Man Chong

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Man Chong
滿寵
Grand Commandant (太尉)
In office
March or April 239 (March or April 239) – April or May 242 (April or May 242)
Monarch Cao Rui / Cao Fang
Preceded by Sima Yi
Succeeded by Jiang Ji
General Who Attacks the East (征東將軍)
In office
230 (230) – March or April 239 (March or April 239)
Monarch Cao Rui
Inspector of Yu Province (豫州刺史)
In office
228 (228) – 238 (238)
Monarch Cao Rui
General of the Vanguard (前將軍)
In office
224 (224) – 228 (228)
Monarch Cao Pi
General Who Calms the Waves (伏波將軍)
In office
? (?) – 224 (224)
Monarch Cao Pi
General Who Spreads Martial Might
(揚武將軍)
In office
220 (220) – ? (?)
Monarch Cao Pi
Administrator of Runan (汝南太守)
In office
209 (209) – 220 (220)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Chancellor Cao Cao
In office
200 (200) – 208 (208)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
General of Vehement Might (奮威將軍)
(acting)
In office
208 (208) – 209 (209)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Chancellor Cao Cao
Prefect of Xu (許令)
In office
196 (196) – 200 (200)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Personal details
Born Unknown
Jinxiang County, Shandong
Died April or May 242[1][a]
Children
  • Man Wei
  • Man Bing
  • Sima Gan's wife
  • one unnamed son
Occupation General
Courtesy name Boning (伯寧)
Posthumous name Marquis Jing (景侯)
Peerage Marquis of Changyi
(昌邑侯)

Man Chong (died April or May 242),[1][a] courtesy name Boning, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han dynasty, he is best known for defending the city of Hefei from a series of invasions by Wei's rival state, Eastern Wu, between 230 and 235.[2]

Early life and career[edit]

Man Chong was from Changyi County (昌邑縣), Shanyang Commandery (山陽郡), which is located northwest of present-day Jinxiang County, Shandong. When he was 17, he served as an Investigator (督郵)[b] in his home commandery. At the time, there was a group of armed thugs led by Li Shuo (李朔) who were causing harm to the locals, after the commandery administrator put Man Chong in charge of dealing with them, Li Shuo surrendered to the authorities and never caused trouble again.[3][4]

As Man Chong grew older, he became the Prefect (令) of Gaoping County (高平縣; northwest of present-day Weishan County, Shandong). Around the time, an official Zhang Bao (張苞) was abusing his powers by soliciting bribes and causing trouble for the local administration. One day, Man Chong led his guards into the guesthouse where Zhang Bao stayed and arrested him on allegations of corruption, after Zhang Bao died under torture during the interrogation on the same day, Man Chong resigned and went home.[5][6]

Service under Cao Cao[edit]

As the Prefect of Xu County[edit]

When the warlord Cao Cao held the position of Governor of Yan Province between 191 and 192, he recruited Man Chong to serve as an Assistant Officer (從事) under him. Later, when Cao Cao briefly served as General-in-Chief in 196, he appointed Man Chong as an Assistant in the West Bureau (西曹屬) of his administration. Man Chong was later appointed as the Prefect of Xu County (許縣; present-day Xuchang, Henan), the imperial capital of the Eastern Han dynasty between 196 and 220.[7] During his tenure, Man Chong got into two controversial incidents.

In the first incident, Cao Hong, one of Cao Cao's cousins and trusted generals, had some retainers under him who broke the law while they were in Xu County, after Man Chong arrested and imprisoned the retainers, Cao Hong wrote to him and asked him to release them. When Man Chong ignored his request, Cao Hong brought up the issue to Cao Cao, who summoned the official in charge to come and see him. Man Chong thought that Cao Cao wanted to pardon Cao Hong's retainers, so he immediately executed them. Cao Cao was pleased when he heard about it and he remarked, "Isn't this what an officeholder should do?"[8]

