A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child, supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof; such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and first categories fall under the terms'birth mother' or'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, those who meet only the first or only the third a surrogacy mother. An adoptive mother is a female who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological mother is the female genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or egg donation.
A biological mother may have legal obligations to a child not raised by her, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative mother is a female whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepmother is a female, the wife of a child's father and they may form a family unit, but who does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child; the above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of'mother' may vary based on how social and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Motherhood and fatherhood are not limited to those who have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less applied to fathers or adoptive parents; the process of becoming a mother has been referred to as "matrescence".
The adjective "maternal" comparatively to "paternal" for a father. The verb "to mother" means to procreate or to sire a child from which derives the noun "mothering". Related terms of endearment are mom, mumsy and mammy. A female role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a mother-figure. Biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum. A female can become pregnant through sexual intercourse. In well-nourished girls, menarche takes place around the age of 12 or 13. A fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus. In humans, gestation is around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth; this is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation. Once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process; the mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune system, the sole source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods.
Childlessness is the state of not having children. Childlessness may have social or political significance. Childlessness may be voluntary childlessness, which occurs by choice, or may be involuntary due to health problems or social circumstances. Motherhood is voluntary, but may be the result of forced pregnancy, such as pregnancy from rape. Unwanted motherhood occurs in cultures which practice forced marriage and child marriage. Mother can apply to a woman other than the biological parent if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child; this is either an adoptive mother or a stepmother. The term "othermother" or "other mother" is used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother. Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history predating human civilization. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more common.
Adoption in the United States is common and easy from a legal point of view. In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the US accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. A surrogate mother is a woman who bears a child that came from another woman's fertilized ovum on behalf of a couple unable to give birth to children, thus the surrogate mother carries and gives birth to a child that she is not the biological mother of. Surrogate motherhood became possible with advances in reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Not all women who become pregnant via in vitro fertilization are surrogate mothers. Surrogacy involves both a genetic mother, who provides the ovum, a gestational mother, who carries the child to term; the possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships to become mothers has increased over the past few decades due to technological developments. Mod
Al Jolson was a Russian-born American singer and actor. At the peak of his career, he was dubbed "The World's Greatest Entertainer", his performing style was brash and extroverted, he popularized many songs that benefited from his "shamelessly sentimental, melodramatic approach." In the 1920s, Jolson was America's most highest-paid entertainer. Although best remembered today as the star of the first talking picture, The Jazz Singer, he starred in a series of successful musical films during the 1930s. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he was the first star to entertain troops overseas during World War II. After a period of inactivity, his stardom returned with The Jolson Story, for which Larry Parks played Jolson, with the singer dubbing for Parks; the formula was repeated in Jolson Sings Again. In 1950, he again became the first star to entertain GIs on active service in the Korean War, performing 42 shows in 16 days, he died weeks after returning to the U. S. owing to the physical exertion of performing.
Defense Secretary George Marshall posthumously awarded him the Medal of Merit. According to music historian Larry Stempel, "No one had heard anything quite like it before on Broadway." Author Stephen Banfield wrote that Jolson's style was "arguably the single most important factor in defining the modern musical". Jolson has been dubbed "the king of blackface" performers, a theatrical convention since the mid-19th century. With his dynamic style of singing jazz and blues, he became successful by extracting traditionally African-American music and popularizing it for white American audiences who were otherwise not receptive to the originators. Despite his promotion and perpetuation of black stereotypes, his work was sometimes well-regarded by black publications and he has sometimes been credited for fighting against black discrimination on Broadway as early as 1911. In an essay written in the 21st century, Ted Gioia of the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia remarked, "If blackface has its shameful poster boy, it is Al Jolson", showcasing Jolson's complex legacy in American society.
Al Jolson was born Asa Yoelson in the Jewish village of Srednike now known as Seredžius, near Kaunas in Lithuania part of the Russian Empire. He was the youngest child of Nechama "Naomi" and Moses Rubin Yoelson. Jolson did not know his date of birth, as birth records were not kept at that time in that region, he gave his birth year as 1885. In 1891, his father, qualified as a rabbi and cantor, moved to New York City to secure a better future for his family. By 1894, Moses Yoelson could afford to pay the fare to bring Nechama and their four children to the U. S. By the time they arrived—as steerage passengers on the SS Umbria arriving at the Port of New York on April 9, 1894—he had found work as a cantor at Talmud Torah Congregation in the Southwest Waterfront neighborhood of Washington, D. C. where the family was reunited. Jolson's mother, died at 37 in early 1895, he was in a state of withdrawal for seven months, he spent time at the St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a progressive reformatory/home for orphans run by the Xaverian Brothers in Baltimore.
After being introduced to show business in 1895 by Al Reeves and Hirsch became fascinated by it, by 1897 the brothers were singing for coins on local street corners, using the names "Al" and "Harry". They used the money to buy tickets to the National Theater, they spent most of their days working different jobs as a team. In the spring of 1902, Jolson accepted a job with Walter L. Main's circus. Although Main had hired him as an usher, Main was impressed by Jolson's singing voice and gave him a position as a singer during the circus's Indian Medicine Side Show segment. By the end of the year, the circus had folded and Jolson was again out of work. In May 1903, the head producer of the burlesque show Dainty Duchess Burlesquers agreed to give Jolson a part in one show, he performed "Be My Baby Bumble Bee", the producer agreed to keep him, but the show closed by the end of the year. He avoided financial troubles by forming a vaudeville partnership with his brother Hirsch, a vaudeville performer known as Harry Yoelson.
The brothers worked for the William Morris Agency. Jolson and Harry formed a team with Joe Palmer. During their time with Palmer, they were able to gain bookings in a nationwide tour. However, live performances were falling in popularity. While performing in a Brooklyn theater in 1904, Jolson began performing in blackface, which boosted his career, he began wearing blackface in all of his shows. In late 1905, Harry left the trio after an argument with Jolson. Harry had refused his request to take care of Joe Palmer, in a wheelchair. After Harry's departure and Palmer worked as a duo but were not successful. By 1906 they agreed to separate, Jolson was on his own, he became a regular at the Globe and Wigwam Theater in San Francisco and was successful nationwide as a vaudeville singer. He took up residence in San Francisco, saying the earthquake-devastated people needed someone to cheer them up. In 1908 Jolson, needing money for himself and his new wife, returned to New York. In 1909, his singing caught the attention of Lew Dockstader, the producer and star of Dockstader's Minstrels.
Jolson accepted Dockstader's offer and became a blackface perf
Li'l Abner is a satirical American comic strip that appeared in many newspapers in the United States and Europe, featuring a fictional clan of hillbillies in the impoverished mountain village of Dogpatch, USA. Written and drawn by Al Capp, the strip ran for 43 years, from August 13, 1934 through November 13, 1977, it was distributed by United Feature Syndicate, by the Chicago Tribune New York News Syndicate. Comic strips dealt with northern urban experiences before Capp introduced Li'l Abner, the first strip based in the South; the comic strip had 60 million readers in over 900 American newspapers and 100 foreign papers in 28 countries. Author M. Thomas Inge says Capp "had a profound influence on the way the world viewed the American South." Li'l Abner Yokum: Abner was 6' 3" and perpetually 19 "y'ars" old. A naïve, simpleminded and sweet-natured hillbilly, he lived in a ramshackle log cabin with his pint-sized parents. Capp derived the family name "Yokum" as a combination of hokum. In Capp's satirical and complex plots, Abner was a country bumpkin Candide — a paragon of innocence in a sardonically dark and cynical world.
