A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are distinguished from boats based on their larger size and cargo or passenger capacity, their ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats. Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became pop
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
The Broads is a network of navigable rivers and lakes in the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The lakes, known as broads, were formed by the flooding of peat workings; the Broads, some surrounding land, were constituted as a special area with a level of protection similar to a national park by the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads Act 1988. The Broads Authority, a special statutory authority responsible for managing the area, became operational in 1989; the area is 303 square kilometres, most of, in Norfolk, with over 200 kilometres of navigable waterways. There are seven rivers and 63 broads less than 4 metres deep. Thirteen broads are open to navigation, with a further three having navigable channels; some broads have navigation restrictions imposed on them in autumn and winter, although the legality of the restrictions is questionable. Although the terms Norfolk Broads and Suffolk Broads are used to identify specific areas within the two counties the whole area is referred to as the "Norfolk Broads".
The Broads has similar status to the national parks in Wales. Because of its navigation role the Broads Authority was established under its own legislation on 1 April 1989; the Broads Authority Act 2009, promoted through Parliament by the authority, is intended to improve public safety on the water. In January 2015 the Broads Authority approved a change in name of the area to the Broads National Park, to recognise that the status of the area is equivalent to the English National Parks, that the Broads Authority shares the same two first purposes as the English National Park Authorities, receives a National park grant; this followed a three-month consultation which resulted in support from 79% of consultees, including unanimous support from the 14 UK national parks and the Campaign for National Parks. Defra, the Government department responsible for the parks expressed it was content that the Authority would make its own decision on the matter; this is the subject of ongoing controversy among some Broads users who note that the Broads is not named in law as a National Park and claim the branding detracts from the Broads Authority's third purpose, to protect the interests of navigation.
In response to this the Broads Authority has stated that its three purposes will remain in equal balance and that the branding is for marketing the National Park qualities of the Broads. The Broads are administered by the Broads Authority. Special legislation gives the navigation of the waterways equal status with the conservation and public enjoyment of the area. Specific parts of the Broads have been awarded a variety of conservation designations, for instance: Special Protection Area status for an area named'Broadland' composed of 28 Sites of Special Scientific Interest Environmentally Sensitive Area status for parts of the Halvergate Marshes National nature reserve status for: Bure Marshes NNR Ant Broads & Marshes NNR Hickling Broad NNR Ludham - Potter Heigham NNR Redgrave and Lopham Fen Martham Broad NNR Calthorpe Broad NNR Mid-Yare NNRA specific project being considered under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan is re-introduction of the large copper butterfly, whose habitat has been reduced by reduction of fens.
The Broads, although administered by the Broads Authority, give their name to the Broadland local government district, while parts of the Broads lie within other council areas: North Norfolk, South Norfolk and Great Yarmouth and Waveney district in Suffolk. For many years the lakes known as broads were regarded as natural features of the landscape, it was only in the 1960s that Dr Joyce Lambert proved that they were artificial features—flooded medieval peat excavations. In the Middle Ages the local monasteries began to excavate the peatlands as a turbary business, selling fuel to Norwich and Great Yarmouth. Norwich Cathedral took 320,000 tonnes of peat a year; the sea levels began to rise, the pits began to flood. Despite the construction of windpumps and dykes, the flooding continued and resulted in the typical Broads landscape of today, with its reedbeds, grazing marshes and wet woodland. Various attempts were made to extend the navigable rivers; the longest-lasting was on the River Waveney, where an Act of Parliament passed on 17 March 1670 authorised improvements which included three locks, at Geldeston and Wainford.
The head of navigation became a new staithe at Bungay. The new section was a private navigation, not controlled by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, who had responsibility for the rest of the Broadland rivers, it remained in use until 1934 and, although the upper two locks have been replaced by sluices and Geldeston lock is derelict, the Environment Agency have negotiated with local landowners to allow use by canoes and unpowered vessels which can be portaged around the locks. The next attempt was to extend navigation on the River Bure from Coltishall to Aylsham, authorised by an Act of Parliament on 7 April 1773. Five locks were built, to bypass mills, at Coltishall, Oxnead Lamas, Oxnead and Aylsham. There were financial difficulties during construction, but the works were completed and opened in October 1779. At Aylsham, a 1-mile cut was made from the river to a terminal basin, where several warehouses were constructed. Despite the arrival of the railways in 1879, goods continued to be carried to Aylsham by wherries until 1912, when major flooding badly damaged the locks.
