Courtney Michelle Love is an American singer, songwriter and visual artist. A notable figure in the punk and grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love's career has spanned four decades, she rose to prominence as the lead vocalist of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. Love has drawn public attention for her uninhibited live performances and confrontational lyrics, as well as her publicized personal life following her marriage to Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain. Born to countercultural parents in San Francisco, Love had an itinerant childhood, but was raised in Portland, where she played in a series of short-lived bands and was active in the local punk scene. After being interned in a juvenile hall, she spent a year abroad living in Dublin and Liverpool before returning to the United States and being cast in the Alex Cox films Sid and Nancy and Straight to Hell, she formed Hole in Los Angeles, receiving attention from underground rock press for the group's 1991 debut album, produced by Kim Gordon.
Hole's second release, Live Through This, was met with multi-platinum sales. In 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Althea Leasure in Miloš Forman's The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress; the following year, Celebrity Skin, was nominated for three Grammy Awards. Love continued to work as an actress into the early 2000s, appearing in big-budget pictures such as Man on the Moon and Trapped, before releasing her first solo album, America's Sweetheart, in 2004; the next years were marked by publicity surrounding Love's legal troubles and drug addiction, which resulted in a mandatory lockdown rehabilitation sentence in 2005 while she was writing a second solo album. That project became Nobody's Daughter, released in 2010 as a Hole album but without the former Hole lineup. Between 2014 and 2015, Love released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Sons of Anarchy and Empire. Love has been active as a writer.
In 2012, she premiered an exhibit of mixed media visual art. Love was born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9, 1964, at Saint Francis Memorial Hospital in San Francisco, the first child of psychotherapist Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, a publisher and road manager for the Grateful Dead. Love's godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh, her mother, adopted at birth and raised by a prominent Italian-Catholic family in San Francisco, was revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. According to Love, she was named after Courtney Farrell, the protagonist of Pamela Moore's 1956 novel Chocolates for Breakfast, she is of Cuban, German and Welsh descent. Love spent her early years in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco until her parents' 1969 divorce, spurred by her mother's allegations that her father had fed Courtney LSD when she was a toddler. Though he denied the claim, full custody of Love was awarded to her mother. In 1970, Carroll relocated with Love to the rural community of Marcola, Oregon where they lived along the Mohawk River while she completed her psychology degree at the University of Oregon.
There, Love was adopted by Frank Rodriguez. He and her mother had two daughters and a son who died in infancy of a heart defect when Love was ten. Love attended a Montessori school in Eugene, where she struggled academically and had trouble making friends. At age nine, a psychologist noted. In 1972, Love's mother divorced Rodriguez and moved the family to Nelson, New Zealand. There, she enrolled Love from which she was soon expelled. In 1973, she was sent back to live in the United States, where she was raised in Portland, Oregon by her former stepfather and other family friends. During this time, her mother gave birth to two of Love's other half-brothers. At age fourteen, she was arrested for shoplifting a T-shirt from a Woolworth's, was sent to Hillcrest Correctional Facility, a juvenile hall in Salem, Oregon, she was subsequently placed in foster care until she became emancipated at age 16. She supported herself by working illegally as a topless dancer at Mary's Club in downtown Portland adopting the last name "Love" to conceal her identity.
She worked various odd jobs, including picking berries at a farm in Troutdale, as a disc jockey at a gay disco. During this time, she enrolled at Portland State University, studying philosophy. Love has said that she "didn't have a lot of social skills," and that she learned them while frequenting gay clubs and spending time with drag queens. In 1981, she was granted a small trust fund, left by her adoptive grandparents, which she used to travel to Dublin, where her biological father was living. While there, she enrolled in courses at Trinity College, she would receive honorary patronage from Trinity's University Philosophical Society in 2010. After leaving Trinity, Love relocated to Liverpool, where she became acquainted with musician Julian Cope and his band, The Teardrop Explodes, lived in his house. "They kind of took me in", she recalled. "I was sort of a mascot. In Cope's autobiography Head-On, Love is
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Marubeni Corporation is a sōgō shōsha headquartered in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan. It is the fifth-largest sogo shosha and has leading market shares in cereal and paper pulp trading as well as a strong electrical and industrial plant business. Marubeni is a member of the Mizuho keiretsu. Marubeni was established in 1918 as Itochu Shoten, Ltd. in a spin-off of certain sales divisions of C. Itoh & Co. into a separate entity. Itochu Shoten merged with Itoh Chobei Shoten in 1921 to form Marubeni Shoten, Ltd. under the leadership of Chobei Itoh IX. Marubeni started out as a textile trading firm and expanded to trade in other consumer and industrial goods during the 1920s. Marubeni was re-combined with Itochu during World War II to form Sanko Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. and Daiken Company, Ltd.. This conglomerate was dismantled in the wake of the war and Marubeni again emerged as a separate trading company in 1949. Post-war Marubeni was predominantly a textile trading firm at its outset, but diversified into machinery and chemicals, with textiles forming a majority of its business by the end of the decade.
Marubeni merged with Takashimaya-Iida, a trading company that owned the Takashimaya department store chain, in 1955, changing its name to Marubeni-Iida from 1955 to 1972. The merger was orchestrated by Fuji Bank in order to create a stronger trading company partner for the bank's corporate customers. Marubeni and Fuji Bank developed a network of corporate clients, formalized as the Fuyo Group keiretsu in the 1960s, paralleling the development of the DKB Group and Sanwa Group; the Fuyo Group included Hitachi, Canon, Showa Denko and Nippon Steel. Marubeni was rocked by a series of scandals in the 1980s. In the early 1970s Marubeni was accused of hoarding rice on the black market for profiteering purposes. In 1976, numerous Marubeni and All Nippon Airways executives were arrested in connection with the bribery of Japanese government officials to support the sales of Lockheed aircraft in Japan. In 1986, Marubeni was found to have bribed Filipino President Ferdinand Marcos and several of his friends and associates in connection with Japanese ODA work in the Philippines.
Marubeni, like other sogo shosha, was hit hard by the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in the early 1990s and recorded its first annual net loss in 1998. The company again booked massive losses as part of a restructuring in 2001, with its stock price plummeting to 58 yen per share in December 2001. Marubeni acquired a large minority stake in the Daiei supermarket chain in 2006, which it sold to Æon Group in 2013. In January 2012, Marubeni Corporation agreed to pay a US$54.6 million criminal penalty to settle multiple US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act charges relating to its work as an agent for the TSKJ joint venture. The TSKJ joint venture comprising Technip, Snamprogetti Netherlands, Kellogg Brown & Root and JGC Corporation hired Marubeni to bribe lower-level Nigerian government officials to help it obtain and retain contracts to build liquefied natural gas facilities on Bonny Island in Nigeria. TSKJ paid Marubeni US$51 million, intended, in part, to be used to bribe Nigerian government officials.
Two years and just months after its final settlement in the Nigerian case, Marubeni was charged under the FCPA for bribing Indonesian officials in order to secure a $118 million power project contract for a joint venture between Marubeni and Alstom. The Tokyo Stock Exchange recognized Marubeni as the best Japanese company at increasing enterprise value in 2013, citing management's efforts to maximize return on equity. In September 2018, The Russian Direct Investment Fund, Marubeni Corporation and Russia's AEON Corporation agreed to develop an industrial facility in Volgograd; the total investment is estimated at over $800 million with construction due to start in 2020. In September 2018, Marubeni announced to shift from coal to renewable energy resources. Marubeni's head office moved to the Tokyo Nihombashi Tower in 2016; the company plans to construct a dedicated head office building in the future. The company has a total of eleven offices in Japan, 59 overseas offices and 30 overseas subsidiaries with 61 offices, for a total of 120 offices in 66 countries.
