Historic Railpark and Train Museum
The Historic Railpark and Train Museum, formerly the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Station in Bowling Green, Kentucky, is located in the historic railroad station. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 18,1979, opened in 1925, the standing depot is the third Louisville & Nashville Railroad depot that served Bowling Green. The first Bowling Green railroad depot was built in 1858 prior to the L&Ns rails reaching Bowling Green, the rail line from Nashville reached Bowling Green on August 10,1859. The line between Louisville and Nashville was complete on October 18,1859, and was celebrated by 10,000 Nashvillians, during the Civil War, the young L&N found itself to be a point of contention between the North and South. Kentucky was integral to the war and President Lincoln summed up the situation in this manner, Bowling Green was critical to both sides with its proximity to the Confederate state of Tennessee. The L&N branched just south of Bowling Green with routes to Clarksville, TN, by 1863 the L&N was the only railroad to cross both Union and Confederate Territories.
The actions of L&N President James Gutherie resulted in a relationship with the U. S. War Department, after the Battle of Perryville sealed Kentuckys alliance, when the Confederates were forced to retreat from the city in February 1862, they burned downtown and all the supplies they could not carry, as well as the depot and trains. The Union troops occupying the city set about building a new depot and it was a wooden building and served the railroad and people of Bowling Green into the 20th century. In 1878 malaria broke out from New Orleans to Memphis, residents of Memphis wishing to escape the epidemic boarded the L&N trains, but residents from other towns refused to let them leave the train at their towns. Bowling Greens station was the first place they could leave the train, the evacuation of Memphis lasted a few days, until Memphis was quarantined. By the 1880s, the depot was becoming too small to serve all those who used it. However, the president of the L&N, Milton H, in retailiation, Milton Smith moved the railroad operations to Paris, TN, causing economic hardships for Bowling Green.
Milton Smith died in 1921 and the current depot was opened with much fanfare October 2,1925 and it was constructed of limestone from the former White Stone Quarry located in southern Warren County, KY. The L&N Railroad signed a contract with a taxicab company to pick up riders at the station so a rival company sued claiming an illegal monopoly in 1928. In Black and White Taxicab and Transfer Company v. Brown and Yellow Taxicab and Transfer Company, by the early 20th century, local agricultural goods, such as strawberries and tobacco, were shipped from Bowling Greens depot, as well as locally mined building stone and oil. This made Bowling Greens L&N station the largest employment center in Warren County, during the 1930s and 1940s, the Bowling Green station was a stop for over 30 passenger trains, plus freight trains, on a daily basis. The L&N and other railroads operated the South Wind, which made a stop in Bowling Green, with the signing the Transportation Act in 1957 to create a national interstate road system and the burgeoning popularity of air travel, passenger service began to decline in the 1960s
Big South Fork Scenic Railway
36°41′55″N 84°28′35″W The Big South Fork Scenic Railway is a heritage railroad in Stearns, Kentucky. The route runs for 16 miles through lush countryside in the Big South Fork National River, there is a stop in the historic coal mining town of Blue Heron, Kentucky which can be toured. There is a shop and snack bar with picnic shelter as well as hiking trails in Blue Heron. The railroad is restoring a large 0-6-0 steam locomotive from the Union railroad built by ALCO in 1944, despite Reports to the contrary, the BSFSR will be operating for the 2017 tourist season. The adjacent McCreary County Museum demonstrates life in Kentuckys coal company towns during the first half of the 20th century, list of heritage railroads in the United States Big South Fork Scenic Railway Official Website RailServe
Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad
The Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad is a defunct shortline railroad based in Kentucky. Despite its name, it had no connections with Cincinnati, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad ran between Frankfort and Paris, with a major stop in Georgetown, Kentucky, a distance of 40 miles. It was at Georgetown that it crossed the Southern Railway, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad was originally known as the Kentucky Midland Railway. Construction of the route began at Frankfort in the months of 1888, and reached Georgetown in June 1889. Some of the route laid upon the Buffalo Trace, the total cost of the construction was over $500,000. Its name changed to the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad in 1899, there were efforts to extend the route to Mount Sterling and Alton, but it never happened. The total length of the railroad was 40.8 miles, when it started, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad had serious financial reverses before it even laid its first piece of rail. It even went into receivership in 1894, but by 1899 it was touted as a major factor in the stimulation of Frankforts 1890s growth.
