The Mamluk Sultanate was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517. Western historians call the former the "Baḥrī" period and the latter the "Burjī" due to the political dominance of the regimes known by these names during the respective eras. Contemporary Muslim historians refer to the same divisions as the "Turkic" and "Circassian" periods in order to stress the change in the ethnic origins of the majority of Mamlūks; the Mamlūk state reached its height under Turkic rule with Arabic culture and fell into a prolonged phase of decline under the Circassians. The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, soldiers of predominantly Cuman-Kipchaks, Abkhazian, Oghuz Turks and Georgian slave origin. While Mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks.
Mamluks were considered to be "true lords", with social status above citizens of Egypt. Though it declined towards the end of its existence, at its height the sultanate represented the zenith of medieval Egyptian and Levantine political and cultural glory in the Islamic Golden Age; the term'Mamluk Sultanate' is a modern historiographical term. Arabic sources for the period of the Bahri Mamluks refer to the dynasty as the State of the Turks or State of Turkey. Other official name was State of the Circassians during Burji rule. A variant thereof emphasized the fact; the mamluk was an "owned slave", distinguished from the ghulam, or household slave. After thorough training in various fields such as martial arts, court etiquette and Islamic sciences, these slaves were freed. However, they were still expected to serve his household. Mamluks had formed a part of the state or military apparatus in Syria and Egypt since at least the 9th century, rising to become governing dynasties of Egypt and the Levant during the Tulunid and Ikhshidid periods.
Mamluk regiments constituted the backbone of Egypt's military under Ayyubid rule in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, beginning with Sultan Saladin who replaced the Fatimids' black African infantry with mamluks. Each Ayyubid sultan and high-ranking emir had a private mamluk corps. Most of the mamluks in the Ayyubids' service were ethnic Kipchak Turks from Central Asia, upon entering service, were converted to Sunni Islam and taught Arabic, they were committed to their masters, whom they referred to as "father", were in turn treated more as kinsmen than as slaves by their masters. Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, the last of the Ayyubid sultans, had acquired some 1,000 mamluks from Syria and the Arabian Peninsula by 1229, while serving as na'ib of Egypt during the absence of his father, Sultan al-Kamil; these mamluks were called the "Salihiyyah" after their master. As-Salih became sultan of Egypt in 1240, upon his accession to the Ayyubid throne, he manumitted and promoted large numbers of his original and newly recruited mamluks on the condition that they remain in his service.
To provision his mamluks, as-Salih forcibly seized the iqtaʿat of his predecessors' emirs. As-Salih sought to create a paramilitary apparatus in Egypt loyal to himself, his aggressive recruitment and promotion of mamluks led contemporaries to view Egypt as "Salihi-ridden", according to historian Winslow William Clifford. Despite his close relationship with his mamluks, tensions existed between as-Salih and the Salihiyyah, a number of Salihi mamluks were imprisoned or exiled throughout as-Salih's reign. While historian Stephen Humphreys asserts that the Salihiyyah's increasing dominance of the state did not threaten as-Salih due to their fidelity to him, Clifford believes the Salihiyyah developed an autonomy within the state that fell short of such loyalty. Opposition among the Salihiyyah to as-Salih rose when the latter ordered the assassination of his brother Abu Bakr al-Adil in 1249, a task which many of the Salihiyyah were affronted by and rejected. Tensions between as-Salih and his mamluks came to a head in 1249 when Louis IX of France's forces captured Damietta in their bid to conquer Egypt during the Seventh Crusade.
As-Salih believed Damietta should not have been evacuated and was rumored to have threatened punitive action against the Damietta garrison. The rumor, accentuated by the execution of civilian notables who evacuated Damietta, provoked a mutiny by the garrison of his camp in al-Mansurah, which included numerous Salihi mamluks; the situation was calmed after the intervention of the atabeg al-askar, Fakhr ad-Din ibn Shaykh al-Shuyukh. As the Crusaders advanced, as-Salih died and was succeeded by his son al-Muazzam Turanshah, in al-Jazira at the time; the Salihiyyah welcomed Turanshah's succession, with many greeting him and requesting confirmation of their administrative posts and iqtaʿ assignments at his arrival to the Egyptian frontier. However, Turanshah sought to challenge the dominance of the Salihiyyah in the paramilitary apparatus by promoting his Kurdish retinue from Upper Mesopotamia ("al-Jazira" in Arabi
St Mary’s Church, Redmire is a Grade II* listed parish church in the Church of England in Redmire, North Yorkshire. The church dates from the 12th century; the chancel roof was restored around 1895 and the nave roof, found to be infested with Deathwatch beetle, was restored in 1925. The royal coat of arms dates from 1720; the church is in a joint parish with Thornton Rust Mission Room St Andrew's Church, Aysgarth St Oswald's Church, Castle Bolton Holy Trinity Church, Wensley St Margaret's Church, Preston-under-Scar St Bartholomew's Church, West Witton Thomas Other of Elm House and Jane his wife, the eldest daughter of Edward Lister of Coverham Abbey
Mejía is a canton in the province of Pichincha in northern Ecuador. It is named after Ecuadorian political figure José Mejía Lequerica; the canton includes. The seat of the canton is called Machachi. Machachi is located to the south of the capital of Quito, it is a beautiful city surrounded by the volcanos Atacazo, Rumiñahui, Illinizas peaks, Viudita hill, Sincholagua and is owns part of the Cotopaxi volcano, a great active volcano which measures 5,897 m in altitude. The valley contains 8 volcanoes, the reasons why Alexander von Humboldt named the region Avenue of Volcanoes. In the Panzaleo language, Machachi means "Great active land." Machachi is the cradle of many slopes, the same ground is a perennial thermal and mineral water outcrop. In the fertile valleys of San Pedro there are 22 sources of chemicals which have invaluable theurapeutical properties. Machachi has a similar temperature to Quito, fluctuating from 19°C average high to 10°C average low; these averages are for the whole year with the dry months being June and August.
Cotopaxi National Park Illinizas Ecological Reserve Pasochoa Wildlife Refuge