of a variety of units, with varying local standard definitions. Some of these units are still used in everyday speech and in stores and on street markets as shorthand for similar amounts in the metric system. For example, some customers ask for one pound of something; the metric system became compulsory on 1 January 1872, on 1 January 1876, in Austria. Some obsolete German units have names similar to units that were traditionally used in other countries, that are still used in the United Kingdom and the United States. Before the introduction of the metric system in German every town had its own definitions of the units shown below. Towns posted local definitions on a wall of the city hall. For example, the front wall of the old city hall of Rudolstädt has two marks which show the "Rudolstädter Elle", the proper length of the Elle in that city. By 1810 there were 112 different standards for the Elle around Germany. A German geographic mile is defined as 1⁄15 equatorial degrees, equal to 7,420.54 m.
A common German mile, land mile, or post mile was defined in various ways at different places and different times. After the introduction of the metric system in the 19th century, the Landmeile was fixed at 7,500 m, but before there were many local and regional variants: The Rute or Ruthe is of Carolingian origin, was used as a land measure. Many different kinds of Ruthe were used at various times in various parts of the German-speaking world, they were subdivided into differing numbers of local Fuß, were of many different lengths. One source from 1830 lists the following: One hour's travel, used up to the 19th century. In Germany 1⁄2 Meile or 3.71 km. After 1722 in Saxony 1⁄2 post mile = 1000 Dresden rods = 4531 m. In Switzerland 16,000 ft or 4.88 km. 6 feet, after introduction of the metric system 10 feet. Regional variants from 1.75 m in Baden to 3 m in Switzerland. The Lachter was the most common unit of length used in mining in German-speaking areas, its exact length varied from place to place but was between 1.9 and 2.1 metres.
Distance between elbow and fingertip. In the North 2 feet, In Prussia 17⁄8 feet, in the South variable 2 1⁄2 feet; the smallest known German Elle is the longest 811 mm. The Fuß or German foot varied from place to place in the German-speaking world, with time. In some places, more than one type of Fuß was in use. One source from 1830 gives the following values: Usually 1⁄12 foot, but 1⁄11 and 1⁄10. 1⁄12 inch, but 1⁄10. For firewood, 2.905 m3 In general, the Nösel was a measure of liquid volume equal to half a Kanne. Volume varied depending on whether it was beer or wine, its subdivisions were the Viertelnösel. Actual volumes so measured, varied from one state or one city to another. Within Saxony, for example, the "Dresden jar" held 1 US quart or 0.95 litres or 0.83 imperial quarts, so a nösel in Dresden was about 1 US pint. The full volume of a "Leipzig jar" measured 1.2 liters. 1⁄320 Ahm = 1⁄64 Eimer = 1⁄16 Viertel = 1⁄8 Stübchen = 1⁄4 Kannen = 1⁄2 Quartiers = 1 Nösel = 2 Halbnöseln = 4 ViertelnöselnThe nösel was used in minor commerce, as well as in the household to measure meal and such.
These units of measure were valid in Saxony until 1868, when the metric system was introduced. The old measures have continued in private use for decades. One interesting modification was introduced in Thuringia. There, the nösel was, by extension a measure of area, their SI Origins. Springer, Berlin 2003. ISBN 1-85233-682-X Helmut Kahnt, Bernd Knorr: Alte Masse, Münzen und Gewichte.. Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim/Wien/Zürich 1987. Wolfgang Trapp: Kleines Handbuch der Maße, Zahlen Gewichte und der Zeitrechnung. Von. Reclam Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1996. ISBN 3-15-008737-6 Günther Scholz, Klaus Vogelsang: Kleines Lexikon: Einheiten, Formelzeichen. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1991 ISBN 3-343-00500-2 Johann Christian Nelkenbrechers Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns: enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen, des Wechsel-Courses, Respect-Tage und anderer zur Handlung gehörigen Dinge. Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1769: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Düsseldorf 2004. ISBN 3-936755-58-2 William Tate.