The route between Georgetown and Paris helped distribute the local fine Bourbon whiskey to markets, on October 28,1909 the F&C was almost purchased by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, but the Kentucky Railroad Commission objected and the sale was annulled on April 22,1912. In January 1927 the railroad was sold in auction, with its owners a collection of citizens of Frankfort and Lexington. On December 31,1952, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad abandoned passenger service, the line between Georgetown and Paris was abandoned by the F&C in 1967, pressure by bourbon manufacturers kept the rest of the line active. The Interstate Commerce Commission allowed the F&C to abandon more of the line, reducing the line to Frankfort to Elsinore, a trestle bridge was damaged by a derailment in 1985, and the F&C could not afford to fix the bridge, leaving the F&C to close. By 1987 all the rails of the F&C were removed, the Cardinal was eventually placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998.
It is currently at the Kentucky Railway Museum in New Haven, Jonathan V. Frankfort and Cincinnati Model 55 Rail Car NRHP Nomination Form
The term applies to structures in both modern and historical architecture since ancient times. In modern architecture, vestibule typically refers to a room next to the outer door. In ancient Roman architecture, vestibule referred to an enclosed area between the interior of the house and the street. In contemporary usage, a vestibule constitutes an area surrounding the exterior door and it acts as an antechamber between the exterior and the interior structure. Often it connects the doorway to a lobby or hallway and it is the space one occupies once passing the door, but not yet in the main interior of the building. The residence of the White House in the United States is such an example, the difference in sizes between a vestibule and the following space is better illustrated by the - so called - entrance to the main gallery in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright. Many government buildings mimic the architecture from which the vestibule originates. A purely utilitarian use of vestibules in modern buildings is to create an air lock entry.
Such vestibules consist of merely a set of doors and a set of outer doors. An ATM vestibule is an area with automated teller machines that is accessible from the outside of a building. There may be an entrance to the vestibule which requires a card to open. Entrance to and exit from the car is through the side doors, in British usage the term refers to the part of the carriage where the passenger doors are located, this can be at the ends of the carriage or at the 1/4 and 3/4 of length positions. Vestibules were common in ancient Greek temples, due to the construction techniques available at the time, it was not possible to build large spans. Consequently, many ways had two rows of columns that supported the roof and created a distinct space around the entrance. In ancient Roman architecture, where the term originates, a vestibule was a space between the interior of a building and the street, the structure was a mixture between a modern hall and porch. Upon entering a Roman house or domus, one would have to pass through the vestibule before entering the atrium, from the 5th century on vestibules were used in churches in both the east and west.
Genkan Propylaeum Antarala, vestibule in certain Hindu temples
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material—usually coal, the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotives main wheels. Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons pulled behind, the first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick, first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first practical steam locomotive was built in 1812-13 by John Blenkinsop, Steam locomotives were first developed in Great Britain during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. From the early 1900s they were superseded by electric and diesel locomotives, with full conversions to electric. The majority of locomotives were retired from regular service by the 1980s, though several continue to run on tourist.
The earliest railways employed horses to draw carts along railway tracks, in 1784, William Murdoch, a Scottish inventor, built a small-scale prototype of a steam road locomotive. An early working model of a rail locomotive was designed and constructed by steamboat pioneer John Fitch in the US during 1794. His steam locomotive used interior bladed wheels guided by rails or tracks, the model still exists at the Ohio Historical Society Museum in Columbus. The authenticity and date of this locomotive is disputed by some experts, accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations that included using high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine, Trevithick visited the Newcastle area in 1804 and had a ready audience of colliery owners and engineers. The visit was so successful that the railways in north-east England became the leading centre for experimentation. Trevithick continued his own steam propulsion experiments through another trio of locomotives, Four years later, the successful twin-cylinder locomotive Salamanca by Matthew Murray for the edge railed rack and pinion Middleton Railway debuted in 1812.
Another well known early locomotive was Puffing Billy built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley and it was intended to work on the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne. This locomotive is the oldest preserved, and is on display in the Science Museum. George Stephenson built Locomotion No.1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north-east England, in 1829, his son Robert built in Newcastle The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhill Trials. This success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent builder of locomotives used on railways in the UK, US. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened a year making exclusive use of power for passenger
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
The arrangement is sometimes known as Olomana after a Hawaiian 0-4-2 locomotive of 1883. The earliest recorded 0-4-2 locomotives were three engines built by Robert Stephenson and Company for the Stanhope and Tyne Railway in 1834. The first locomotive built in Germany in 1838, the Saxonia, was an 0-4-2, in the same year Todd, Kitson & Laird built two examples for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, one of which, LMR57 Lion, has been preserved. The Lion had a top speed of 45 miles per hour, the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway acquired the locomotives Minotaurus and Ajax from the British manufacturer Jones and Evans in 1841, to work the line between Vienna and Stockerau. The locomotive Ajax has been preserved at the Technisches Museum Wien since 1992 and is described as the oldest preserved locomotive on the European continent. In Finland, the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement was represented by the Classes B1, the Finnish Steam Locomotive Class B1 is an 0-4-2ST locomotive, built from 1868 to 1890 by Beyer and Company at their Gorton Foundry works in Manchester, England.
