Rumba is a secular genre of Cuban music involving dance and song. It originated in the northern regions of Cuba in urban Havana and Matanzas, during the late 19th century, it is based on African music and dance traditions, namely Abakuá and yuka, as well as the Spanish-based coros de clave. According to Argeliers León, rumba is one of the major "genre complexes" of Cuban music, the term rumba complex is now used by musicologists; this complex encompasses the three traditional forms of rumba, as well as their contemporary derivatives and other minor styles. Traditionally performed by poor workers of African descent in streets and solares, rumba remains one of Cuba's most characteristic forms of music and dance. Vocal improvisation, elaborate dancing and polyrhythmic drumming are the key components of all rumba styles. Cajones were used as drums until the early 20th century. During the genre's recorded history, which began in the 1940s, there have been numerous successful rumba bands such as Los Papines, Los Muñequitos de Matanzas, Clave y Guaguancó, AfroCuba de Matanzas and Yoruba Andabo.
Since its early days, the genre's popularity has been confined to Cuba, although its legacy has reached well beyond the island. In the United States it gave its name to the so-called "ballroom rumba" or rhumba, in Africa soukous is referred to as "Congolese rumba", its influence in Spain is testified by rumba flamenca and derivatives such as Catalan rumba. The origin of the term rumba remains unknown and no etymological information is provided by the Diccionario de la lengua española. According to Pascual and Coromines, the word derives from "rumbo", meaning "uproar" and "the course of a ship", which itself may derive from the word "rombo", a symbol used in compasses. In the 1978 documentary La rumba, directed by Óscar Valdés, it is stated that the term rumba originated in Spain to denote "all, held as frivolous", deriving from the term "mujeres de rumbo". However, in Cuba the term might have originated from a West African or Bantu language, due to its similarity to other Afro-Caribbean words such as tumba, macumba and tambó.
During the 19th century in Cuba in urban Havana and Matanzas, people of African descent used the word rumba as a synonym for party. According to Olavo Alén, in these areas " rumba ceased to be another word for party and took on the meaning both of a defined Cuban musical genre and of a specific form of dance." The terms rumbón and rumbantela are used to denote rumba performances in the streets. Many other terms have been used in Cuba to refer to parties, such as changüí, tumba, bembé, macumba and mambo. Due to its broad etymology, the term rumba retained a certain degree of polysemy. By the end of the 19th century, Cuban peasants began to perform rumbitas during their parties; these songs were in the form of urban guarachas, which had a binary meter in contrast to the ternary meter of traditional rural genres such as tonada and zapateo. In Cuban bufo theatre at the beginning of the 20th century, the guarachas that were sung at the end of the show were referred to as rumba final despite not sharing any musical similarities with actual rumba.
Rumba instrumentation has varied depending on the style and the availability of the instruments. The core instruments of any rumba ensemble are the claves, two hard wooden sticks that are struck against each other, the conga drums: quinto, tres dos, tumba or salidor. Other common instruments include a wooden cylinder. During the 1940s, the genre experienced a mutual influence with son cubano by Ignacio Piñeiro's Septeto Nacional and Arsenio Rodríguez's conjunto, which led to the incorporation of instruments such as the tres, the double bass, the trumpet and the piano, the removal of idiophone instruments. At the same time, Cuban big bands, in collaboration with musical artists such as Chano Pozo, began to include authentic rumbas among their dance pieces; the group AfroCuba de Matanzas, founded in 1957, added batá drums to the traditional rumba ensemble in their style, known as batá-rumba. More a cappella rumba has been performed by the Cuban ensemble Vocal Sampling, as heard in their song "Conga Yambumba".