Abner had no visible means of support, but sometimes earned his livelihood as a "crescent cutter" for the Little Wonder privy company changed to "mattress tester" for the Stunned Ox mattress company. During World War II, Abner was "drafted" into becoming the mascot emblem of the Patrol Boat Squadron 29. In one Post World War II storyline Abner became a US Air Force bodyguard of Steve Cantor against the evil bald female spy Jewell Brynner Abner's primary goal in life was evading the marital designs of Daisy Mae Scragg, the virtuous, barefoot Dogpatch damsel and scion of the Yokums' blood feud enemies — the Scraggs, her bloodthirsty, semi-evolved kinfolk. For 18 years, Abner slipped out of Daisy Mae's marital crosshairs time again; when Capp gave in to reader pressure and allowed the couple to tie the knot, it was a major media event. It made the cover of Life magazine on March 31, 1952 — illustrating an article by Capp titled "It's Hideously True!! The Creator of Li'l Abner Tells Why His Hero Is Wed!!"
Daisy Mae Yokum: Beautiful Daisy Mae was hopelessly in love with Dogpatch's most prominent resident throughout the entire 43-year run of Al Capp's comic strip. During most of the epic, the impossibly dense Abner exhibited little romantic interest in her voluptuous charms. In 1952, Abner reluctantly proposed to Daisy to emulate the engagement of his comic strip "ideel," Fearless Fosdick. Fosdick's own wedding to longtime fiancée Prudence Pimpleton turned out to be a dream — but Abner and Daisy's ceremony, performed by Marryin' Sam, was permanent. Abner and Daisy Mae's nuptials were a major source of media attention, landing them on the aforementioned cover of Life magazine's March 31, 1952, issue. Once married, Abner became domesticated. Like Mammy Yokum and the other "wimmenfolk" in Dogpatch, Daisy Mae did all the work and otherwise — while the useless menfolk did nothing whatsoever. Mammy Yokum: Born Pansy Hunks, Mammy was the scrawny principled "sassiety" leader and bare knuckle "champeen" of the town of Dogpatch.
She married the inconsequential Pappy Yokum in 1902. Mammy dominated the Yokum clan through the force of her personality, dominated everyone else with her fearsome right uppercut, which helped her uphold law and decency, she is the toughest character throughout Li'l Abner. A superhuman dynamo, Mammy did all the household chores — and provided her charges with no fewer than eight meals a day of "po'k chops" and "tarnips,", her authority was unquestioned, her characteristic phrase, "Ah has spoken!," signaled the end of all further discussion. Her most familiar phrase, however, is "Good is better than evil becuz it's nicer!" Pappy Yokum: Born Lucifer Ornamental Yokum, pint-sized Pappy had the misfortune of being the patriarch in a family that didn't have one. Pappy was so lazy and ineffectual, he didn't bathe himself. Mammy was seen scrubbing Pappy in an outdoor oak tub. Ironing Pappy's trousers fell under her wifely duties as well, although she didn't bother with preliminaries — like waiting for Pappy to remove them first.
Pappy is dull-witted and gullible, but not without guile. He had an unfortunate predilection for snitching "presarved tarnips" and smoking corn silk behind the woodshed — much to his chagrin when Mammy caught him. Pappy Yokum wasn't always feckless, however. After his lower wisdom teeth grew so long that they squeezed his cerebral Goodness Gland and emerged as forehead horns, he proved himself capable of evil. Of course Mammy solved the problem with a tooth extraction, ended the episode with her most famous dictum. Honest Abe Yokum: Li'l Abner and Daisy Mae's little boy was born in 1953 "after a pregnancy that ambled on so long that readers began sending me medical books," wrote Capp. Known as "Mysterious Yokum" due to a debate regarding his gender (he was stuck in a pants-shaped stovepipe for
Gone with the Wind (novel)
Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936. The story is set in Clayton County and Atlanta, both in Georgia, during the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era, it depicts the struggles of young Scarlett O'Hara, the spoiled daughter of a well-to-do plantation owner, who must use every means at her disposal to claw her way out of poverty following Sherman's destructive "March to the Sea". This historical novel features a Bildungsroman or coming-of-age story, with the title taken from a poem written by Ernest Dowson. Gone with the Wind was popular with American readers from the outset and was the top American fiction bestseller in 1936 and 1937; as of 2014, a Harris poll found it to be the second favorite book of American readers, just behind the Bible. More than 30 million copies have been printed worldwide. Written from the perspective of the slaveholder, Gone with the Wind is Southern plantation fiction, its portrayal of slavery and African Americans has been considered controversial by succeeding generations, as well as its use of a racial epithet and ethnic slurs common to the period.