Although the type was not used by any major railroads in North America, Inc. and the Baldwin Locomotive Works produced many small tank locomotives of this type for industrial and plantation work. The 0-4-2T Olomana, built by Baldwin in 1883, is an example of such types, the Olomana arrived in the Kingdom of Hawaii in August 1883, after a two-month journey around Cape Horn. It was owned by Waimanalo Sugar Company on the island of Oahu, in 1905, the Nederlands Indische Spoorweg opened a line between Yogyakarta and Ambarawa via Magelang, a hilly region requiring a rack railway because of the 6. 5% gradients. The 0-4-2T wood burning B25 class was made for line in 1902 by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen. They were four-cylinder compound locomotives with two of the cylinders working the pinion wheels, there are two examples of B25 class locomotive still in operation, namely B25-02 and B25-03. Both were based in Ambarawa, where they have served for more than a hundred years, Locomotive B25-01 may still be found at the entrance to the Ambarawa Railway Museum.
On the island of Sumatra, there are some larger cousins of this class being used for hauling trains, namely the D18. The 0-4-2T arrangement was used by two classes of locomotives operated by the New Zealand Railways Department, the first was the C class of 1873, originally built as an 0-4-0T. The class was found to be unstable at higher than 15 mph. The second and more notable 0-4-2T class, and the one actually built as 0-4-2T, was the unique H class designed to operate the Rimutaka Incline on the Wairarapa Line. The Inclines steep gradient necessitated the use of the Fell mountain railway system, except for a few brief experiments with other classes, the H class had exclusive use of the Incline from their introduction in 1875 until the Inclines closure in 1955. The class leader, H199, is preserved on display at the Fell Engine Museum in Featherston and is the only extant Fell locomotive in the world
A trestle is a rigid frame used as a support, historically a tripod used both as stools and to support tables at banquets. A trestle bridge is a composed of a number of short spans supported by such frames. Since this type of bridge is called a trestle for short. Timber and iron trestles were used in the 19th century. In the 21st century and sometimes concrete trestles are commonly used to bridge particularly deep valleys while timber trestles remain common in certain areas, many timber trestles were built in the 19th and early 20th centuries with the expectation that they would be temporary. Timber trestles were used to get the railroad to its destination, in the 20th century, tools such as the earthmover made it cheaper to construct a high fill directly instead of first constructing a trestle from which to dump the fill. Timber trestles remain common in applications, most notably for bridge approaches crossing floodways. For the purposes of discharging material below, a coal trestle carried a dead-end track, one of the longest trestle spans created was for railroad traffic crossing the Great Salt Lake on the Lucin Cutoff in Utah.
It was replaced by a causeway in the 1960s, and is now being salvaged for its timber. Many wooden roller coasters are built using design details similar to trestle bridges because it is so easy to make the roller coaster very high, since loads are well distributed through large portions of the structure it is resilient to the stresses imposed. The structure naturally leads to a certain redundancy, such wooden coasters, while limited in their path, possess a certain ride character that is appreciated by fans of the type. The Camas Prairie Railroad in northern Idaho utilized many timber trestles across the rolling Camas Prairie and in the major grade, the 1, 490-foot viaduct across Lawyers Canyon was the exception, constructed of steel and 287 feet in height. The floodway of the Bonnet Carré Spillway in St. Charles Parish, the trestles are owned by the Canadian National Railway and the Kansas City Southern Railroad. The trestles were completed in 1936, after construction of the Spillway, the trestles may be the longest wooden railroad trestles remaining in regular use in North America.
These were all replaced by masonry viaducts, few timber trestles survived into the 20th century. Two that did, and which are still in use, cross the Afon Mawddach on the coast of Wales only a few miles apart, at Barmouth. The former, built in 1867, carries trains on the heavy rail Cambrian Coast Line travelling from England via Shrewsbury to the small towns on Cardigan Bay. It carries a toll-path for pedestrians, trestles in cast- or wrought-iron were used during the 19th Century on the developing railway network in the United Kingdom
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes