A commercial treaty is a formal agreement between states for the purpose of establishing mutual rights and regulating conditions of trade. It is a bilateral act whereby definite arrangements are entered into by each contracting party towards the other—not mere concessions. For example, the Methuen Treaty was a commercial treaty between England. Another example, between the close of the Napoleonic wars of 1815 and the year 1860, the tariff system of Great Britain was changed from elaborate protection to complete free trade. An attempt had indeed been made in 1786 to modify the rigidly protective legislation of the 18th century. In that year Pitt concluded a commercial treaty with France, providing for large reductions of duties in both countries, but the treaty was swept away with the outbreak of the wars with France, accordingly the old system was still in force in 1815. The first important step, in some respects the decisive step, towards modifying it was taken in 1824, under the policy of Huskisson.
In that year, again in 1825, great reductions were made in the duties on raw materials on wool, raw silk and iron, while considerable reductions were made in the duties on manufactured goods. The most contested of the changes was in regard to silks, prohibited, were now admitted at a duty of 30 per cent. A considerable breach was thus made in the protective system, but in the decade from 1830 to 1840 the Corn Laws were the chief subject of contention. The great increase in population since the middle of the 18th century had made England a corn-importing country with the rapid growth of manufactures in the early years of the 19th century; the first systematic Corn Laws imposing duties on grain had been passed in 1773. From 1816 onwards a series of measures were passed, all designed to maintain the high price of grain; the Act of 1816 prohibited the importation of wheat when the price was less than 80 shillings a quarter. In 1822 the prohibitive point was lowered to 70 shillings. In 1828 the sliding scale was introduced, under which the duty went up and down as the price of grain went down and up.
For a long time the anti-Corn-Law agitation seemed to have no effect, although conducted with extraordinary skill and enthusiasm. In 1842, Sir Robert Peel made the first important concession, by modifying the sliding scale, his opponent, Lord John Russell, having proposed in the previous year a fixed duty of 8 shillings a quarter. In view of the bad harvest of 1845-46, the famine in Ireland. In 1846, Peel surrendered, proposed in 1846 the admission of grain with only a fixed duty of one shilling a quarter as a registration fee; this change was carried, but Peel, being able to carry only a fraction of his party with him, was compelled shortly afterwards to resign. The Corn Laws had great political strength, serving as they did the interests of the landowners, whose hold on parliament was still strong. After having been maintained till the middle of the century with irresistible support, they collapsed under the strain of a season of exceptionally short crops. Both their continued maintenance and their final sudden abolition are in some respects divergent from the general course of British tariff history.
Barclay, T. Bearing and Importance of Commercial Treaties in the Twentieth Century International investment agreement Free trade agreement
Everything2, or E2 for short, is a collaborative Web-based community consisting of a database of interlinked user-submitted written material. E2 has no formal policy on subject matter. Writing on E2 covers a wide range of topics and genres, including encyclopedic articles, diary entries, poetry and fiction; the predecessor of E2 was a similar database called Everything, started around March 1998 by Nathan Oostendorp and was closely aligned with and promoted by the technology-related news website Slashdot sharing some administrators. The Everything1 software offered vastly more features, the Everything1 data was twice incorporated into E2: once on November 13, 1999, again in January 2000; the Everything2 server used to be colocated with the Slashdot servers. However, some time after OSDN acquired Slashdot, moved the Slashdot servers, this hosting was terminated on short notice; this resulted in Everything2 being offline from November 6 to December 9, 2003. Everything2 was hosted by the University of Michigan for a time.
As the Everything2 site put it on October 2, 2006: Now, we have an arrangement with the University of Michigan, located in Ann Arbor. We exist thanks to their generosity, they gave us some servers and act as our ISP, free of charge, all they ask in exchange is that we not display advertisements. The Everything2 servers were moved to the nearby Michigan State University in February 2007. E2 was owned by the Blockstackers Intergalactic company, but does not make a profit and is viewed by its long-term users as a collaborative work-in-progress; until mid-2007 it accepted donations of money and, on occasion, of computer hardware but no longer does so. Some of its administrators are affiliated with Blockstackers, some are not; the site is not a democracy, the degree to which users influence decisions depends on the nature of the decisions and the administrators making them. As of January 23, 2012, it was announced that the site had been sold to long-time user and coder Jay Bonci under the name Everything2 Media LLC.
Writeups in E1 were limited to 512 bytes in size. This, plus the predominantly "geek" membership back and the lack of chat facilities, meant the early work was of poor quality and was filled with self-referential humor; as E2 has expanded, stricter quality standards have developed, much of the old material has been removed, the membership has become broader in interest, although smaller in number. Many noders prefer to write encyclopedic articles similar to those on Wikipedia; some write fiction or poetry, some discuss issues, some write daily journals, called "daylogs." Unlike Wikipedia, E2 does not have an enforced neutral point of view. An informal survey of noder political beliefs indicates that the user base tends to lean left politically. There are conservative voices as well and while debate nodes are tolerated, well-formed points of view from any part of the political or cultural spectrum are. According to E2's "Site Trajectory", traffic has dropped from 9976 new write-ups created in the month of August 2000, down to 93 new write-ups in February 2017.
Some of the management regard Everything2 as a publication. Although Everything2 does not seek to become an encyclopedia, a substantial amount of factual content has been submitted to Everything2. Policy states that "Everything2 is not a bulletin board." Writeups which exist as replies to other writeups, or which add a minor point to them or which otherwise do not stand well alone are discouraged, not least because the deletion of the original writeup orphans any replies. This policy helps to moderate flame wars on controversial topics. Everything2 is not a wiki, there is no direct way for non-content editors to make corrections or amendments to another author's article. Avenues for correction involve discussing the writeup with its author. Like other online communities, E2 has a social hierarchy and code of behavior, to which it is sometimes difficult for a newcomer to adjust. Moreover, some people complain that new users are held to a different standard from established contributors, that their writeups are singled out for deletion regardless of content.
Another complaint is that all too site administrators remove articles that they do not agree with or which they do not see explicit value in, thus biasing the content of the database. Others dismiss such complaints as unjustified. There is no consistent, written site policy on acceptable behavior, although the usual intolerance for trolling or hatemongering remains, as is the case with most web-based communities. Bans have occurred for antisocial and/or insulting behaviour, albeit rarely and only after a more personal approach to change the offender's behavior. Though these decisions are broadly accepted, some current and ex-members of the site believe that this amounts to mismanagement, point to accumulation of disgruntled ex-users as evidence of a problem. A noder will request their E2 account be locked, preventing them from logging in; the causes for this are varied as the causes f
Joanna of Castile
Joanna, known as Joanna the Mad, was Queen of Castile from 1504, of Aragon from 1516. Modern Spain evolved from the union of these two crowns. Joanna was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of the House of Habsburg, on 20 October 1496. Following the deaths of her brother, Prince of Asturias, in 1497, her elder sister Isabella in 1498, her nephew Miguel in 1500, Joanna became the heir presumptive to the crowns of Castile and Aragon; when her mother Queen Isabella I of Castile died in 1504, Joanna became Queen of Castile, while her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, proclaimed himself'Governor and Administrator of Castile'. In 1506 Archduke Philip became King of Castile jure uxoris, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain, died that same year. Despite being the ruling Queen of Castile, she had little effect on national policy during her reign as she was declared insane and imprisoned in Tordesillas under the orders of her father, who ruled as regent until his death in 1516, when she inherited his kingdom as well.
From 1516, when her son Charles I ruled as king, she was nominally co-monarch but remained imprisoned until her death. Joanna was born in the city of the capital of the Kingdom of Castile, she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. She had a fair complexion, blue eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine, her siblings were Queen of Portugal. Joanna was an excellent student, she was educated and formally trained for a significant marriage that, as a royal family alliance, would extend the kingdom's power and security as well as its influence and peaceful relations with other ruling powers. As an infanta she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon, although through deaths she inherited both, her academic education consisted of canon and civil law and heraldry, history, mathematics, reading and writing. She read an impressive list of authors of classical literature that included the Christian poets Juvencus and Prudentius, Church fathers Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Saint Gregory, Saint Jerome, the Roman statesman Seneca.
In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator Beatriz Galindo, a member of the queen's court, her mother the queen. Joanna's royal education included court etiquette, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners and the needle arts of embroidery and sewing, she excelled in all of the Iberian Romance languages: Castilian, Galician-Portuguese, Catalan and became fluent in French and Latin. She learned outdoor pursuits such as hunting. Praise was given to her for being a talented musician. By 1495 Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and Catholic rites; this alarmed her mother Queen Isabella, who had established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478, Joanna was afraid of her. Indeed, letters of Mosen Luis Ferrer, gentleman of the bed chamber of Ferdinand, refer to the coercive punishment known as "La cuerda", which Juana was subjected to; this involved being suspended by a rope with weights attached to the feet, endangering life and limb.
In the background was the'Holy' Inquisition. Two thousand men and women were burned, a still greater number condemned to perpetual imprisonment, while immense numbers fled to France and other countries; the Queen declared. Deviance by a child of the Catholic Monarchs would not be much less heresy. Sub-Prior Friar Tomas de Matienzo and Friar Andreas complained of her refusal to confess - or to write to him or her mother - and accused her of corruption by Parisian'drunkard' priests. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of seventeen, was betrothed to the eighteen year old Philip of Flanders, in the Low Countries. Philip's parents were Duchess Mary of Burgundy; the marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a proxy marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Castile. In August 1496 Joanna left from the port of Laredo in northern Spain on the Atlantic's Bay of Biscay. Except for 1506, when she saw her younger sister Catherine, Princess Dowager of Wales, she would not see her siblings again.
Joanna began her journey to Flanders in the Low Countries, which consisted of parts of the present day Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany, on 22 August 1496. The formal marriage took place on 20 October 1496 in Lier, north of present-day Brussels. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children, two boys and four girls, all of whom grew up to be either emperors or queens; the death of Joanna's brother John, the stillbirth of John's daughter and the deaths of Joanna's older sister Isabella and Isabella's son Miguel made Joanna heiress to the Spanish kingdoms. Her remaining siblings were Maria and Catherine, younger than Joanna by three and six years, respectively. In 1502, the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognised Joanna as heiress to the Castilian throne and Philip as her consort, she was named Princess of Asturias, the title trad
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Philip I of Castile
Philip of Habsburg, called the Handsome or the Fair, was Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile as Philip I. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I by his first wife Mary, Philip was less than four years old when his mother died, upon her death, he inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands as Philip IV. In 1496, his father arranged for him to marry Joanna of Castile, second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, rulers of Aragon and Castile respectively. Around the same time, Philip's sister Margaret was given in marriage to Joanna's brother John, as part of an agreement between their fathers. Within four years after the wedding, Joanna became heir presumptive to Aragon and Castile, following the deaths of her brother, elder sister and infant nephew during that period. In 1504, aged 27, Philip became king of Castile jure uxoris when his mother-in-law died and Joanna succeeded her, he died only two years leaving his wife distraught with grief.
Philip was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain, is the progenitor of every monarch of Spain up to today. He died before his father, therefore never inherited his father's territories or became Holy Roman Emperor. However, his son Emperor Charles V united the Habsburg, Burgundian and Aragonese inheritances. Philip holds a special place in Habsburg history because he was the pivot around which the dynasty acquired a large portion of its extensive lands. By inheriting Burgundy from his mother and by acquiring much of Spain and its possessions in the New World by marriage to Joanna, Philip was instrumental in vastly enhancing the territories of the Habsburgs, his progeny would dominate European history for the next two centuries. Philip's wife Joanna was an elder sister to Catherine of Aragon, who married successively the brothers Arthur, Prince of Wales and King Henry VIII of England, he did once visit England, the young Prince Henry was much impressed with him. Indeed, Henry is said to have regarded Philip as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired.
Philip was born in Bruges, the son of the future Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. He was born in the County of Flanders during the reign of his grandfather Frederick III; the child was named in honour of his great-grandfather, Philip the Good, grandfather of his mother Mary. Philip was only four years old when his mother died in 1482, resulting in him succeeded her as ruler of the Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, the large towns of Flanders and the supporters of Maximilian. During this interregnum, Philip became caught up in events and was briefly sequestered in Bruges as part of the larger Flemish campaign to support their claims of greater autonomy, which they had wrested from Mary of Burgundy in an agreement known as the Great Privilege of 1477. By the early 1490s, the turmoil of the interregnum gave way to an uneasy stand-off, with neither French support for the cities of the Franc, nor Imperial support from Philip's grandfather, Emperor Frederick III proving decisive.
Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493, when Emperor Frederick died and Philip's father Maximilian became the new emperor. This smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip crown prince in the following year. In 1494, Maximilian relinquished his regency under the terms of the Treaty of Senlis and Philip, aged 16, took over the rule of the Burgundian lands himself, although in practice authority was derived from a council of Burgundian notables. On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium; the marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power, which had increased thanks to the policies of Louis XI and the successful assertion of regal power after war with the League of the Public Weal. The matter became more urgent after Charles VIII's invasion of Italy.
Philip's sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and heir apparent to the unified crowns of Castile and Aragon. The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control. At the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny. In 1500, shortly after the birth of Joanna and Philip's second child, in Flanders, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns was thrown into turmoil; the heir apparent, had died in 1497 shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joanna's elder sister Isabella, wife of Manuel I of Portugal, she died in 1498, while giving birth to a son named Miguel da Paz, to whom succession to the united crowns of Castile and Portugal now fell. The succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna; because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon.
In the Kingdom of Castile, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joa
Company of Merchant Adventurers of London
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London was a trading company founded in the City of London in the early 15th century. It brought together leading merchants in a regulated company in the nature of a guild, its members' main business was exporting cloth white broadcloth, in return for a large range of foreign goods. In the early seventeenth century, similar groups of investors were formed to develop overseas trade and colonies in the New World: the Virginia Company; the Company of Adventurers in Canada sent forces during the Thirty Years War that achieved the surrender of Quebec in 1629. The company received its royal charter from King Henry IV in 1407, but its roots may go back to the Fraternity of St. Thomas of Canterbury, it claimed to have liberties existing as early as 1216. The Duke of Brabant in return promised no fees to trading merchants; the company was chiefly chartered to the English merchants at Antwerp in 1305. This body may have included the Staplers, who exported raw wool, as well as the Merchant Adventurers.
Henry IV's charter was in favor of the English merchants dwelling in Holland, Zeeland and Flanders. Other groups of merchants traded to different parts of northern Europe, including merchants dwelling in Prussia, the Sound, the Hanseatic League, the English Merchants in Norway and Denmark. Under Henry VII's charter of 1505, the company had 24 assistants; the members were trading investors, most of them were mercers of the City of London. However, the company had members from York, Exeter, Newcastle and other places; the merchant adventurers of these towns were separate but affiliated bodies. The Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol was a separate group of investors, chartered by Edward VI in 1552. Under Henry VII, the merchants who were not of London complained about restraint of trade, they had once traded with Spain, France and the Netherlands, but the London company was imposing a fine of £20, driving them out of their markets. Henry VII required the fine to be reduced to 10 marks. Conflict arose with the Merchants of the Staple, who sought to diversify from exporting wool through Calais into exporting cloth to Flanders without having to become freemen of the Company of Merchant Adventurers.
The Merchant Adventurers kept control of their trade and Flanders as their port. Foreign merchants of the Hanseatic League had considerable privileges in English trade and competed with the Merchant Adventurers, but these privileges were revoked by the English government in the mid-16th century; the Merchant Adventurers decided to use other ports. Emden in East Friesland and Hamburg competed to serve the Merchant Adventurers of England, who chose Emden, they soon found, that the port failed to attract sufficient merchants to buy the English merchants' wares, so they left abruptly and returned to Antwerp. Operations there were interrupted by Queen Elizabeth's seizing Spanish treasure ships, which were conveying money to the Duke of Alva, governor of the Netherlands. Although trade was resumed at Antwerp from 1573 to 1582, its declining fortunes ceased with the fall of the city and the subsequent development of the Amsterdam Entrepôt, the Dutch Golden Age. Under the charter of 1564, the company's court consisted of a governor, his deputies, 24 Assistants.
Admission was by patrimony, redemption or'free gift'. By the time of the accession of James I in 1603, there were at least 200 members, they increased the fees for admission. The conflict of the Merchant Adventurers with the Hanseatic League continued as the latter had the same rights in England as native merchants and better privileges abroad, they could thus undersell English merchants. Hamburg was a member of the League; when the English merchants left Emden, they tried to settle in Hamburg, but the League forced the city to expel them. Emden was tried again in 1579; the Emperor ordered the Count of East Friesland to expel the merchants. The English merchants remained there until 1587. In 1586, the Senate of Hamburg invited the Merchant Adventurers to return there, but negotiations over this broke down; the merchants who had frequented Middelburg since 1582 were invited to return in 1587 to the United Provinces. Due to impositions by Holland and Zeeland, this was an unpopular choice with company members.
In 1611 the company's staple was permanently fixed at Hamburg. The designated Dutch staple port was moved during the early 17th century from Middelburg to Delft in 1621 to Rotterdam in 1635 to Dordrecht in 1655; the years between 1615 and 1689 were marked by periods, starting with the ill-fated Cockayne Project, when the company lost and regained its monopolistic privileges. It moved its staple port from Delft to Rotterdam in 1635; the company suffered from trouble with interlopers, traders who were not'free of the company', but who traded within its privileged area. When the Company of London lost its exclusive privileges following the Glorious Revolution of 1689, the admission fees were reduced to £2. After Parliament threw the trade open, the company continued to exist as a fellowship of merchants trading to Hamburg; because they drove a considerab
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"