Although rumba is played predominantly in binary meter, triple meter is present. In most rumba styles, such as yambú and guaguancó, duple pulse is primary and triple-pulse is secondary. In contrast, in the rural style columbia, triple pulse is the primary structure and duple pulse is secondary; this can be explained due to the "binarization" of African-based ternary rhythms. Both the claves and the quinto are responsible for establishing the rhythm. Subsequently, the other instruments play their parts supporting the lead drum. Rhythmically, rumba is based on the five-stroke guide pattern called clave and the inherent structure it conveys. Yambú and guaguancó songs begin with the soloist singing a melody with meaningless syllables, rather than with word-based lyrics; this introductory part i
Danzón is the official musical genre and dance of Cuba. It is an active musical form in Mexico, is still much loved in Puerto Rico. Written in 24 time, the danzón is a slow, formal partner dance, requiring set footwork around syncopated beats, incorporating elegant pauses while the couples stand listening to virtuoso instrumental passages, as characteristically played by a charanga or tipica ensemble; the danzón evolved from habanera. The contradanza, which had English and French roots in the country dance and contredanse, was introduced to Cuba by the Spanish, who ruled the island for four centuries, contributing many thousands of immigrants, it may have been seeded during the short-lived British occupation of Havana in 1762, Haitian refugees fleeing the island's revolution of 1791–1804 brought the French-Haitian kontradans, contributing their own Creole syncopation. In Cuba, the dances of European origin acquired new stylistic features derived from African rhythm and dance to produce a genuine fusion of European and African influences.
African musical traits in the danzón include complex instrumental cross-rhythms, expressed in staggered cinquillo and tresillo patterns. By 1879, the year Miguel Failde's Las alturas de Simpson was first performed, danzón had emerged as a distinct genre. Danzón went on to interact with 20th-century Cuban genres such as son, through the danzón-mambo it was instrumental in the development of mambo and cha-cha-chá; the danzón developed from a creolized Cuban dance form. By 1879, the year Las alturas de Simpson composed by Miguel Failde was first performed in Matanzas, danzón had emerged as a distinct genre. Creation of the new danzón form is attributed to Faílde; the classical composer Manuel Saumell has been cited as a key figure in its delineation. The English contradanza was the predecessor of the "habanera" known as danza criolla. Out of this Creole genre, the Habanera, was born in 1879 another Cuban genre, called danzon, a sequence dance, in which all danced together a set of figures; the first use of the term danzón, which dates from the 1850s, is for just such a dance.
Havana's daily paper, El Triunfo, gave a description of this earlier danzón. It was a co-ordinated dance of figures performed by groups of Matanzas blacks; the dancers held the ends of colored ribbons, carried flower-covered arches. The group entwined the ribbons to make pleasing patterns; this account can be corroborated by other references, for example, a traveler in Cuba noted in 1854 that black Cubans "do a kind of wreath dance, in which the whole company took part, amid innumerable artistic entanglements and disentanglements". This style of danzón was performed at carnival comparsas by black groups: it is described that way before the late 1870s. Faílde's first danzóns were created for just such sequence dances. Faílde himself said "In Matanzas at this time there was a kind of square dance for twenty couples who carried arches and flowers, it was a dance of figures, its moves were adapted to the tempo of the habanera, which we took over for the danzón." The form of danzón created by Miguel Faílde in 1879, begins with an introduction and paseo, which are repeated and followed by a 16-bar melody.
The introduction and paseo again repeat. The dancers do not dance during these sections: they choose partners, stroll onto the dance floor, begin to dance at the same moment: the fourth beat of bar four of the paseo, which has a distinctive percussion pattern that's hard to miss; when the introduction is repeated the dancers stop, flirt, greet their friends, start again, right on time as the paseo finishes. Early danzón was played by groups called orquestas típicas, they had a violin or two and tympani. At the beginning of the 20th century, the lighter and somewhat more elegant sound of the charanga emerged, they were small orchestra of two violins, a cello, timbales, güiro, doublebass. Charanga and típicas competed with each other for years, but after 1930 it was clear that the days of the típica were over. In 1898, a piano was included in a charanga for the first time. In Antonio María Romeu's hands a piano became standard, its musical flexibility, its ability to influence both melody and rhythm, made it invaluable.