The Modern Cambist: Forming a Manual of Foreign Exchanges, in the Different Operations of Bills of Exchange and Bullion, According to the Practice of All Trading Nations, with Tables of Foreign Weights and Measures, Their Equivalents in English and French. Projekt zur Erschliessung historisch wertvo
The avoirdupois system is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units. It was first used in the 13th century and was updated in 1959. In 1959, by international agreement, the definitions of the pound and ounce became standardized in countries which use the pound as a unit of mass; the International Avoirdupois Pound was created. It is the everyday system of weights used in the United States, it is still used, in varying degrees, in everyday life in the United Kingdom and some other former British colonies, despite their official adoption of the metric system. The avoirdupois weight system's general attributes were developed for the international wool trade in the Late Middle Ages, when trade was in recovery, it was based on a physical standardized pound or "prototype weight" that could be divided into 16 ounces. There were a number of competing measures of mass, the fact that the avoirdupois pound had three numbers as divisors may have been a cause of much of its popularity, so that the system won out over systems with 12 or 10 or 15 subdivisions.
The use of this unofficial system stabilized and evolved, with only slight changes in the reference standard or in the prototype's actual mass. Over time, the desire not to use too many different systems of measurement allowed the establishment of "value relationships", with other commodities metered and sold by weight measurements such as bulk goods and smelted metals. In England, Henry VII authorized its use as a standard, Queen Elizabeth I acted three times to enforce a common standard, thus establishing what became the Imperial system of weights and measures. Late in the 19th century various governments acted to redefine their base standards on a scientific basis and establish ratio-metric equations to SI metric system standards, they did not always pick the same equivalencies, though the pound remained similar. An alternative system of mass, the troy system, is used for precious materials; the modern definition of the avoirdupois pound is 0.45359237 kilograms. The word avoirdupois is from Anglo-Norman French aveir de peis "goods of weight".
This term referred to a class of merchandise: aveir de peis, "goods of weight", things that were sold in bulk and were weighed on large steelyards or balances. Only did the term become identified with a particular system of units used to weigh such merchandise; the warfare-impacted orthography of the day has left many variants of the term, such as haberty-poie and haber de peyse. The rise in use of the measurement system corresponds to the regrowth of trade during the High Middle Ages after the early crusades, when Europe experienced a growth in towns, turned from the chaos of warlordism to long distance trade, began annual fairs and commerce, by land and sea. There are two major hypotheses regarding the origins of the avoirdupois system; the older hypothesis is. A newer hypothesis is; the avoirdupois weight system is thought to have come into use in England circa 1300. It was used for weighing wool. In the early 14th century several other specialized weight systems were used, including the weight system of the Hanseatic League with a 16-ounce pound of 7200 grains and an 8-ounce mark.
However, the main weight system, used for coinage and for everyday use, was based on the 12-ounce tower pound of 5400 grains. From the 14th century until the late 16th century, the systems basis, the avoirdupois pound, the prototype for today's international pound was known as the wool pound or the avoirdupois wool pound; the earliest known version of the avoirdupois weight system had the following units: a pound of 6992 grains, a stone of 14 pounds, a woolsack of 26 stone, an ounce of 1⁄16 pound, the ounce was divided into 16 "parts". The earliest known occurrence of the word "avoirdupois" in England is from a document entitled Tractatus de Ponderibus et Mensuris; this document is listed in early statute books under the heading 31 Edward I dated 2 February 1303. More recent statute books list it among statutes of uncertain date. Scholars nowadays believe that it was written between 1266 and 1303. A royal memorandum, it took on the force of law and was recognized as a statute by King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I.
It was repealed by the Weights and Measures Act 1824. In the Tractatus, the word "avoirdupois" refers not to a weight system, but to a class of goods heavy goods sold by weight, as opposed to goods sold by volume, count, or some other method. Since it is written in Anglo-Norman French, this document is not the first occurrence of the word in the English language. Three major developments occurred during the reign of Edward III. First, a statute known as 14o Edward III. St. 1. Cap. 12 "Bushels and Weights shall be made and sent into every County." & acorde qe deſore en auant vn meſure & vn pois ſoit parmy toute Engleterre & qe le Treſorer face faire certaines eſtandardz de buſſel
International System of Units
The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, is the most used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, which are the ampere, second, kilogram, mole, a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units; the system specifies names for 22 derived units, such as lumen and watt, for other common physical quantities. The base units are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light in vacuum and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy, one physical artefact; the artefact is the international prototype kilogram, certified in 1889, consisting of a cylinder of platinum-iridium, which nominally has the same mass as one litre of water at the freezing point. Its stability has been a matter of significant concern, culminating in a revision of the definition of the base units in terms of constants of nature, scheduled to be put into effect on 20 May 2019.
Derived units may be defined in terms of other derived units. They are adopted to facilitate measurement of diverse quantities; the SI is intended to be an evolving system. The most recent derived unit, the katal, was defined in 1999; the reliability of the SI depends not only on the precise measurement of standards for the base units in terms of various physical constants of nature, but on precise definition of those constants. The set of underlying constants is modified as more stable constants are found, or may be more measured. For example, in 1983 the metre was redefined as the distance that light propagates in vacuum in a given fraction of a second, thus making the value of the speed of light in terms of the defined units exact; the motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the centimetre–gram–second systems and the lack of coordination between the various disciplines that used them. The General Conference on Weights and Measures, established by the Metre Convention of 1875, brought together many international organisations to establish the definitions and standards of a new system and standardise the rules for writing and presenting measurements.
The system was published in 1960 as a result of an initiative that began in 1948. It is based on the metre–kilogram–second system of units rather than any variant of the CGS. Since the SI has been adopted by all countries except the United States and Myanmar; the International System of Units consists of a set of base units, derived units, a set of decimal-based multipliers that are used as prefixes. The units, excluding prefixed units, form a coherent system of units, based on a system of quantities in such a way that the equations between the numerical values expressed in coherent units have the same form, including numerical factors, as the corresponding equations between the quantities. For example, 1 N = 1 kg × 1 m/s2 says that one newton is the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at one metre per second squared, as related through the principle of coherence to the equation relating the corresponding quantities: F = m × a. Derived units apply to derived quantities, which may by definition be expressed in terms of base quantities, thus are not independent.
Other useful derived quantities can be specified in terms of the SI base and derived units that have no named units in the SI system, such as acceleration, defined in SI units as m/s2. The SI base units are the building blocks of the system and all the other units are derived from them; when Maxwell first introduced the concept of a coherent system, he identified three quantities that could be used as base units: mass and time. Giorgi identified the need for an electrical base unit, for which the unit of electric current was chosen for SI. Another three base units were added later; the early metric systems defined a unit of weight as a base unit, while the SI defines an analogous unit of mass. In everyday use, these are interchangeable, but in scientific contexts the difference matters. Mass the inertial mass, represents a quantity of matter, it relates the acceleration of a body to the applied force via Newton's law, F = m × a: force equals mass times acceleration. A force of 1 N applied to a mass of 1 kg will accelerate it at 1 m/s2.
This is true whether the object is floating in space or in a gravity field e.g. at the Earth's surface. Weight is the force exerted on a body by a gravitational field, hence its weight depends on the strength of the gravitational field. Weight of a 1 kg mass at the Earth's surface is m × g. Since the acceleration due to gravity is local and varies by location and altitude on the Earth, weight is unsuitable for precision
The scudo is the official currency of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was the currency of Malta during the rule of the Order over Malta, which ended in 1798. It is subdivided into each of 20 grani with 6 piccoli to the grano, it is pegged to the euro. The scudo was first minted in Rhodes in 1318. By 1500 the coins had the distinctive characteristics of a cross and the Order's and Grandmaster's coat of arms on one side, the head of St. John the Baptist on the other; the scudo was first minted in Malta during the reign of Piero de Ponte. The quality of the coins improved during the reign of António Manoel de Vilhena in the early 18th century. At some points in time, foreign coinage was allowed to circulate in Malta alongside the scudo; these included Venetian lire, Louis d'or and other currencies. During the French occupation of Malta in 1798, the French authorities melted down some of the silver from the island's churches and struck them into 15 and 30 tarì coins from the 1798 dies of Grandmaster Hompesch.
After the Maltese rebellion and silver ingots were stamped with a face value in grani, tarì and scudi and they circulated as coinage in Valletta and the surrounding area. The scudo continued to circulate on the island of Malta, which had become a British colony, along with some other currencies until they were all replaced by the pound in 1825, at a rate of 1 pound to 12 scudi using British coinage. Despite this, some scudi remained in use and the last coins were withdrawn from circulation and demonetized in November 1886. 1 scudo in 1886 had the spending power equivalent to £3.82 or €4.35 in 2011. The present-day Republic of Malta adopted the decimal Maltese lira in 1972, the euro in 2008; the SMOM, now based in Rome, has issued souvenir coins denominated in grani, tarì and scudi since 1961. The 1961 issues were minted in Rome, while mints in Paris and Arezzo were used in 1962 and 1963. From 1964 onwards coins were minted in the Order's own mint; the scudo is only intended to be recognised as legal tender within the Order itself.
