Albanian keyboard layout
Keyboard layouts used to type Albanian language. The Albanian keyboard layout is German based; the specific Albanian characters are directly accessible. Can be used the US-International keyboard. You can type the specific Albanian characters in this mode:' + c → ç' + C → Ç ⇧ Shift +' + e → ë ⇧ Shift +' + E → Ë A preferable alternative to the default one is Prektora, a keyboard layout for Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, XP and 2000 and Mac OS. Plisi is another alternative layout based on the U. S. mechanical keyboard and layout and supplemented with adaptations from the German T2 and QWERTZ Albanian layouts. Plisi is the successor to Plisi one of the several prototypes published on Plisi.al. Plisi is based on the U. S. QWERTY layout including all 26 letters of the Latin alphabet plus Ë and Ç; these two characters and the colon and semicolon are located on the same keys as in the official layout. The brackets and braces are relegated to accessible by AltGr + digits. In addition, Plisi includes an extended set of a secondary group.
The Level 3 and the secondary group are the same as in the German T2 keyboard. However, no dead keys are available in Level 1 and 2. Using Plisi, one may type in any language using Unicode Latin characters; the layout is available for download at Plisi.org, may be used on desktop devices running on Windows, OS X, Linux. Most Linux distributions include "Plisi D1", a simple version of Plisi, while Windows and OS X editions have to be installed manually; the various OS editions differ in their implementation of Level 3 characters. The author of the Plisi layout states he intends to promote it to be adopted as national standards in Albania and Macedonia, the three countries where Albanian is a national language or official at some level of government; the JLG Extended Keyboard Layout is a layout working on a US keyboard layout. This layout allows use of all specific Albanian characters. Ë = CTRL + " e, or Alt + 0235 Ë = CTRL + " E, or Alt + 0203 ç = CTRL + c, or Alt + 0231 Ç = CTRL + C, or Alt + 0199 Albanian Keyboard Online Prektora keyboard layout for Windows and Apple OS Plisi keyboard layout for Windows and Apple OS Albanian keyboard installation on Windows XP
Touch typing is a style of typing without looking. Although the phrase refers to typing without using the sense of sight to find the keys - a touch typist will know their location on the keyboard through muscle memory - the term is used to refer to a specific form of touch typing that involves placing the eight fingers in a horizontal row along the middle of the keyboard and having them reach for specific other keys. Both two-handed touch typing and one-handed touch typing are possible. Frank Edward McGurrin, a court stenographer from Salt Lake City, Utah who taught typing classes invented home row touch typing in 1888. On a standard QWERTY keyboard for English speakers the home row keys are: "ASDF" for the left hand and "JKL. Most modern computer keyboards have a raised dot or bar on the home keys for the index fingers to help touch typists maintain and rediscover the correct position on the keyboard with no need to look at the keys. Original layouts for the first few mechanical typewriters were in alphabetical order but the frequent jams suffered by experienced typists forced the manufacturers to change the layout of the letters, placing keys that are pressed in a sequence as far as possible from each other.
This allows engaging the second printing bar of the typewriter before the first falls down, increasing the speed of the mechanism. Equal distribution of the load over most of fingers increased the speed as the keys of the mechanical typewriter are more difficult to press; the calculations for keyboard layout were based on the language being typed and this meant different keyboard layouts would be needed for each language. In English-speaking countries, for example, the first row is QWERTY, but in French-speaking countries it is AZERTY. Though mechanical typewriters are now used, moves to change the layout to increase speed have been ignored or resisted due to familiarity with the existing layout among touch typists. On July 25, 1888, McGurrin, the only person using touch typing at the time, won a decisive victory over Louis Traub in a typing contest held in Cincinnati; the results were displayed on the front pages of many newspapers. McGurrin popularized the new typing method. Whether McGurrin was the first person to touch type or the first to be popularly noticed, is disputed.
Speeds attained by other typists in other typing competitions at the time suggest that they must have been using similar systems. In 1889 Bates Torrey coined the words "writing by touch" in his article. In 1890 Lovisa Ellen Bullard Barnes defined the words "write by touch" in her book as follows: To learn to write by touch, that is, with only an occasional glance at the key-board, sit directly in front of the machine. Keep the hands as nearly as possible in one position over the key-board. Touch typing is contrasted to search and peck known as hunt-and-peck or two-fingered typing. Instead of relying on the memorized position of keys, the typist finds each key by sight and moves their finger over to press it the index finger of their dominant hand; this method is considered inferior as not only is it slower than touch typing, the typist would have to have their fingers travel a greater distance. Various other styles in between those two exist — for example, using a search-and-peck method, but with an increased number of fingers.
Touch type training can improve accuracy dramatically. The accepted average typing speed is 40 WPM, professional career typists can exceed 100 WPM and continuously; every individual learns at a different pace, routine practice is required to maintain a high typing speed and accuracy. A touch typist does not need to move the sight between the keyboard and other areas that require attention; this reduces the number of errors. There are many other typing styles in between novice-style "peck" and touch typing. For example, many "hunt and peck" typists have the keyboard layout memorized and are able to type while focusing their gaze on the screen. One study examining 30 subjects, of varying different styles and expertise, has found minimal difference in typing speed between touch typists and self-taught hybrid typists. According to the study, "The number of fingers does not determine typing speed... People using self-taught typing strategies were found to be as fast as trained typists... instead of the number of fingers, there are other factors that predict typing speed... fast typists... keep their hands fixed on one position, instead of moving them over the keyboard, more use the same finger to type a certain letter."
To quote doctoral candidate Anna Feit: "We were surprised to observe that people who took a typing course performed at similar average speed and accuracy as those that taught typing to themselves and only used 6 fingers on average". A touch typist starts by placing their fingers on the "start position" in the middle
AZERTY is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards. The layout takes its name from the first six letters to appear on the first row of alphabetical keys. Similar to the German QWERTZ layout, it is modelled on the English QWERTY layout, it is used by most French speakers based in Europe, although France and Belgium each have their own national variations on the layout. Luxembourg and Switzerland use the Swiss QWERTZ keyboard. Most of the residents of Quebec, the French-speaking province of Canada, use a QWERTY keyboard, adapted to the French language such as the Multilingual Standard keyboard CAN/CSA Z243.200-92, stipulated by the government of Quebec and the Government of Canada. The competing layouts devised for French have obtained only limited recognition; the AZERTY layout appeared in France in the last decade of the 19th century as a variation on American QWERTY typewriters. Its exact origin is unknown. At the start of the 20th century, the French “ZHJAY” layout, created by Albert Navarre, failed to break into the market because secretaries were accustomed to the QWERTY and AZERTY layouts.
In France the AZERTY layout is the de facto norm for keyboards, though it is not an official standard. However, in 1976, a QWERTY layout adapted to the French language was put forward as an experimental standard by the French national organization for standardization; this standard made provision for a temporary adaptation period during which the letters A, Q, Z and W could be positioned as in the traditional AZERTY layout. As of January 2016, the French Culture Ministry was looking to replace the AZERTY layout with one that will decrease the chance of typing mistakes; the AZERTY layout is used on Belgian keyboards, although some non-alphabetic symbols are positioned differently. There are two key details: the Alt Gr key allows the user to type the character shown at the bottom right of any key with three characters; the Alt key is used as a shortcut to commands affecting windows, is used in conjunction with ASCII codes for typing special characters. A dead key serves to modify the appearance of the next character to be typed on the keyboard.
Dead keys are used to generate accents on vowels. A circumflex accent can be generated by first striking the ^ key the vowel requiring the accent. For example, pressing'^' then'a' produces'â'. A diaeresis can be generated by striking the ¨ key the vowel requiring the accent. For example, pressing'¨' then'a' produces'ä'; the grave accent can be generated by striking the ` key the key for the vowel requiring the accent. Note that the grave-accented letters à è ù, which are part of French orthography, have their own separate keys. Dead-grave and dead-acute would be reserved to "foreign" letters such as Italian ò, Spanish á í ó ú ñ, Portuguese ã õ, etc. or for accented capital letters. The acute accent is available under Windows by the use of Alt + a the vowel requiring the accent. For é, it can be generated using its own key. For Linux users, it can be generated using Caps Lock + é the vowel. On a Macintosh AZERTY keyboard, the acute accent is generated by a combination of the Alt + Maj + &, followed by the vowel.
In the Belgian AZERTY layout, it can be generated by a combination of Alt Gr+ù the vowel. It is not available in the French layout on Windows; the tilde is available under Windows by using a combination of the Alt Gr+é keys, followed by the letter requiring the tilde. On Macintosh, the "ñ" can be obtained followed by the N key. In the Belgian AZERTY layout, it can be generated by a combination of Alt Gr. With some operating systems, the Alt key generates characters by means of their individual codes. In order to obtain characters, the Alt key must be pressed and held down while typing the relevant code into the numeric keypad. On Linux, the alt key gives direct access to French language special characters; the ligatures œ and æ can be keyed in by using either Alt Gr+o or Alt Gr+a in the fr-oss keyboard layout. Other useful punctuation symbols, such as ≤, ≥, or ≠ can be more accessed in the same way. Called angle quotes, French quotation marks, double chevrons are polylines pointed like arrows, sometimes forming a complementary set of punctuation marks used as a form of quotation mark.
With a US International Keyboard and corresponding layout, Alt Gr+ can be used. The characters are standard on some others. Macintosh users can type "«" as ⌥ Opt+\ and "»" as ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+\. In French-language keyboard layouts ⌥ Opt+7 and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+7 can be used. On Norwegian keyboards, ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+v for "«", ⌥ O
Cherry GmbH is a German computer peripheral-device maker. The company is headquartered in Germany, it has additional offices in the United States and China. They manufactured a large range of products including sensors, input devices and automotive modules until 2008, when Peter Cherry, the son of Walter L. Cherry, sold his company to ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Cherry was bought by ZF Friedrichshafen AG and renamed to ZF Electronics GmbH, the CHERRY naming was continued only for its computer input devices. Since the beginning of 2016 this product line has been operating independently on the market as the Cherry Group. After an eight-year partnership with ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Cherry was sold to GENUI Partners in October 2016. Cherry was founded by Walter Cherry in 1953 in the basement of a restaurant in Highland Park, Illinois, USA. With the passing of its founder, his son Peter took over the ownership of the organization; the company's headquarters were moved to Auerbach in der Oberpfalz, Germany in 1979.
Cherry has manufactured keyboards since 1973, claims to be the oldest keyboard manufacturer still in business. Cherry maintains production facilities in Europe and the Americas. All of its products are designed and developed at the company's headquarters in Auerbach in der Oberpfalz, it has offices in the UK, France, Hong Kong, Mexico and other locations, with distributors in most major countries. In 2008, Cherry was bought by ZF Friedrichshafen AG and incorporated as the ZF Electronics GmbH Corporate Division; the Cherry brand continues to be used. Among Cherry's known products are its line of MX and ML key switches that have been used in industrial electronics and point of sale environments since their inception in the 1980s, more by numerous manufacturers of consumer PC keyboards. Today, Cherry makes the following products: Keyboards Mice Card reader Peripheral MIX Technology Cherry MX switches were developed and patented in the early 1980s and first marketed around 1985. In the consumer keyboard market, Cherry MX switches are referenced by the color of the key stem—the part of the switch below the keycap that moves downward when pressed.
Most common Cherry MX switches are: Linear Red Silent Red Speed Silver Nature White Black Silent Black Linear Grey Tactile, non-clicky Brown Clear Tactile Grey Tactile and Clicky Blue White GreenCherry MX Grey Switches can be found in Linear and Clicky variants. They are distinguished with Linear being darker than Tactile; the Clicky version is no longer made. It is debated as to whether it clicks, since it is not listed as a "click" switch by Cherry in their 1994 "Keymodule MX brochure", along with MX Whites, which are greased to reduce the click. Given their use in large keys like Space Bar, the feel is selected to match that of the other keys on the board. Other types of Cherry MX switches, such as Green and Grey, are used for larger keys; the feel of Cherry MX green switches are compared to that of the "buckling spring" switches on original IBM Model M keyboards. Cherry switches have a lifespan of up to 50 million actuations, depending on switch type; the auditory and tactile nature of each switch, the amount of force needed to actuate it, vary depending on the switch type: In 2008, Cherry's production facility in Bayreuth received the Bayerischer Qualitätspreis 2008 award.
At the end of 2006, Cherry received the Automotive Lean Production Award of the German economy magazine Automobil-Produktion. In 2005, Cherry GmbH in Auerbach received the Industrial Excellence Award as best European industrial facility. List of mechanical keyboards Cherry website Cherry MX website ZF Switches & Sensors website Overview of Cherry mechanical switches Cherry MX mechanical switches guide
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
Bengali input methods
Bengali input methods refer to different systems developed to type Bengali language characters using a typewriter or a computer keyboard. With the advent of graphical user interfaces and word processing in the 1980s, a number of computer typing systems for Bengali were created. Most of these were based on Apple Macintosh systems. Bangla Jatiyo Keyboard layout developed by Bangladesh Computer Council, is the most popular layout and is addressed as the standard layout; this layout is being pushed to use as official layout in Bangladesh as the ICT minister Mustafa Jabbar himself is the owner of Bijoy layout and this so called Jatiyo layout is full copy of Bijoy layout. Most popular form of bangla typing Avro layout, a phonetic layout. বর্ণ Borno is a free Bengali input method editor developed by Jayed Ahsan. Borno is compatible with the latest version of Unicode and all versions of Windows OS, it was first released in 9 November, 2018. Borno supports both phonetic keyboard layouts, it has an auto completion feature.
Borno can be downloaded from Codepotro This keyboard layout is designed in order to type all the indic scripts with a uniform layout on computer. This layout is accepted by Microsoft Corporation and is provided by default in their Windows operating system, it is available on OSX, alongside Bengali-Qwerty. This layout is popular in India. প্রভাত Probhat is a free Unicode-based Bengali fixed layout. Probhat is included in all Linux OS, its key mapping is similar to Phonetic pattern but typing method is Fixed. Ananda Computers, programmed by Munirul Abedin Pappana, owned by Mustafa Jabbar, marketed the Bijoy keyboard layout in 1988. Bijoy is a proprietary, ASCII-Unicode based Bengali input software and requires purchase of a license to use on every computer. Akkhor অক্ষর ôkkhôr Bangla Software, developed by Khan Md. Anwarus Salam, was first released on 1 January 2003 for free; the Unicode/ANSI-based Akkhor Keyboard is compatible with fixed keyboard layouts, including the Bijoy keyboard. Akkhor provides a customization feature for designing fixed keyboard layouts.
It provides a Keyboard Manager which works system wide and provides an independent Akkhor Word processor. Avro Keyboard, developed by Mehdi Hasan Khan, was first released on 26 March 2003 for free, it facilitates both phonetic layouts. Avro phonetic allows a user to write Bengali by typing the phonetic formation of the words in English language keyboards. Avro is available as a native IME on Mac OS X and Linux distributions. There is a free transliteration web software package for Bengali scripts from google. Along with other Indic languages, Microsoft has web based and desktop transliteration support for Bengali. Bangla-অঙ্কুর, developed by S. M. Raiyan Kabir, was first released on 30 March 2011 as an open source software, it facilitates only phonetic typing in Macintosh platform. Bangla-onkur phonetic allows a user to write Bengali by typing the phonetic formation of the words in English language keyboards; this is the first phonetic input method developed for Mac OS X. Aparajeyo Bangla Express Aparajeyo Bangla Express is Bangla Input method.
This is this the first Bangla OCR software. Aparajeyo Bangla Express other programs - 1. Aparajeyo Bangla Express - Dictionary 2. Aparajeyo Bangla Express - On Screen Unicode Keyboard 3. Keyboard Layout Creator for ABE. website source - www.aparajeyo.net This is an m17n library which provides the Saon Bengali input method for touch typing in Bengali on Linux systems and the project was registered by its creator, Saoni at SourceForge.net on 8 July 2012. This free and open source IM is Unicode 6.1 compliant in terms of both normalization and number of keystrokes used to input a single character. Saon Bengali enables touch typing so if a user can type in English, they won't have to look at the keyboard to type in Saon Bengali, it is phonetic and has something in common with all Bengali phonetic layouts making the transition smooth for new users. As of Jul 2012 it not yet a part of the m17n-contrib which allows installation of all m17n contribbed libraries through Linux's software channels and it may be too early to say whether it will be incorporated.
This depends firstly on its author and if it is offered to m17n probably on m17n. The m17n IM engine works with IBus inter alia on Linux; the copyright notice on Saon says, "You can redistribute this and/or modify it under the GNU LGPL 2.1 or later" There is software for users for typing Bengali on mobile phones and smartphones. "", is the input system with advanced UI and the most popular keyboard for Android users. Users can type in Bengali with Avro Phonetic, National and as well as English layouts, it comes with lots of Emojis and Background Themes. And Features like "Voice Typing" input system and Cut, Paste by long pressing on X, C, V are unique. In Parboti Keyboard Users can type in English using this keyboard. Users can edit fixed layout by their own choice. Mayabi Bangla Keyboard is an on-screen Bengali soft keyboard for Android platform. Bengali word dictionary included with the keyboard as well for word prediction. Google Indic Keyboard is an Android keyboard that supports several Indic languages, including Bengali.
It offers a handwriting input method and a Latin letter transliteration layout, as well as a traditional Bengali keyboard. Japanese input methods Shahid Lipi
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In