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Ranworth is a village in Norfolk, England in The Broads, adjacent to Malthouse Broad and Ranworth Broad. The 16th-century St. Helen's church, known as'the Cathedral of the Broads', has a fine 15th century painted rood screen and a rare Antiphoner, it is a Grade I listed building From the top of Ranworth church's 100-foot tower one can see many of the broads and rivers, as well as the Happisburgh lighthouse. Media related to Ranworth at Wikimedia Commons Ranworth Church and the Broadside Benefice Parishes Hi-res images of Ranworth Rood Screen
Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: Phragmites australis Trin. Ex Steud. – cosmopolitan Phragmites japonicus Steud. – Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East Phragmites karka Trin. Ex Steud. – tropical Africa, southern Asia, some Pacific Islands Phragmites mauritianus Kunth – central + southern Africa, Mauritius The cosmopolitan common reed has the accepted botanical name Phragmites australis. Trin. Ex Steud. About 130 other synonyms have been proposed, some have been used. Examples include. Arundo phragmites L. and Phragmites vulgaris Crép.. Recent studies have characterised morphological distinctions between the introduced and native stands of Phragmites australis in North America; the Eurasian phenotype can be distinguished from the North American phenotype by its shorter ligules of up to 0.9 millimetres as opposed to over 1.0 millimetre, shorter glumes of under 3.2 millimetres against over 3.2 millimetres, in culm characteristics.
Phragmites australis subsp. Americanus – the North American genotype has been described as a distinct subspecies, subsp. Americanus, Phragmites australis – the Eurasian genotype is sometimes referred to as subsp. Australis, but this is a synonym. Phragmites australis subsp. Altissimus Clayton is an accepted subspecies of P. australis. Phragmites australis var. marsillyanus Kerguélen is an accepted variety of Phragmites australis. In North America, the status of Phragmites australis was a source of debate, it was considered an exotic species and invasive species, introduced from Europe. However, there is evidence of the existence of Phragmites as a native plant in North America long before European colonization of the continent, it is now known. Americanus are markedly less vigorous than European forms; the recent marked expansion of Phragmites in North America may be due to the more vigorous, but similar-looking European subsp. Australis. Phragmites lowers the local plant biodiversity. Phragmites forms dense thickets of vegetation, unsuitable habitat for native fauna.
Phragmites displaces native plants species such as wild rice and native wetland orchids. Phragmites has a high above ground biomass that blocks light to other plants allowing areas to turn into Phragmites monoculture quickly. Decomposing Phragmites increases the rate of marsh accretion more than would occur with native marsh vegetation. Phragmites australis subsp. Australis is causing serious problems for many other North American hydrophyte wetland plants, including the native Phragmites australis subsp. Americanus. Gallic acid released by Phragmites is degraded by ultraviolet light to produce mesoxalic acid hitting susceptible plants and seedlings with two harmful toxins. Phragmites is so difficult to control that one of the most effective methods of eradicating the plant is to burn it over 2-3 seasons; the roots grow so strong that one burn is not enough. Ongoing research suggests that goats could be used to control the species. Since 2017, over 80% of the beds of Phragmites in the Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area have been damaged by the invasive "roseau cane scale", Nipponaclerda biwakoensis, threatening wildlife habitat throughout the affected regions of the WMA.
While considered a noxious weed, in Louisiana the reed beds are considered critical to the stability of the shorelines of wetland areas and waterways of the Mississippi Delta, the die-off of reed beds is believed to accelerate coastal erosion. Phragmites australis, common reed forms extensive stands, which may be as much as 1 square kilometre or more in extent. Where conditions are suitable it can spread at 5 metres or more per year by horizontal runners, which put down roots at regular intervals, it can grow in damp ground, in standing water up to 1 metre or so deep, or as a floating mat. The erect stems grow to 2–6 metres tall, with the tallest plants growing in areas with hot summers and fertile growing conditions; the leaves are long for 20 -- 50 centimetres and 2 -- 3 centimetres broad. The flowers are produced in late summer in about 20 -- 50 cm long; the numerous long, sharp pointed spikelets appear greyer due to the growth of long, silky hairs. These help disperse the minute seeds, it is a helophyte common in alkaline habitats, it tolerates brackish water, so is found at the upper edges of estuaries and on other wetlands which are inundated by the sea.
A study demonstrated that Phragmites australis has similar greenhouse gas emissions to native Spartina alterniflora. However, other studies have demonstrated that it is associated with larger methane emissions and greater carbon dioxide uptake than native New England salt marsh vegetation that occurs at higher marsh elevations. Common reed is suppressed where it is grazed by livestock. Under these conditions it either grows as small shoots within the grassland sward, or it disappears altogether. In Europe, common reed is invasive, except in damp grasslands where traditional grazing has been abandoned. Common reed is important (together
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This