The scudo was the currency used on the Order's stamps from 1961 to 2005, when the euro began to be used. Coins were issued in denominations of 1, 2 1⁄2, 5 and 10 grani, 1, 2, 4 and 6 tarì, 1, 1 1⁄4, 1 1⁄3, 2, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10 and 20 scudi; the 1, 2 1⁄2, 5 and 10 grani and 1 tarì were minted in copper, with the 2 1⁄2 grani denominated as 15 piccoli. The 2, 4 and 6 tarì, 1, 1 1⁄4, 1 1⁄3, 2 and 2 1⁄2 scudi were silver coins, with the 1 1⁄4, 1 1⁄3 and 2 1⁄2 scudi denominated as 15, 16 and 30 tarì; the 5, 10, 20 scudi coins were gold. Coins minted today include bronze 10 grani, silver 9 tarì, 1 and 2 scudi and gold 5 and 10 scudi. In 2011, a gold coin of António Manoel de Vilhena minted in 1725 sold for US$340,000
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Introduction to the metric system
The metric system was developed during the French Revolution to replace the various measures used in France. The metre is the unit of length in the metric system and was based on the dimensions of the earth, as far as it could be measured at the time; the litre, was defined as one thousandth of a cubic metre. The metric unit of mass is the kilogram and it was defined as the mass of one litre of water; the metric system was, in the words of French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet, "for all people for all time". The metric system has names to cover different ranges of the same measure. Instead of using names based on the context of the measure, the metric system uses names made by adding prefixes, such as kilo- or milli-, as decimal multipliers to the base unit names. Thus, one kilogram is 1000 grams and one kilometre is 1000 metres. During the nineteenth century the metric system was adopted by both the worldwide scientific community and many countries as the system of measurement, it therefore became international.
Until 1875 the French government owned the prototype metre and kilogram, but in that year the Convention of the metre was signed and control of the standards relating to mass and length passed on to a trio of inter-government organisations. In 1960 the metric system was extensively revised to form the International System of Units, abbreviated to SI. On the eve of the French Revolution, France had an estimated quarter of a million different units of measurement. In many cases the value of a unit differed from town to town and from trade to trade though they might have the same name. While certain standards, such as the pied du roi had a degree of pre-eminence and were used by savants, many traders used their own measuring devices; this hindered commerce and industry. The metric system was designed to replace this confusion with a radical new system with fixed values. In England, Magna Carta in 1215 decreed that "there shall be one unit of measure throughout the realm", However and the rest of Europe had a multitude of measurement units.
The differences were like those between United States customary units and United Kingdom imperial units – that measure liquids – a US pint consists of 16 US fluid ounces while an imperial pint is 20 UK fluid ounces and the US fluid ounce is about 4% larger than the UK fluid ounce. Differences such as these occurred across Europe. Between 1790 and 1800, during the French Revolution, with the backing of Louis XVI, the system of weights and measures was reformed; the new system of measures had a rational mathematical basis and was part of the radical effort to sweep away old traditions and conventions and replace them with something new and better. The French philosopher, the Marquis de Condorcet, one of those entrusted by Louis XVI to overhaul the system of measurement, characterised the metric system as "for all people for all time"; the key units of the republican measures system were: The mètre – the unit of length, defined as one ten-millionth of the distance between the north pole and the equator on the meridian passing through Paris The are – for land area, defined as the area of a square with sides of length 10 metres The stère – for volume, defined as 1 cubic metre The litre – for dry and liquid volume, defined as the volume of a cube with sides of one-tenth of a metre The gramme – for weight, defined as the weight of a cube of pure water with sides of one-hundredth of a metre and at the temperature of melting ice.
Since it was not practical to determine the metre and the kilogram with adequate precision and repeatability, it was decided to use artefacts as the reference kilogram and metre, against which instruments could be calibrated. The mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives were manufactured to meet these definitions as as possible; the definition of the metre has since been revised to be independent of any artifact, a similar redefinition of the kilogram is expected in 2019. The new system was not popular and people continued to use their customary measures. Napoleon recognised the value of a sound basis for a system of measurement but ridiculed the metric system. In 1812 he introduced the mesures usuelles, a modification of the metric measures for use in small retail businesses; these mesures usuelles used some older unit names but used the metre des Archives and the kilogramme des Archives as its basis for measurement. However, all government and similar works still had to use the metric system and the metric system continued to be taught at all levels of education.
This system survived in France until the metric system was reinstated for all purposes in 1840. The metric system developed as the understanding of science and in measuring techniques have advanced. In 1875, the Convention of the metre was signed and control of the metric system passed from France to a trio of inter-government organisations headed by the Conférence générale des poids et mesures and based in Sèvres, France. In 1960, at the 11th conference of the CGPM, the metric system was overhauled and the resultant system named "The International System of Units". In this article, the term "SI" will be used to describe items that are specific to post-1960 developments, otherwise the term "metric system" will be used; the driving force behind the metric system was the need for a single and universal system of weights and measures that could be used worldwide. The names of the units of measure used in the metric system consist of two parts: a unit name and
Comparison of the imperial and US customary measurement systems
Both the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement derive from earlier English systems used in the Middle Ages, that were the result of a combination of the local Anglo-Saxon units inherited from German tribes and Roman units brought by William the Conqueror after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. Having this shared heritage, the two systems are quite similar; the US customary system is based on English systems of the 18th century, while the Imperial system was defined in 1824, after American independence. Volume may be measured either with specific volume units; the units of cubic length are the same in the imperial and US customary systems but with the specific units of volume they differ. The US customary system has one set of another set for dry goods; the imperial system has only one set defined independently of and subdivided differently from its US counterparts. By the end of the eighteenth century various systems of volume measurement were in use throughout the British Empire.
Wine was measured with units based on the Queen Anne's gallon of 231 cubic inches. Beer was measured with units based on an ale gallon of 282 cubic inches. Grain was measured with the Winchester measure with a gallon of 268.8 cubic inches. In 1824 these were replaced with a single system based on the imperial gallon. Defined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water redefined by the Weights and Measures Act 1985 to be 4.54609 L, the imperial gallon is close in size to the old ale gallon. The Winchester measure was made obsolete in the British Empire but remained in use in the US; the Winchester bushel was replaced with an imperial bushel of 8 imperial gallons. The subdivisions of the bushel were maintained; as with US dry measures the imperial system divides the bushel into 4 pecks, 8 gallons, 32 quarts or 64 pints. Thus all of these imperial measures are about 3% larger than their US dry measure counterparts. Fluid measure is not as straightforward; the American colonists adopted a system based on the 231-cubic-inch wine gallon for all fluid purposes.
This became the US fluid gallon. Both the imperial and US fluid gallon are divided into 8 pints or 32 gills. However, whereas the US gill is divided into 4 US fluid ounces, the imperial gill is divided into 5 imperial fluid ounces. So whilst the imperial gallon, quart and gill are about 20% larger than their US fluid measure counterparts, the fluid ounce is about 4% smaller. Note that one avoirdupois ounce of water has an approximate volume of one imperial fluid ounce at 62 °F; this convenient fluid-ounce-to-avoirdupois-ounce relation does not exist in the US system. One noticeable comparison between the imperial system and the US system is between some Canadian and American beer bottles. Many Canadian brewers package beer in a 12-imperial-fluid-ounce bottles. American brewers package their beer in 12-US-fluid-ounce bottles; this results in the Canadian bottles being labelled as 11.5 fl oz in US units when imported into the United States. Because Canadian beer bottles predate the adoption of the Metric System in that country, they are still sold and labelled in Canada as 341 mL.
Canned beer in Canada is sold and labelled in 355 mL cans, when exported to the US are labelled as 12 fl oz. The international yard is defined as 0.9144 metres. This definition was agreed by the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand through the international yard and pound agreement of 1959; the US survey foot and survey mile have been maintained as separate units for surveying purposes to avoid the accumulation of error that would follow replacing them with the international versions with State Plane Coordinate Systems. The US survey foot is defined so that 1 metre is 39.37 inches, making the international foot of 0.3048 metres two parts per million shorter. This is a little over one eighth of an inch per mile; the main units of length were the same in the US, though the US uses some of the intermediate units, such as the chain and the furlong. At one time the definition of the nautical mile was based on the sphere whose surface is the same as the Clarke Ellipsoid. In the US, the full value of 1853.256 metres was used, but in the Commonwealth, this was rounded to 6080 feet.
These have been replaced by the international version, which rounds the sixtieth part of the 45° to the nearest metre, as 1852 metres. Traditionally, both Britain and the US used three different weight systems: troy weight for precious metals, avoirdupois weight for most other purposes and apothecaries' weight for medicines. However, apothecaries' weight has now been superseded by the metric system. One important difference is the widespread use in Britain of the stone of 14 pounds for body weight; this unit is not used in the United States, although its influence was seen in the practice, until World War II, of selling flour by a barrel of 196 pounds. Another difference arose when Britain abolished the troy pound on January 6, 1879, leaving only the troy ounce and its dec