However, the novel has become a reference point for subsequent writers of the South, both black and white. Scholars at American universities refer to, study it in their writings; the novel has been absorbed into American popular culture. Mitchell received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for the book in 1937, it was adapted into a 1939 American film. Gone with the Wind is the only novel by Mitchell published during her lifetime. Mitchell used color symbolism the colors red and green, which are associated with Scarlett O'Hara. Mitchell identified the primary theme as survival, she left the ending speculative for the reader. She was asked what became of her lovers and Scarlett, she replied, "For all I know, Rhett may have found someone else, less difficult." Two sequels authorized by Mitchell's estate were published more than a half century later. A parody was produced. Born in 1900 in Atlanta, Margaret Mitchell was a Southerner and writer throughout her life, she grew up hearing stories about the American Civil War and the Reconstruction from her tyrannical Irish-American grandmother, who had endured its suffering.
Her forceful and intellectual mother was a suffragist. As a young woman, Mitchell found love with an army lieutenant, he was killed in World War I, she would carry his memory for the remainder of her life. After studying at Smith College for a year, during which time her mother died from the Spanish flu, Mitchell returned to Atlanta, she married. Mitchell took a job writing feature articles for the Atlanta Journal at a time when Atlanta debutantes of her class did not work. After divorcing her first husband, she married again, this time to a man who shared her interest in writing and literature, he had been best man at her first wedding. Margaret Mitchell began writing Gone with the Wind in 1926 to pass the time while recovering from a slow-healing auto-crash injury. In April 1935, Harold Latham of Macmillan, an editor looking for new fiction, read her manuscript and saw that it could be a best-seller. After Latham agreed to publish the book, Mitchell worked for another six months checking the historical references and rewriting the opening chapter several times.
Mitchell and her husband John Marsh, a copy editor by trade, edited the final version of the novel. Mitchell wrote the book's final moments first and wrote the events that led up to them. Gone with the Wind was published in June 1936; the author tentatively titled. Other proposed titles included Bugles Sang True, Not in Our Stars, Tote the Weary Load; the title Mitchell chose is from the first line of the third stanza of the poem "Non Sum Qualis Eram Bonae sub Regno Cynarae" by Ernest Dowson: Scarlett O'Hara uses the title phrase when she wonders to herself if her home on a plantation called "Tara" is still standing, or if it had "gone with the wind which had swept through Georgia." In a general sense, the title is a metaphor for the demise of a way of life in the South prior to the Civil War. When taken in the context of Dowson's poem about "Cynara," the phrase "gone with the wind" alludes to erotic loss; the poem expresses the regrets of someone who has lost his passionate feelings for his "old passion," Cynara.
Dowson's Cynara, a name that comes from the Greek word for artichoke, represents a lost love. Gone with the Wind takes place in the southern United States in the state of Georgia during the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era; the novel unfolds against the backdrop of rebellion wherein seven southern states including Georgia, have declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America, after Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The Union refuses to accept secession and no compromise is found as war approaches; the novel opens April 15, 1861, at "Tara," a plantation owned by Gerald O'Hara, an Irish immigrant who has become a successful planter, his wife, Ellen Robillard O'Hara, from a coastal aristocratic family of French descent. Their 16-year-old daughter, Scarlett, is not beautiful, but men realized it once they were caught up in her charm. All the talk is of the coming Civil War. There are brief but vivid descriptions of the South as it began and grew, with backgrounds of the main characters: the stylish and highbrow French, the gentlemanly English, the forced-to-flee and looked-down-upon Irish.
Scarlett learns that one of her many beaux, Ashley Wilkes, will soon be engaged to his cousin, Melanie Hamilt
A mammy spelled mammie, is a U. S. stereotype in the South, for a black woman who worked in a white family and nursed the family's children. One of the earliest fictionalized versions of the mammy figure is Aunt Chloe in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, first published in 1852; as the mammy figure progressed into the 20th century, the persona changed over time into a mythology. Memoirs that describe the roles of mammies from the 1890s to the 1920s downplayed the mammy's relationship with her family; the background of the mammy figure was the history of slavery in the United States. African American female slaves were tasked with the duties of domestic workers in White American households, their duties included preparing meals, cleaning homes, nursing and rearing their owners' children. Out of these circumstances arose the image of the mammy. While originating in the slavery period, the mammy figure rose to prominence during the Reconstruction Era. In the Southern United States, the mammy played a role in historical revisionism efforts to reinterpret and legitimize their legacy of chattel slavery and racial oppression.
The mammy image endured there to the 20th century. In 1923, the United Daughters of the Confederacy proposed the erection of a mammy statue on the National Mall; the proposed statue would be dedicated to "The Black Mammy of the South". The historicity of the mammy figure is questionable. Historical accounts point to the identity of most female domestic servants as teenagers and young adults, not "grandmotherly types" such as the mammy. Melissa Harris-Perry has argued that the mammy was a creation of the imagination of the White supremacy, which reimagined the powerless, coerced slave girls as soothing and consenting women. In 1981, Andy Warhol included the mammy in his Myths series, alongside other mythological and folklore characters such as Santa Claus, Mickey Mouse, Superman. In Mammy. A Century of Race and Southern Memory, Kimberly Wallace-Sanders argued that the mammy's stereotypical attributes point to the source of her inspiration: "a long lasting and troubled marriage of racial and gender essentialism and southern nostalgia.
The romanticized mammy image survives in the popular imagination of the modern United States. Chanequa Walker-Barnes, a licensed psychologist, argues that political correctness has led to the mammy figure being less prevalent in the 21st-century culture, but the mammy archetype still influences the portrayal of African-American women in fiction, as good caretakers, selfless and supportive, the supporting characters to white protagonists, she cites as examples Miranda Bailey, Mercedes Jones, Ivy Wentz. The mammy was portrayed as an older woman and dark skinned, she was an idealized figure of a caregiver: amiable, maternal, non-threatening and submissive. The mammy figure demonstrated deference to white authority. On occasion, the mammy was depicted as a sassy woman, she was devoted to her owners/employers and her primary goal in life was to care for their needs. Some portrayals had the mammy, but her caregiving duties would always come first, leading to the mammy being portrayed as a neglectful parent or grandparent.
And while the mammy was devoted to her white family, she treated her own family poorly. Moreover, she had no black friends. Melissa Harris-Perry describes the relationship between the mammy and other African Americans in Sister Citizen: Shame and Black Women in America by summarizing that "Mammy was not a protector or defender of black children or communities, she not in caring for her own children. Her love, advice and supervision were reserved for white women and children." This stereotype contrasts with the Jezebel stereotype, which depicted younger African-American women as conniving and promiscuous. The mammy was depicted as a religious woman. More than not, the mammy was an asexual figure, "devoid of any personal desires that might tempt her to sin"; this helped the mammy serve as both a confidant and a moral guide to her young charges, capable of keeping them in line. Kimberly Wallace-Sanders includes other characteristics of the mammy in Mammy. A Century of Race and Southern Memory: A large dark body, a round smiling face, a sonorous and effortlessly soothing voice, a raucous laugh.
Her personal attributes include infinite patience, self-deprecating wit, an implicit understanding and acceptance of her own inferiority, her devotion to whites. The mammy was large-breasted and hostile towards men. Many of these characteristics were denied to African-American female slaves but were attributed to the mammy; the dress reflected the status of her owner. The mammy was neat and clean and wore attire, suitable for her domestic duties. Sometimes a mammy considered herself to be dressed up, but, just an addition of a bonnet and a silk velvet mantle, which belonged to her mistress. Like most of the slaves at that time, the mammy was illiterate though intelligent in her own sense. Among many of the slaves, there could have been a mammy who possessed the abilities to read and write taught to her by the children of the family for whom she worked. However, as intelligent as she might have been, most of her intelligence was a result of past experiences and conflicts. In particular, a mammy of an aristocratic family could be identified by her air of refinement.
When the mammy did not stay in the house of her master or was not busy attending to the needs of the master's children, she would live with her husband and child
Mammy Two Shoes
Mammy Two Shoes is a fictional character in MGM's Tom and Jerry cartoons. She is a heavy-set middle-aged African American housemaid who takes care of the house in which Tom and Jerry reside, she is Tom's owner, wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves. As a partially-seen character, her head was seen, though there are a few exceptions such as Part Time Pal, A Mouse in the House, Mouse Cleaning, Saturday Evening Puss. Mammy would appear in many cartoons until 1952's Push-Button Kitty. Cartoons would instead show Tom and Jerry living with a mid-1950s white couple. Soon after all humans in the series had visible faces. Mammy's appearances have been edited out, dubbed, or re-animated as a thin white woman in television showings, since her character is an archetype now considered racist, her creation points to the ubiquitousness of the mammy in American popular culture. Mammy's debut appearance was in Puss Gets The Boot, while her last appearance was in Push-Button Kitty, she was voiced by well-known African-American character actress Lillian Randolph.
She was the second prominent black character of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio, following Bosko. She appeared in 19 Tom and Jerry animated shorts between 1940 and 1952. Mammy's role in the films was to set up the plot by warning her house cat Tom that she will toss him out of the house if he failed to act according to her wishes, she invariably catches Tom acting against her orders, there are grave consequences for his disobedience. It is Jerry that sabotages Tom to get him in trouble and thrown out of the house at times, she always called Tom by his full name Thomas, always used is in place of are and am. Her signature quotes are "Land Sakes!" and "What in the world is going on in here?", the latter of, delivered upon rushing in to investigate the commotion being caused by Tom and Jerry. William Hanna and Joseph Barbera portrayed Mammy as the maid of the house, with the real owners unknown to audiences - at least, her apron suggests she is a maid. Hanna and Barbera seemed to suggest, through dialogue and occasional behavior, that the house was Mammy's own.
In one occasion, she goes to her bedroom. This suggests she is its sole human occupant. In the 1960s, the MGM animation studio, by under the supervision of Chuck Jones, created censored versions of the Tom & Jerry cartoons featuring Mammy for television; these versions used rotoscoping techniques to replace Mammy on-screen with a stocky white woman or a thin white woman. Paul Mular, head of Broadcast Standards and Practices at KOFY-TV in San Francisco in the late 1990s believes this was an overreaction to calls for racial sensitivity as the original Mammy was inoffensive; the original versions of the cartoons were reinstated when Turner Broadcasting System acquired ownership of the Tom & Jerry property on August 4, 1986. But in 1989, the cartoons featuring Mammy were edited again; these re-recorded versions of the cartoons are aired to this day on Turner's Cartoon Network-related cable channels, have at times turned up on DVD as well following the death of Lillian Randolph on September 12, 1980 and the death of June Foray on July 26, 2017.