In 1926, in his arrangement of Tres lindas cubanas, Romeu incorporated a piano solo for the first time. His was Cuba's top charanga for many years. Similar to other dances in the Caribbean and Latin America, the danzón was regarded as scandalous when it began to be danced by all classes of society; the slower rhythm of the danzón led to couples dancing closer, with sinuous movements of the hips and a lower centre of gravity. The author of a survey of prostitution in Havana devoted a whole chapter to the iniquities of dancing, the danzón in particular. Articles in newspapers and periodicals took up the theme: "Because I love my country, it hurts me to see danzón at gatherings of decent people." "We recommend banning the danza and danzón because they are vestiges of Africa and should be replaced by European dances such as the quadrille and rigadoon."Apparently, the danzón, which became an insipid dance for older couples, was at first danced with "obscene movements" of the hips by young couples in close embrace, with bodies touching, by couples who might come from different races...
"First we had the danza came the d
Republic of Cuba (1902–1959)
The First Republic of Cuba of 1902 to 1959, referred by the current Cuban government as the Neocolonial Republic, as Free Cuba by Cuban dissidents, refers to the historical period in Cuba from 1902, when Cuba seceded from US rule in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War that took Cuba from Spanish rule in 1898, until communist revolutionaries took power in 1959. The official form of government was representative democracy though at times it was controlled by a military junta or otherwise unelected government. After becoming head of the armed forces in 1933, colonel Fulgencio Batista played a dominant role in Cuban politics over the next decades; the Cuban Revolution of 1953–1959 massively changed Cuban society, creating a socialist state and ending US economic dominance in Cuba, as it aligned the country with the Soviet Union. The Republic of Cuba has been regarded as a client state of the United States. From 1902–1932 Cuban and United States law included the Platt Amendment, which guaranteed the US right to intervene in Cuba and placed restrictions on Cuban foreign relations.
In 1934, Cuba and the United States signed the Treaty of Relations in which Cuba was obligated to give preferential treatment of its economy to the United States, in exchange the United States gave Cuba a guaranteed 22 percent share of the US sugar market, amended to a 49 percent share in 1949. After the Spanish–American War and the United States signed the 1898 Treaty of Paris, by which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam to the United States for the sum of $20 million. Cuba gained formal independence from the U. S. on May 20, 1902, as the Republic of Cuba. Under Cuba's new constitution, the U. S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, the U. S. leased the Guantánamo Bay naval base from Cuba. Following disputed elections in 1906, the first president, Tomás Estrada Palma, faced an armed revolt by veterans of the war for independence who defeated the government's meager forces; the U. S. named Charles Edward Magoon as Governor for three years.
Cuban historians have attributed Magoon's governorship as having introduced political and social corruption. In 1908, self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U. S. continued intervening in Cuban affairs. In 1912, the Partido Independiente de Color attempted to establish a separate black republic in Oriente Province, but was suppressed by General Monteagudo with considerable bloodshed. Sugar production played an important rule in Cuban economics. In the 1910s, during and after World War I, a shortage in the world sugar supply fueled an economic boom in Cuba, marked by prosperity and the conversion of more and more farmland to sugar cultivation. Prices peaked and crashed in 1920, ruining the country financially and allowing foreign investors to gain more power than they had; this economic turbulence was called "the Dance of the Millions". In 1924, Gerardo Machado was elected president. During his administration, tourism increased markedly, American-owned hotels and restaurants were built to accommodate the influx of tourists.
The tourist boom led to increases in prostitution in Cuba. Machado enjoyed support from much of the public and from all the country's major political parties. However, his popularity declined steadily. In 1928 he held an election, to give him another term, this one of six years, despite his promise to serve only for one term; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to precipitous drops in the price of sugar, political unrest, repression. Protesting students, known as the Generation of 1930, a clandestine terrorist organization known as the ABC, turned to violence in opposition to the unpopular Machado. US ambassador Sumner Welles arrived in May 1933 and began a diplomatic campaign which involved "mediation" with opposition groups in including the ABC; this campaign weakened Machado's government and, backed with the threat of military intervention, set the stage for a regime change. A general strike, uprisings among sugar workers, an army revolt forced Machado into exile in August 1933, he was replaced by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada, son of Cuban patriot Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and former ambassador to the US.