In the second incident, Yang Biao (楊彪), the Grand Commandant, was arrested and imprisoned for allegedly conspiring with Yuan Shu, a warlord who rebelled against the Eastern Han dynasty. Man Chong, who was in charge of interrogating Yang Biao, received requests from his colleagues Xun Yu and Kong Rong to refrain from using torture on Yang Biao during the interrogation. However, Man Chong ignored them and did everything by the book.[9] A few days later, Man Chong reported to Cao Cao: "Yang Biao had nothing to say when I interrogated him, before executing a criminal, we must first produce evidence of his guilt and show it to the public. Yang Biao is a reputable man. If we execute him without sufficient evidence to show that he is guilty, the people will lose faith in us. I hope you will reconsider your decision carefully and not be too hasty in ordering Yang Biao's execution." Cao Cao then released Yang Biao. Xun Yu and Kong Rong were initially angry with Man Chong when they found out that he tortured Yang Biao during the interrogation. However, they became more amiable towards him after they heard what he told Cao Cao.[10]

The historian Pei Songzhi criticised Man Chong for his cruelty and said that he should not have tortured Yang Biao, who had a reputation for being virtuous, from his viewpoint, even though Man Chong deserved praise for doing things by the book, it was not enough to make up for his cruelty.[11]

As the Administrator of Runan Commandery[edit]

In 200 CE, the Battle of Guandu broke out between Cao Cao and his rival, Yuan Shao, whose hometown was in Runan Commandery (汝南郡; covering parts of present-day southeastern Henan and northwestern Anhui). Although Yuan Shao was not in Runan Commandery, he maintained some influence there through his retainers, who led small groups of armed men and had strongholds scattered throughout the commandery. Cao Cao was worried that they would pose a threat to his base in Xu County while he was away at the frontline at Guandu, so he appointed Man Chong as the Administrator (太守) of Runan Commandery to deal with Yuan Shao's retainers.[12]

Upon assuming office, Man Chong managed to induce some of Yuan Shao's retainers and their followers, numbering about 500 people, to surrender, he then led his troops to attack and destroy over 20 strongholds, lured the remaining retainers into a trap and killed over 10 of them. Runan Commandery was thus pacified, during his tenure, Man Chong gained control over 20,000 households, drafted about 2,000 men into military service, and implemented the tuntian policy in the commandery.[13]

In 208, Man Chong led his troops from Runan Commandery to join Cao Cao on a military campaign to conquer Jing Province and attack the rival warlords Sun Quan and Liu Bei. After Cao Cao retreated back to the north following his defeat at the Battle of Red Cliffs in the winter of 208–209, he appointed Man Chong as acting General of Vehement Might (奮威將軍) and ordered him to remain behind in Jing Province to defend Dangyang. However, after Cao Cao's forces lost the Battle of Jiangling against Sun Quan's forces, Cao Cao ordered Man Chong to abandon Dangyang and return to his previous post in Runan Commandery, the Han imperial court awarded Man Chong the title of a Secondary Marquis (關內侯).[14]

Battle of Fancheng[edit]

In 219, Liu Bei's general Guan Yu led his forces to attack Fancheng (樊城, present-day Fancheng District, Xiangyang, Hubei), which was guarded by Cao Ren, one of Cao Cao's cousins and trusted generals. At the time, Man Chong was in Fancheng to assist Cao Ren in resisting Guan Yu's attack, they were thrown into a dangerous situation when heavy rains caused flooding in the region and parts of Fancheng's walls began to crumble. To make matters worse, the flood destroyed the reinforcements led by Cao Cao's general Yu Jin, who surrendered to the enemy. Guan Yu kept pressing the attack on Fancheng all this while.[15]

Someone suggested to Cao Ren to abandon Fancheng and escape while there was still time, since Guan Yu's forces had not completely surrounded Fancheng yet. Man Chong disagreed and said, "The floodwaters may be flowing very fast, but the flood might not last long. Guan Yu had already sent a detachment of troops from his army to station at Jia County (郟縣). There is already much panic and fear among the people living in the lands south of Xu County (許縣). Guan Yu doesn't dare to advance further because he's worried that his base (in southern Jing Province) will come under attack. If we abandon Fancheng and leave, we'll end up losing all the territories south of the river. Sir, you should continue to hold up here." Cao Ren agreed with him. Man Chong drowned his horse and pledged to stay with the soldiers in Fancheng to the end.[16]

When Xu Huang, another of Cao Cao's generals, showed up at Fancheng with reinforcements, Man Chong joined him in attacking Guan Yu and succeeded in breaking the siege on Fancheng, as a reward for his efforts, the Han imperial court promoted Man Chong from a secondary marquis to a village marquis under the title "Marquis of Anchang Village" (安昌亭侯).[17]

Service under Cao Pi[edit]

Following Cao Cao's death in 220, Man Chong continued serving under his son and successor, Cao Pi, who usurped the throne from Emperor Xian later that year, ended the Eastern Han dynasty, and established the state of Cao Wei with himself as the emperor.[18] After his coronation, Cao Pi promoted Man Chong to General Who Spreads Martial Might (揚武將軍).[19]

Sometime between 220 and 222, Man Chong participated in two battles against Wei's rival state, Eastern Wu, founded by Cao Cao's old rival Sun Quan; in the first battle, he defeated Wu forces at Jiangling (江陵; around present-day Jingzhou, Hubei). After the battle, Cao Pi promoted him to General Who Calms the Waves (伏波將軍) and ordered him to station at Xinye (新野; present-day Xinye County, Henan).[20] In the second battle, Man Chong led the Wei army's vanguard force during a Wei campaign against Wu, the vanguard force, under his command, reached the Jing Lake (精湖) and established their position on the side of the lake directly across the enemy's side. Man Chong foresaw that the enemy would attempt to set fire to his camp at night as the winds were strong, so he warned his subordinates and put his troops on high alert, his prediction came true that night. Since they were prepared, Man Chong and his troops successfully repelled the attack and defended their position, as a reward for his contributions, Man Chong was promoted from a village marquis to a district marquis under the title "Marquis of Nan District" (南鄉侯).[21]

In 222, Cao Pi granted Man Chong imperial authority and awarded him a ceremonial axe. Two years later, he promoted Man Chong to General of the Vanguard (前將軍).[22]

Service under Cao Rui[edit]

Following Cao Pi's death in 226, his son Cao Rui succeeded him as the emperor of Wei, after his coronation, Cao Rui elevated Man Chong from the status of a district marquis to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Changyi" (昌邑侯). In 228, he appointed Man Chong as the Inspector (刺史) of Yu Province.[23]

In the spring of 228,[c] defectors from Wei's rival state, Wu, claimed that Wu forces were preparing to attack the territories north of the Yangtze River, with the Wu emperor Sun Quan personally leading his forces. Man Chong deduced that the Wu forces were deliberately spreading misinformation and that their true target was Xiyang County (西陽縣; southwest of present-day Guangshan County, Henan), so he gave orders to strengthen the defences at Xiyang County. When Sun Quan found out, he had no choice but to call off the attack.[24]

In the autumn of the same year,[c] Cao Rui ordered the general Cao Xiu to lead troops from Lujiang Commandery (廬江郡; around present-day Lu'an, Anhui) to Hefei, and Man Chong to lead troops to Xiakou (夏口; in present-day Wuhan, Hubei). Man Chong wrote a memorial to the emperor: "Cao Xiu may be wise and decisive, but he has little experience in battle, the route that he is taking has a lake behind it and the river beside it. It is easy to advance but difficult to retreat. Military leaders tend to avoid travelling across such terrain if possible. If he is going into Wuqiangkou (無彊口), he should be well-prepared." Before Man Chong's memorial reached Cao Rui, however, Cao Xiu and his army had already entered Wuqiangkou, where Wu forces blocked the path and forced them to turn back. As they came under attack while retreating, Zhu Ling showed up with reinforcements to cover their retreat, the Wu forces became fearful upon seeing the arrival of Wei reinforcements, so they retreated as well. Cao Xiu thus managed to escape with his life.[26]

After Cao Xiu died later in 228,[c] Man Chong, as General of the Vanguard, was ordered to replace him as the supervisor of military operations in Yang Province, as Man Chong had gained much support from the locals during his tenure as the Administrator of Runan Commandery, the people in Runan Commandery wanted to follow him when they learnt that he had been reassigned to Yang Province. Man Chong could not stop them. A military officer wrote to the emperor Cao Rui, seeking permission to execute the local leader as a warning to the people to stop making things difficult for Man Chong. However, Cao Rui did not approve and, as a compromise, he allowed Man Chong to bring only 1,000 people with him to Yang Province while the rest had to remain in Runan Commandery.[27]

Battle of Hefei (231)[edit]

In 230, Cao Rui promoted Man Chong to General Who Attacks the East (征東將軍); in the winter of that year, after receiving intelligence that the Wu emperor Sun Quan was planning to attack Hefei, Man Chong immediately requested for reinforcements from Yan and Yu provinces and stepped up the defences at Hefei. When Sun Quan heard about it, he called off the attack on Hefei. Man Chong knew that Sun Quan was only pretending to retreat to put him off guard, and would come back to attack Hefei again once the reinforcements left, he was proven right as Sun Quan attacked Hefei after about 10 days. However, as Hefei was well-defended, Sun Quan's forces could not breach the walls and had to withdraw.[28]

In 231, a Wu officer Sun Bu (孫布) secretly sent a messenger to meet Wang Ling, the Wei inspector of Yang Province, and convey his desire to defect to Wei. Sun Bu also said in his message: "As we are too far apart from each other, I cannot come to you. You will need to send troops to escort me over." Wang Ling then passed the letter to Man Chong and asked him to send a convoy of troops to escort Sun Bu to Yang Province. Man Chong suspected that Sun Bu was pretending to defect so he refused and wrote a reply to Sun Bu in Wang Ling's name: "It is good to hear that you have recognised the folly of your ways and now desire to leave your tyrannical government and return to the path of righteousness, this is truly commendable. However, as much as I would like to send troops to escort you over, I do not think it is a good idea. If I send too few troops, they will not be able to protect you. If I send too many troops, the Wu government will find it suspicious. I think you should secretly make plans for yourself first and act accordingly when the time comes."[29]

Man Chong was not on good terms with his colleague, Wang Ling, who spread rumours that Man Chong was addicted to alcohol, physically unfit for his job, and unruly and defiant. When the rumours reached the Wei imperial capital Luoyang, an official Guo Mou (郭謀) suggested to the emperor to summon Man Chong to Luoyang and see if the rumours were true, as opposed to immediately removing Man Chong from office. Cao Rui heeded the suggestion. When Man Chong met the emperor, he appeared to be in good health and remained sober after consuming one dan of alcohol. Cao Rui thus concluded that the rumours were untrue and ordered Man Chong to return to his post.[30][31] Man Chong, however, wanted to remain in Luoyang so he repeatedly sought permission from Cao Rui but was denied. Cao Rui told him, "In the past, Lian Po ate and drank heavily to show that he was in good health, while Ma Yuan turned his body to look backward while he was on horseback to show that he was still fit for battle. You aren't even old, yet you say you're old. Why don't you compare yourself with Lian Po and Ma Yuan? You should be thinking about defending the border and serving your country."[32]

Before Man Chong left for Luoyang, he instructed his chief clerk, who was in charge during his absence, to not give Wang Ling command of any of his troops. Wang Ling, unable to get any troops from Man Chong's units, had to send his own subordinates and 700 soldiers from his own units to meet Sun Bu, as Man Chong foresaw, Sun Bu was indeed pretending to defect. Wang Ling's subordinates and 700 men fell into an ambush and suffered heavy casualties.[33]

Battle of Lujiang (232)[edit]

In 232, when the Wu general Lu Xun led troops to attack Lujiang Commandery (廬江郡; around present-day Lu'an, Anhui), Man Chong's subordinates urged him to send reinforcements there. However, Man Chong refused and said, "Lujiang may be small, but its troops are well-trained and seasoned in battle, they can definitely defend Lujiang for some time. Besides, as the enemy has left their ships and travelled 200 li deep into our territory, their rear must be unguarded. We should use this opportunity to lure them deeper into our territory and wait for an opportunity to strike back. Let's allow them to push further in. By the time they want to retreat, it'll be too late for them." He then assembled his troops and waited at Yangyikou (楊宜口). When the Wu forces heard about it, they immediately retreated that night, at the time, as the Wu emperor Sun Quan was eager to conquer Yang Province, he came up with new plans for invasion every year.[34]

Battle of Hefei (233)[edit]

In 233, Man Chong wrote a memorial to the Wei imperial court, seeking permission to move the troops out of Hefei and station them in an area some 30 li west of the city, and build a fortress there. His plan was meant to lure Wu forces to attack a weakly defended Hefei, cut off their retreat route, and use the opportunity to destroy them.[35] Jiang Ji, a Wei official, disagreed with Man Chong's plan because he believed that the Wu forces would see the drastic reduction in Hefei's defences as a sign of weakness on Wei's part, and become more emboldened to attack and pillage the city. The Wei emperor Cao Rui thought that Jiang Ji made sense so he did not approve Man Chong's idea.[36]

Man Chong sent in another memorial to argue that his plan would work because it would mislead the Wu forces into thinking that they were giving up on Hefei and lure them deeper into Wei territory, where they would lose their advantage in naval warfare and become more vulnerable, he also quoted lines from The Art of War in his memorial to support his point on using deception to lure the enemy into a trap. Zhao Zi (趙咨), a Wei official, supported Man Chong's idea and managed to convince Cao Rui to approve it.[37]

Later that year, the Wu emperor Sun Quan personally led his forces to attack Hefei and wanted to besiege the newly constructed fortress, known as Xincheng (新城; literally "new fortress/city"), at the west of Hefei. However, as Xincheng was too far from the riverbank, the Wu forces were hesitant to launch an all-out attack, they remained on their ships on the river for about 20 days.[38]

Man Chong gathered his subordinates and told them, "Sun Quan knows that I have moved the troops out of Hefei. He'll definitely want to put on a show of might so that he can brag about how powerful his army is, although he doesn't have the courage to push further in and attack Xincheng, he'll definitely send his troops ashore just to show off how big his army is." He then ordered 6,000 troops to lie in ambush in Hefei and wait for the Wu soldiers to come ashore. As Man Chong predicted, Sun Quan did order his troops to go ashore and put on a show of might. When that happened, the 6,000 troops in Hefei launched a sudden and fierce attack on them. Hundreds of Wu soldiers were killed while some drowned as they tried to flee back to their ships.[39]

Battle of Hefei (234)[edit]

In 234, Sun Quan personally led a 100,000-strong army to attack Xincheng, Hefei. Man Chong recruited dozens of fierce warriors to make torches from tree branches, douse them with oil, and take advantage of the winds to set fire to the Wu army's siege engines and destroy them. Sun Quan's nephew, Sun Tai, was killed in the battle.[40] Sun Quan withdrew his forces.[41]

In the spring of 235, Sun Quan sent a few thousand of his soldiers and their families to farm on the north banks of the Yangtze as part of a tuntian programme. By early autumn, Man Chong deduced that it was the harvest season, so the Wu soldiers and their families would be out in the fields collecting the harvest, and their strongholds would thus be undefended, he then sent his troops to launch a surprise attack on them, destroying their strongholds and burning down their crops. Cao Rui issued an imperial decree to praise Man Chong and award the spoils of war to Man Chong's troops.[42]

Later career[edit]

Sometime between 22 March and 20 April 239, Man Chong retired from military service in Hefei and returned to the Wei imperial capital, Luoyang, where he served as Grand Commandant (太尉) in the imperial court. Throughout his life, he did not accumulate wealth for his family and was quite poor in his old age, the Wei emperor Cao Rui issued an imperial decree to praise Man Chong for his loyalty and dedication, and award him 10 qing of land, 500 hu of grain and 200,000 coins. The total number of taxable households in Man Chong's marquisate increased over the years until it reached 9,600. One of his sons and one of his grandsons were enfeoffed as village marquises.[43]

Death[edit]

Man Chong died sometime between 17 April and 18 May 242[a] during the reign of Cao Rui's adopted son and successor, Cao Fang. He was honoured with the posthumous title "Marquis Jing" (景侯) after death.[1]

Appraisal[edit]

Chen Shou, who wrote Man Chong's biography in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, appraised him as follows: "Man Chong was ambitious, resolute, courageous and resourceful."[45]

Descendants[edit]

Man Chong had at least three sons and one daughter, he and his son Man Wei and grandsons Man Changwu and Man Fen were all described as eight chi tall.[46]

  • Man Wei (滿偉), whose courtesy name was Gongheng (公衡), inherited his father's peerage and marquisate as the Marquis of Changyi (昌邑侯). He was known for being morally upright and magnanimous. Like his father, he served in the Cao Wei state and the highest appointment he held was Minister of the Guards (衞尉).[47]
    • Man Changwu (滿長武) was Man Wei's eldest son and he resembled his grandfather Man Chong in character. When he was 23, he started served as an assistant under Sima Zhao,[48] the regent and de facto ruler of the Cao Wei state in its final years. In 260, when the Wei emperor Cao Mao launched a coup in an attempt to seize back power from Sima Zhao, Man Changwu was in charge of guarding one of the palace gates. Sima Zhao's younger brother, Sima Gan (司馬幹), led his men to the palace to assist Sima Zhao, but Man Changwu refused to let him pass and told him to enter through another gate instead. Later, when Sima Zhao asked Sima Gan why he was late, Sima Gan told him what happened. Wang Xian (王羨), a military adviser to Sima Zhao, was also denied entry so he bore a grudge against Man Changwu and later often spoke ill of him in front of Sima Zhao;[49] in 257, when a rebellion broke out in Shouchun, Sima Zhao ordered Man Wei to join him in suppressing the rebellion. When Man Wei reached Xuchang, he fell sick so he remained in Xuchang and did not meet up with Sima Zhao at Shouchun. When Man Changwu, who was with Sima Zhao at Shouchun, heard about his father's illness, he left Shouchun and went to Xuchang to see his father. Sima Zhao was very unhappy with Man Changwu because of this. Later, he found an excuse to order Man Changwu's arrest and imprisonment. Man Changwu died under torture while in prison, while his father Man Wei was stripped of his titles and reduced to the status of a commoner. Many people saw this incident as a grievous injustice to Man Wei and Man Changwu.[50]
  • Man Bing (滿炳) had the courtesy name Gongyan (公琰) and he served as a Major of Separate Command (別部司馬) in the Wei army.[51]
  • Man Chong's daughter married Sima Gan (司馬幹), a younger brother of the Wei regent Sima Zhao.[52]
  • Man Chong had another unnamed son, who was younger than Man Wei.[53]
    • Man Fen (滿奮) was the son of Man Chong's unnamed son. He was known for being understanding, cultured, virtuous and discerning, and for resembling his grandfather Man Chong in character, he served in the government of the Jin dynasty (265–420) and rose to the positions of Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令) and Colonel-Director of Retainers (司隷校尉) during the reign of Emperor Hui.[53][54][55]

In popular culture[edit]

Man Chong is a playable character in the ninth instalment of the Dynasty Warriors video game series by Koei Tecmo.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cao Fang's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Man Chong died in the 3rd month of the 3rd year of the Zhengshi era in Cao Fang's reign.[44] This month corresponds to 17 April to 18 May 242 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ A duyou (督郵; variously translated as "Investigator" or "Inspector") was an official representative of the Administrator (太守), the highest-ranked administrative officer in a commandery. His role was to patrol the counties in the commandery and audit/review the county-level officials' work.
  3. ^ a b c Man Chong's biography in the Sanguozhi mentioned that these events took place in the 3rd year of the Taihe era (227–233) of Cao Rui's reign, i.e., the year 229. This is a mistake, it was actually in the 2nd year of the Taihe era, i.e., the year 228, according to the Zizhi Tongjian.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c (正始三年薨,謚曰景侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  2. ^ de Crespigny (2007), pp. 662-663.
  3. ^ (滿寵字伯寧,山陽昌邑人也。年十八,為郡督郵。時郡內李朔等各擁部曲,害于平民,太守使寵糾焉。朔等請罪,不復鈔略。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  4. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 424.
  5. ^ (守高平令。縣人張苞為郡督郵,貪穢受取,干亂吏政。寵因其來在傳舍,率吏卒出收之,詰責所犯,即日考竟,遂棄官歸。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  6. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 1034.
  7. ^ (太祖臨兖州,辟為從事。及為大將軍,辟署西曹屬,為許令。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  8. ^ (時曹洪宗室親貴,有賔客在界,數犯法,寵收治之。洪書報寵,寵不聽。洪白太祖,太祖召許主者。寵知將欲原,乃速殺之。太祖喜曰:「當事不當耳邪?」) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  9. ^ (故太尉楊彪收付縣獄,尚書令荀彧、少府孔融等並屬寵:「但當受辭,勿加考掠。」寵一無所報,考訊如法。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  10. ^ (數日,求見太祖,言之曰:「楊彪考訊無他辭語。當殺者宜先彰其罪;此人有名海內,若罪不明,必大失民望,竊為明公惜之。」太祖即日赦出彪。初,彧、融聞考掠彪,皆怒,及因此得了,更善寵。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  11. ^ (臣松之以為楊公積德之門,身為名臣,縱有愆負,猶宜保祐,況淫刑所濫,而可加其楚掠乎?若理應考訊,荀、孔二賢豈其妄有相請屬哉?寵以此為能,酷吏之用心耳。雖有後善,何解前虐?) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  12. ^ (時袁紹盛於河朔,而汝南紹之本郡,門生賔客布在諸縣,擁兵拒守。太祖憂之,以寵為汝南太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  13. ^ (寵募其服從者五百人,率攻下二十餘壁,誘其未降渠帥,於坐上殺十餘人,一時皆平。得戶二萬,兵二千人,令就田業。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  14. ^ (建安十三年,從太祖征荊州。大軍還,留寵行奮威將軍,屯當陽。孫權數擾東陲,復召寵還為汝南太守,賜爵關內侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  15. ^ (關羽圍襄陽,寵助征南將軍曹仁屯樊城拒之,而左將軍于禁等軍以霖雨水長為羽所沒。羽急攻樊城,樊城得水,往往崩壞,衆皆失色。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  16. ^ (或謂仁曰:「今日之危,非力所支。可及羽圍未合,乘輕船夜走,雖失城,尚可全身。」寵曰:「山水速疾,兾其不久。聞羽遣別將已在郟下,自許以南,百姓擾擾,羽所以不敢遂進者,恐吾軍掎其後耳。今若遁去,洪河以南,非復國家有也;君宜待之。」仁曰:「善。」寵乃沈白馬,與軍人盟誓。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  17. ^ (會徐晃等救至,寵力戰有功,羽遂退。進封安昌亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  18. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 69.
  19. ^ (文帝即王位,遷揚武將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  20. ^ (破吳於江陵有功,更拜伏波將軍,屯新野。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  21. ^ (大軍南征,到精湖,寵帥諸軍在前,與賊隔水相對。寵勑諸將曰:「今夕風甚猛,賊必來燒軍,宜為其備。」諸軍皆警。夜半,賊果遣十部伏夜來燒,寵掩擊破之,進封南鄉侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  22. ^ (黃初三年,假寵節鉞。五年,拜前將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  23. ^ (明帝即位,進封昌邑侯。太和二年,領豫州刺史。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  24. ^ (三年春,降人稱吳大嚴,揚聲欲詣江北獵,孫權欲自出。寵度其必襲西陽而為之備,權聞之,退還。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  25. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 71.
  26. ^ (秋,使曹休從廬江南入合肥,令寵向夏口。寵上疏曰:「曹休雖明果而希用兵,今所從道,背湖旁江,易進難退,此兵之窪地也。若入無彊口,宜深為之備。」寵表未報,休遂深入。賊果從無彊口斷夾石,要休還路。休戰不利,退走。會朱靈等從後來斷道,與賊相遇。賊驚走,休軍乃得還。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  27. ^ (是歲休薨,寵以前將軍代都督揚州諸軍事。汝南兵民戀慕,大小相率,奔隨道路,不可禁止。護軍表上,欲殺其為首者。詔使寵將親兵千人自隨,其餘一無所問。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  28. ^ (四年,拜寵征東將軍。其冬,孫權揚聲欲至合肥,寵表召兖、豫諸軍,皆集。賊尋退還,被詔罷兵。寵以為今賊大舉而還,非本意也,此必欲偽退以罷吾兵,而倒還乘虛,掩不備也,表不罷兵。後十餘日,權果更來,到合肥城,不克而還。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  29. ^ (其明年,吳將孫布遣人詣揚州求降,辭云:「道遠不能自致,乞兵見迎。」刺史王淩騰布書,請兵馬迎之。寵以為必詐,不與兵,而作報書曰:「知識邪正,欲避禍就順,去暴歸道,甚相嘉尚。今欲遣兵相迎,然計兵少則不足相衞,多則事必遠聞。且先密計以成本志,臨時節度其宜。」) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  30. ^ (世語曰:王淩表寵年過耽酒,不可居方任。帝將召寵,給事中郭謀曰:「寵為汝南太守、豫州刺史二十餘年,有勳方岳。及鎮淮南,吳人憚之。若不如所表,將為所闚。可令還朝,問以方事以察之。」帝從之。寵旣至,進見,飲酒至一石不亂。帝慰勞之,遣還。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  31. ^ (初,寵與淩共事不平,淩支黨毀寵疲老悖謬,故明帝召之。旣至,體氣康彊,見而遣還。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  32. ^ (寵屢表求留,詔報曰:「昔廉頗彊食,馬援據鞌,今君未老而自謂已老,何與廉、馬之相背邪?其思安邊境,惠此中國。」) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  33. ^ (寵會被書當入朝,勑留府長史:「若淩欲往迎,勿與兵也。」淩於後索兵不得,乃單遣一督將步騎七百人往迎之。布夜掩擊,督將迸走,死傷過半。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  34. ^ (明年,吴將陸遜向廬江,論者以為宜速赴之。寵曰:「廬江雖小,將勁兵精,守則經時。又賊舍船二百里來,後尾空縣,尚欲誘致,今宜聽其遂進,但恐走不可及耳。」整軍趨楊宜口。賊聞大兵東下,即夜遁。時權歲有來計。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  35. ^ (青龍元年,寵上疏曰:「合肥城南臨江湖,北遠壽春,賊攻圍之,得據水為勢;官兵救之,當先破賊大輩,然後圍乃得解。賊往甚易,而兵往救之甚難,宜移城內之兵,其西三十里,有奇險可依,更立城以固守,此為引賊平地而掎其歸路,於計為便。」) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  36. ^ (護軍將軍蔣濟議,以為:「旣示天下以弱,且望賊煙火而壞城,此為未攻而自拔。一至於此,劫略無限,必以淮北為守。」帝未許。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  37. ^ (寵重表曰:「孫子言,兵者,詭道也。故能而示之以弱不能,驕之以利,示之以懾。此為形實不必相應也。又曰『善動敵者形之』。今賊未至而移城却內,此所謂形而誘之也。引賊遠水,擇利而動,舉得於外,則福生於內矣。」尚書趙咨以寵策為長,詔遂報聽。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  38. ^ (其年,權自出,欲圍新城,以其遠水,積二十日不敢下舡。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  39. ^ (寵謂諸將曰:「權得吾移城,必於其衆中有自大之言,今大舉來欲要一切之功,雖不敢至,必當上岸耀兵以示有餘。」乃潛遣步騎六千,伏肥城隱處以待之。權果上岸耀兵,寵伏軍卒起擊之,斬首數百,或有赴水死者。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  40. ^ de Crespigny (2007), pp. 776-777.
  41. ^ (明年,權自將號十萬,至合肥新城。寵馳往赴,募壯士數十人,折松為炬,灌以麻油,從上風放火,燒賊攻具,射殺權弟子孫泰。賊於是引退。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  42. ^ (三年春,權遣兵數千家佃於江北。至八月,寵以為田向收孰,男女布野,其屯衞兵去城遠者數百里,可掩擊也。遣長史督三軍循江東下,摧破諸屯,焚燒穀物而還。詔羙之,因以所獲盡為將士賞。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  43. ^ (景初二年,以寵年老徵還,遷為太尉。寵不治產業,家無餘財。詔曰:「君典兵在外,專心憂公,有行父、祭遵之風。賜田十頃,糓五百斛,錢二十萬,以明清忠儉約之節焉。」寵前後增邑,凡九千六百戶,封子孫二人亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  44. ^ ([正始三年]三月,太尉滿寵薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 4.
  45. ^ (評曰:滿寵立志剛毅,勇而有謀。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  46. ^ (寵、偉、長武、奮,皆長八尺。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  47. ^ (子偉嗣。偉以格度知名,官至衞尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  48. ^ (世語曰:偉字公衡。偉子長武,有寵風,年二十四,為大將軍掾。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  49. ^ (高貴鄉公之難,以掾守閶闔掖門,司馬文王弟安陽亭侯幹欲入。 ... 長武謂幹曰:「此門近,公且來,無有入者,可從東掖門。」幹遂從之。文王問幹入何遲,幹言其故。參軍王羨亦不得入,恨之。旣而羨因王左右啟王,滿掾斷門不內人,宜推劾。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  50. ^ (壽春之役,偉從文王至許,以疾不進。子從,求還省疾,事定乃從歸,由此內見恨。收長武考死杖下,偉免為庶人。時人冤之。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  51. ^ (賈弼之山公表注曰:滿寵,子炳,字公琰,為別部司馬。) Jia Bizhi's Shangong Biao Zhu annotation in Wen Xuan vol. 42.
  52. ^ ([司馬文王弟安陽亭侯]幹妃,偉妹也。)
  53. ^ a b (偉弟子奮,晉元康中至尚書令、司隷校尉。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  54. ^ (荀綽兾州記曰:奮性清平,有識檢。) Xun Chuo's Jizhou Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  55. ^ (晉諸公讚曰:奮體量通雅,有寵風也。) Jin Zhu Gong Zan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 26.