However, some European TV showings of these cartoons the UK, as well as the US DVD release of Tom and Jerry Spotlight Collection, Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Academy Awards Animation Collection, Tom and Jerry: The Deluxe Anniversary Collection and the US DVD and Blu-ray releases of Tom and Jerry Golden Collection, retain Randolph's original voice; the Region 2 Complete Collectors Edition DVD boxset has Vidale's voice on the first DVD and Randolph in a number of the episodes after that. In 1954's Pet Peeve, Mammy disappeared from Jerry. In 1961, Rembrandt Films assumed production of the Jerry shorts. Director Gene Deitch opted not to use Mammy's character in his shorts, as he felt a "stereotypical black housekeep" character "didn't work in a modern context." In 1961's Down and Outing, Tom's owner became a corpulent white man, more graphically brutal in punishing his pet's mistakes when compared to Mammy beating and thrashing Tom whilst going red in the face. In the shorts Buddies Thicker Than Water and The Unshrinkable Jerry Mouse, a slim white lady of the house appeared in place of Mammy.
A similar character appeared in the direct-to-DVD film Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry. In Tom and Jerry Tales, a redesigned Mammy known as "Mrs. Two Shoes" appeared. Though retaining most previous aspects of her personality, Mammy's skin tone has changed to white to avoid any possible controversy. Several photos on a mantel in "Ho, Ho Horrors" imply that Mammy now has a family. Puss Gets the Boot The Midnight Snack Fraidy Cat Dog Trou
Mammy is an American pre-Code musical drama film with Technicolor sequences, released by Warner Bros. The film was a follow-up to his previous film, Say It with Songs. Mammy became Al Jolson's fourth feature, following earlier screen efforts as The Jazz Singer, The Singing Fool and Say It with Songs; the movie relives Jolson's early years as a minstrel man. The songs were written by Irving Berlin, credited with the original story titled Mr. Bones; the story deals with the joys and tribulations of a travelling minstrel troupe known as the Merry Meadow Minstrels. Al Jolson plays as a blackface endman. Hobart Bosworth plays as the owner of the show, while his daughter, played by Lois Moran, serves as Al Jolson's love interest in the picture. Sherman's character, however, is in love with Moran's; the show is in a miserable state until Jolson entertains a sheriff and manages to convince him to invest in the show. The show becomes successful thanks to this investment and Jolson is able to visit his mother.
Some time after he returns, he tells Moran that he loves her and this causes Sherman to become jealous. After a heated argument between Jolson and Sherman over Moran, a character played by Mitchell Lewis, upset because he was caught cheating at cards, puts real bullets in Jolson's stage gun. Since Jolson pretends to shoot Sherman in the minstrel show act, Lewis knows that this will result in Sherman's death and that Jolson will be blamed for the murder. After Sherman is shot, Jolson is arrested but manages to escape and take a freight train out of town. Lewis confesses to the crime and Jolson is thereby proven to be innocent. Al Jolson as Al Fuller Lois Moran as Nora Meadows Lowell Sherman as Billy West / Westy Louise Dresser as Mother Fuller Hobart Bosworth as Meadows Tully Marshall as Slats Mitchell Lewis as Hank Smith / Tambo Jack Curtis as Sheriff Tremble "Let Me Sing and I'm Happy" "Here We Are" "Who Paid the Rent for Mrs. Rip Van Winkle?" "The Knights of the Road" "The Call of the South" "Yes, We Have No Bananas" "Miserere" "Across The Breakfast Table, Looking At You" "In the Morning" "Night Boat to Albany" "Pretty Baby" "When You and I Were Young, Maggie" "Mammy" "To My Mammy" According to Warner Bros records the film earned $789,000 domestically and $158,000 foreign.
The original Technicolor sequences were found in a Dutch print which had Dutch titles inserted in several places. This print was restored by the UCLA Film and Television Archive, released on DVD from the Warner Archive Collection, along with its Overture and Exit Music. Sections of those Technicolor sequences were lost when Dutch titles were inserted, some of the cuts from color to sepia tinted black and white are not smooth. Additionally, two songs are missing from all existing prints that were in the original release: "The Call of the South" and "Knights of the Road", they were sung by Al Jolson. List of early color feature films Mammy on IMDb Mammy at AllMovie