In September 1933, the Sergeants' Revolt, led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista, overthrew Céspedes. General Alberto Herrera served as president followed by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada from August 13 until September 5, 1933. A five-member executive committee was chosen to head a provisional government, they were ousted by a student-led organization, the Student Directory, which appointed Ramon Grau San Martin as provisional president and passed various reforms during the ensuing One Hundred Days Government. Grau resigned in 1934, after which Batista dominated Cuban politics for the next 25 years, at first through a series of puppet-presidents; the period from 1933 to 1937 was a time of "virtually unremitting social and political warfare". A new constitution was adopted in 1940, which engineered radical progressive ideas, including the right to labor and health care. Batista was elected president in the same year, holding the post until 1944, he is so far the only non-white Cuban to win the nation's highest political office.
His government carried out major social reforms. Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration. Cuban armed forces were not involved in combat during World War II, although president Batista suggested a joint
Changüí is a style of Cuban music which originated in the early 19th century in the eastern region of Guantánamo Province Baracoa. It arose in the rural communities populated by slaves. Changüí combines the structure and elements of Spain's canción and the Spanish guitar with African rhythms and percussion instruments of Bantu origin. Changüí is considered a predecessor of son montuno, which has enjoyed tremendous popularity in Cuba throughout the 20th century. Changüí is descended from nengón. Technically, the changüi ensemble consists of: marímbula, tres, güiro and one or more singers. Changüi does not use the Cuban key pattern known as clave; the tres plays offbeat guajeos, while the guayo plays on the beat. Cuban Tres - The 3 string guitar instrument from Cuba "Ritmo changüí". Web. YouTube. Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvxWYQSHUYg
Timbales or pailas are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing. They are shallower than single-headed tom-toms, tuned much higher for their size; the player uses a variety of stick strokes, rim shots, rolls to produce a wide range of percussive expression during solos and at transitional sections of music, plays the shells of the drum or auxiliary percussion such as a cowbell or cymbal to keep time in other parts of the song. The shells are referred to as cáscara, the name of a rhythmic pattern common in salsa music, played on the shells of the timbales; the shells are made of metal, but some manufacturers offer shells of maple and other woods. The term timbal or timbales has been used in Cuba for two quite different types of drum. Timbales is the Spanish word for timpani, an instrument, imported into Cuba in the 19th century and used by wind orchestras known as orquestas típicas; these were the same general type of drum used in military bands slung either side of a horse, in classical orchestras.
These were, are, played with mallets. The timpani were replaced by pailas criollas, which were designed to be used by street bands. Pailas are always hit with straight batons. Hits are made on the metal sides. In a modern band the timbalero may have a trap set to switch to for certain numbers. Since the term timbales is used to refer to both timpani and pailas criollas, it is ambiguous when referring to bands playing the danzón in the 1900–1930 period. In French, timbales is the word for timpani, thus the French refer to Cuban timbales as timbales latines. In Brazil, the term timbal refers to an unrelated drum. Timbalitos or pailitas are small timbales with diameters of 6″, 8″, or 10″; the timbalitos are used to play the part of the bongos with sticks and are not used to play the traditional timbales part. Papaíto and Manny Oquendo were masters at playing the bongó part on timbalitos. Timbalitos are sometimes incorporated into expanded timbales set-ups, or incorporated into drum kits; the basic timbales part for danzón is called the baqueteo.
In the example below, the slashed noteheads indicate muted drum strokes, the regular noteheads indicate open strokes. The danzón was the first written music to be based on the organizing principle of sub-Saharan African rhythm, known in Cuba as clave. During the mambo era of the 1940s, timbalero s began to mount cowbells on their drums; the cowbells, or wood blocks may be mounted above and between the two timbales a little further from the player. The following four timbale bell patterns are based on the folkloric rumba cáscara part, they are written in 3-2 clave sequence. In the 1970s José Luis Quintana "Changuito" developed the technique of playing timbale and bongo bell parts when he held the timbales chair in the songo band Los Van Van; the example below shows the combined bell patterns. Tito Puente was seen in concerts, on posters and album covers, with seven or eight timbales in one set; the timbales were expanded with drum kit pieces, such as a kick or snare drum. By the late 1970s this became the norm in the genre known as songo.
Changuito and others brought funk influences into timbales playing. In contemporary timba bands, such as Calizto Oviedo, will use a timbales/drum kit hybrid; the original style of soloing on timbales is known as típico. Manny Oquendo played timbales solos famous for their tastefully sparse, straight forward típico phrasing; the following five measure excerpt is from a timbales solo by Oquendo on "Mambo." The clave pattern is written above for reference. Notice how the passage ends by coinciding with the strokes of clave. By the late 1940s and early 1950s, some timbaleros Tito Puente, began incorporating the rhythmic vocabulary of rumba quinto into their solos. Drummer John Dolmayan of System of a Down is known for using two mini timbales in his kit. Bud Gaugh of Sublime and Long Beach Dub Allstars used a single, high pitched timbal on his drumkit to the left of his snare during his years with those bands. Bud used his timbal for accents and transitions in the more reggae-influenced songs, but it is used in place of the snare on the song "Waiting for My Ruca" from 40 oz. to Freedom and Stand By Your Van.
He has not used the timbales in his recent bands Eyes Adrift and Del Mar due to the lack of reggae influence in those bands. The Ohio University Marching 110's drum line features four sets of timbales in the place of quads or quints, they are one of the few marching bands in the country to still employ timbales in their drum line. They employ four sets of dual tom toms to play the lower lines that a quad or quint would cover. A recent offshoot of the Washington DC funk genre of Go-Go known as the "Bounce Beat" features timbales as a predominant instrument. Dave Mackintosh uses a pair of 8" diameter attack timbales 9" and 11" deep made by Meinl Percussion to produce a similar sound to a pair of octobans. Meinl produce a set of mini timbales of traditional depth but 8" and 10" diameter suitable for drum kit usage. Timbales are traditionally played in: Danzón Mambo Cha-cha-cha Pachanga Descarga Salsa Songo Timba Latin jazz Latin rockOther Latin music genres such as cumbia sometimes incorporate this instrument in lieu of the
Pachanga is a genre of music, described as a mixture of son montuno and merengue and has an accompanying signature style of dance. This type of music is marked by jocular, mischievous lyrics. Pachanga originated in Cuba in the 1950s and played an important role in the evolution of Caribbean style music as we know it today. Considered a prominent contributor to the eventual rise of Salsa, Pachanga itself is an offshoot of Charanga style music. Similar in sound to Cha-Cha but with a notably stronger down-beat, Pachanga once experienced massive popularity all across the Caribbean and was brought to the United States by Cuban immigrants post World War II; this led to an explosion of Pachanga music in Cuban music clubs that influenced Latin culture in the United States for decades to come. Charanga is a style of music in Cuba played with violin, horns, drums danzón and danzonetes, similar to cha cha chá. In Cuba in 1955, Los Papines fused the violin-based music of charanga with the trumpet-based music of conjuntos.
Eduardo Davidson's La Pachanga was recorded in 1959 by Orquesta Sublime. After Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba in 1959, the epicenter of Cuban music moved to other islands and USA. José Fajardo brought the song La Pachanga to New York in the Cuban charanga genre; the orcquesta, or band, was referred to as charanga, while the accompanying dance was named the pachanga. However, a confusion of the words arose. Pachanga is now used to describe both the song and dance, although technically the music still falls into the charanga genre. Eduardo Davidson's tune, La Pachanga, with rights managed by Peer International, achieved international recognition in 1961 when it was licensed in three versions sung by Genie Pace on Capitol, by Audrey Arno in a German version on European Decca, by Hugo and Luigi and their children's chorus. Billboard commented "A bright new dance craze from the Latins has resulted in these three good recordings, all with interesting and varying treatments." As a dance, pachanga has been described as "a happy-go-lucky dance" of Cuban origin with a Charleston flavor due to the double bending and straightening of the knees.
It is danced on the downbeat of four-four time to the usual mambo offbeat music characterized by the charanga instrumentation of flutes and drums. A basic pachanga step consists of a straightening of the knees. Pachanga is a grounded dance, with the knees never straightening and an emphasis on weight and energy going into the ground. Body movement resulting from weight changes follows the footwork. With a bounce originating in the knees, the upper body will rock as body connectivity and posture are maintained, it mimics a basic mambo step in foot placement and weight shift while incorporating a glide on weight transfer instead of a tap. The shift in weight from one foot to the other gives the illusion of gliding, similar to a moonwalk. Pachanga dance today is seen incorporated into salsa shines or footwork. “Shines” can refer either to a performance by a group of solo men or women without a partner, or a pause in partnerwork for each dancer to show off before coming back together. The term shine originates from young African American shoe shiners.
While it is not a popular social dance, many salsa dancers incorporate pachanga movements into their choreography in mambo or salsa on-2 routines. Although people traditionally learned pachanga from friends or family in social settings, as it was the only way to learn many Latin styles, instructors have adapted to a Western studio style of teaching. Pachanga is taught all over the world at different salsa congresses; as technology increases and economies and societies become global, the crossover of different cultures becomes easier, including the blending of different dance styles from all over. People worldwide can learn dances such as pachanga, as well as incorporate its movements into styles with which they are familiar. Popular instructors include the “Mambo King” Eddie Torres, his son Eddie Torres Jr. and his former partner Shani Talmor. Though Pachanga was created in Cuba, it rose to popularity in the United States in the 1950s during a wave of Cuban immigration. America is where Pachanga became popular and known in the public consciousness and developed into the music and overall influence that it is today.
The development of the style of music that came to be known as Salsa in the U. S. in the late 1960s relied on the Latin music scene in New York City and more the South Bronx. In the post World War Two era, New York city experienced a surge of Cuban immigration. During this time Cuba underwent several economic and social crises including the destabilization of international tobacco and sugar markets and civil upheavals that further disrupted the fragile Cuban republic; as a result, tens of thousands of Cubans migrated to the U. S. hoping to find greater economic opportunities and more civil liberties, establishing sizeable communities in New Orleans and New York City. The start of the Cuban Revolution in 1953 only gave Cuban civilians more reason to flee the country, adding to the flood of immigrants to the United States. At the time the South Bronx had large developments of affordable public housing where many Cubans and other Caribbean immigrants ended up finding a place to call home. In addition to housing, the South Bronx offered a strong infrastructure for the growth of a culturally rich community.
The Cuban communities that formed brought with them their own art and culture and in particular they brought with them Cuban music and dance. The Caribbean music scene in New York exploded along with the rise of Caribbean ballrooms, clubs and
Music of the Bahamas
The music of the Bahamas is associated with junkanoo, a celebration which occurs on Boxing Day and again on New Year's Day. Parades and other celebrations mark the ceremony. Groups like The Baha Men, Ronnie Butler and Kirkland Bodie have gained massive popularity in Japan, the United States and other places. Other popular Bahamian artists include Stileet and Stevie S. Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad and Tobago; this form of music has spread through many parts including The Bahamas. Soca is a form of dance music which originated from many calypso music in Tobago, it combined the melodic lilting sound of calypso with insistent percussion and local chutney music. Soca music has evolved in the last 20 years by musicians from various Anglophone Caribbean countries including Trinidad, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Lucia and Barbuda, United States Virgin Islands, The Bahamas, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Belize; the word Junkanoo is said to be derived from a Ghanaian leader, John Connu, or from the Qujo supreme deity and ancestral spirits.
The junkanoo was practiced in North Carolina and remnants still exist in Belize. It is most well known, from Nassau and Freeport. Since the 1950s the influence of American culture has increased through TV and radio broadcasts from Florida stations, other Caribbean styles have made inroads: calypso and soca, from Jamaica, Cuba and other islands. Tourism has had an impact, bringing in Japanese and North Americans with their attendant forms of cultural expression. In this milieu more traditional Bahamas performers such as Joseph Spence, have still enjoyed successful careers playing junkanoo, Christian hymns and the ant'ems of the local sponge fishermen, which include "Sloop John B" made famous by The Beach Boys. Junkane. In 1973, the year the Bahamas achieved independence from the United Kingdom, black professionals of the middle and upper classes began to dominate junkanoo celebrations. Costuming and competitions became more complex and commonplace, soon became a tourist draw. Aside from being a type of drum, goombay is a percussion music made famous by Alphonso'Blind Blake' Higgs, who played to tourists arriving at Nassau International Airport for several years.
Rake-and-scrape music is a unique type of instrumental music made by bending a saw and scraping with a small object, most a screwdriver. Rake-and-scrape's popularity has been declining in recent years, but performers like Lassie Do and the Boys continue to keep the tradition alive. Christian rhyming spirituals and the ant'ems of sponge fishermen are now dead traditions, decimated by the arrival of pop music, a 1930s sponge blight and other causes. E. Clement Bethel's master's thesis on traditional Bahamian music was adapted for the stage by his daughter, Nicolette Bethel and Philip A. Burrows. Music of The Bahamas was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1991, was revived in 2002 for fresh Bahamian audiences. A recording of that show is available for sale from Ringplay Productions. Rake and scrape music is played traditionally with Concertinas, Goombay drums, a Handsaw. Rake and scrape is believed to have originated on the island of Cat Island but evidence suggest that it was emerging in many places simultaneously.
The earliest reference to usage of the accordion by Bahamians is in 1886 in an Article in the Nassau Guardian. The term rake and scrape became the norm in 1969 by Charles Carter although he claims the people of Cat Island were calling it that when he visited the Island. Membranophones: The Goombay drum is main rhythmic component in rake-n-scrape, it is referred to a goatskin drum, as the skin of a goat was stretched over a wooden barrel. It is decorated by complex geometric designs in bright colors; the drum is always heated over fire to retain its tone. In 1971, when manufacturers started shipping products in metal barrels, Bahamians switched the drum to metal changing the tone of the drum. Idiophones: The main component that makes Rake-N-Scrape unique is the use of the Carpenter's Saw; this instrument is scraped with a butter knife. Bent against the body of the player and flexed, various timbral effects are obtained. In more modern music, the saw is replaced with a guiro. Aerophones: The accordion is the component that adds the round form which enables dancers to dance the ring dance.
This is of European descent. In more modern bands, it is replaced by electronic keyboard. List of Bahamian musicians Kaliss, Jeff. "Junkanoo and Sloop John B.". 2000. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, India and Pacific, pp 317–324. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Rommen, Timothy. "Come Back Home: Regional Travels, Global Encounters, Local Nostalgias in Bahamian Popular Musics." Project Muse: Latin American Music Review, Vol 30, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2009. University of Texas Press, 159-183. Ingraham, Veronica. 2007. “The Bahamas” in An Encyclopedic History: Music in Latin America and the Caribbean, vol. 2, Performing the Caribbean Experience, Ed. By Malena Kuss. Texas: University of Texas Press, 359-376. Http://www.bahamasentertainers.com/ The Bahamas: Islands of song and produced by Oete Reiniger, with introductory essays by Gail Saunders and Kayla Olubumni Lockhart Edwards. I CD, Smithsonian Folkways SF 40405. Audio clips: traditional music o