Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Mammoth Cave (Utah)
Mammoth Cave is a lava tube located on the Markagunt Plateau in the Dixie National Forest of Southern Utah, and is one of the largest lava tubes in Utah. The cave has over 2,200 feet of passage and is about a mile long. It was formed by cooling lava and water less than 2,000 years ago, due to moisture and its elevation of 8,050 feet above sea level the cave stays cool year round. The cave has four chambers, the largest to the west, at the end of the largest tunnel, it narrows to a small opening that can be used as an exit. Although the cave is open year round, portions of it are closed off from October until April to protect hibernating bats, Mammoth Creek Road may be completely impassable during the winter months due to snowfall. US Forest Service Cedar City Brian Head Tourist Bureau
Mammoth Cave Railroad
Mammoth Cave Railroad was a short rail line with a small train off the Louisville and Nashville Railroad that went to Mammoth Caves in Kentucky. The tiny 9-mile railroad from Glasgow Junction to Mammoth Caves was started in 1886, the complete Dinkey Train consisted only of a dummy 0-4-2T type steam locomotive and a wooden coach to carry passengers and their luggage. Among the many stops on the way to Mammoth Caves were Diamond Caverns, Grand Avenue Cave, Procter Cave and Hotel, Chaumont Post Office, Union City, Sloans Crossing, the Dinkey Train could obtain speeds of 25–35 miles per hour on the lightweight rails. Colonel Larkin J. Procter owned and operated this line that began at Bells Tavern. Procter owned the Mammoth Cave Hotel and estate, the Mammoth Cave Railroad was not built by the L&N, although it owned the railroad rights to Mammoth Caves. A contract was entered into two companies whereby the L&N would lease its rights. In 1874 Procter chartered the Mammoth Cave Railroad with his brother George and they leased the railroad rights to Mammoth Cave from the L&N Railroad.
The new railroad acquired four used steam engine locomotives and they were Baldwin dummy steam engines formally used on street railways in Memphis and Nashville, Tennessee. They acquired two wooden passenger coaches and two wooden combination coaches and baggage cars, usually at any one time there were two sets of Dinkey Trains operating. The coach cars had open vestibules and were heated with a coal stove, before the actual construction work began the L&N agreed to lease the railroad rights to Mammoth Caves for 25 years from the completion of the spur railroad. The actual work on the railroad did not begin until 1880 when the first short part went to Diamond Cave, construction stopped again until July 1886 when Jim McDaniel and Henry Chapman resumed work on the roadbed. The railroad officially opened for business in November 1886 under this 25-year lease from the L&N and it cost $3 per ticket when it first started running as is recorded in the Mammoth Cave Hotel register on November 8,1886.
The first passenger was a W. F. Richardson, the hotel register reads The cost of the entire Mammoth Cave excursion in 1913, including roundtrip railway fare, cave fees and meals was $11.75. Also at this time there were services that included a side trip to Colossal Cavern for $1.50. The Mammoth Cave Railroad with the Dinkey Train ran successfully from 1886 until the mid-1890s, the stockholders reformed the company under the same name and assumed full control from the L&N in 1903. In 1904 an Indianapolis judge drove the first car to the caves which represented the doom of the railroad line, the establishment of the Mammoth Cave National Park in 1926 put the final nails into the coffin. The Dinkey Train discontinued service February 28,1929 and it was replaced temporarily by a railcar for mail service until 1931 when it finally shut down permanently. On the first of August 1931 the railroad ceased operations, the Mammoth Cave museum collection at the Mammoth Cave National Park contains Baldwin steam engine number 4 and passenger coach number 2 located at the lines terminus
Mammoth Cave (Western Australia)
Mammoth Cave is a large limestone cave 21 km south of the town of Margaret River in south-western Western Australia, and about 300 km south of Perth. It lies within the Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park and is surrounded by Karri and Marri forest and it has had extinct animal fossils found in mammoth cave The cave is 500 m long and 30 m deep. It has been known from about 1850 to European settlers of the Margaret River district and its first explorer Tim Connelly, who was appointed caretaker of the cave, conducted tours by lamplight until 1904 when electric lighting was installed. The cave has been studied for over a century and it has yielded fossils of Pleistocene fauna over 35,000 years old, including those of thylacines and the giant marsupial herbivore Zygomaturus