Marubeni's business is organized in five groups: Food & Consumer Products Group - Trades in grain and food products, functional materials and rubber, provides logistics, insurance and real estate services. Has a strategic partnership with Want Want China. Chemical & Forest Products Group - Trades in chemicals and paper and distributes solar panels and energy storage units. One major unit is the Helena Chemical Company, the second-largest agricultural chemical distributor in the US, which Marubeni acquired from Bayer in 1987. Energy & Metals Group - Trades in oil, nuclear fuel, iron and other metals and minerals. Power Projects & Plant Group - Develops power plants, environmental plants, marine projects, industrial plants and transport infrastructure. Projects include the Westermost Rough Wind Farm in the UK, FSRU and FPSO projects in South America, operation of the G:link light rail in Australia. Transportation & Industrial Machinery Group - Trades in aircraft, ships and construction and industrial machinery.
The Marubeni Aerospace Corporation is a major component of this group, making up part of the group's Aerospace & Ship Division. MAC was formed in 1998 when Marubeni acquired the trading rights and other assets of the former aerospace division of Oku
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche, such as credulity, naïveté, vanity and greed. Researchers Lindsey Huang and Barak Orbach defined the scheme as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators at the expense of their victims". The perpetrator of a confidence trick is referred to as a confidence man, con-artist, or a "grifter". Samuel Thompson was the original "confidence man". Thompson was a clumsy swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people watches. Thompson was arrested in July 1849. Reporting about this arrest, Dr. James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, publicized Thompson by naming him the "Confidence Man".
Although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator because Houston's satirical writing wasn't understood as such. The National Police Gazette coined the term "confidence game" a few weeks after Houston first used the name "confidence man". A confidence trick is known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko, a swindle, a flimflam, a gaffle, or a bamboozle; the intended victims are known as marks, stooges, rubes, or gulls. When accomplices are employed, they are known as shills. A short con or small con is a fast swindle, it aims to rob the victim of everything in his wallet. A long con or big con is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, extras and scripted lines, it aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuable things by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts and borrow from family members. In Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the "six definite steps or stages of growth" of a confidence game.
He notes. Foundation Work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required. Approach The victim is contacted. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from a scheme; the victim's greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or Convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the scheme's effectiveness; this faked in some way. In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win several small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends; the Hurrah A sudden crisis or change of events forces the victim to act immediately. This is the point at which the con fails; the In-and-In A conspirator puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy to the scheme. This can reassure the victim, give the con man greater control when the deal has been completed. In addition, some games require a "corroboration" step those involving a "rare item".
This includes the use of an accomplice who plays the part of an uninvolved third party, who confirms the claims made by the con man. Confidence tricks exploit typical human characteristics such as greed, vanity, lust, credulity, desperation, naïvety; as such, there is no consistent profile of a confidence trick victim. Victims of investment scams tend to show an incautious level of greed and gullibility, many con artists target the elderly, but alert and educated people may be taken in by other forms of a confidence trick. Researchers Huang and Orbach argue: Cons succeed for inducing judgment errors—chiefly, errors arising from imperfect information and cognitive biases. In popular culture and among professional con men, the human vulnerabilities that cons exploit are depicted as ‘dishonesty,’ ‘greed,’ and ‘gullibility’ of the marks. Dishonesty represented by the expression ‘you can’t cheat an honest man,’ refers to the willingness of marks to participate in unlawful acts, such as rigged gambling and embezzlement.
Greed, the desire to ‘get something for nothing,’ is a shorthand expression of marks’ beliefs that too-good-to-be-true gains are realistic. Gullibility reflects beliefs that marks are ‘suckers’ and ‘fools’ for entering into costly voluntary exchanges. Judicial opinions echo these sentiments. Accomplices known as shills, help manipulate the mark into accepting the perpetrator's plan. In a traditional confidence trick, the mark is led to believe that he will be able to win money or some other prize by doing some task; the accomplices may pretend to be strangers. Bell, J. Bowyer. Cheating and Deception. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0887388682. Blundell, Nigel; the World's Greatest Crooks and Conmen and other mischievous malefactors. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 978-0706421446. Dillon, Eamon; the Fraudsters: Sharks and Charlatans – How Con Artists Make Their Money. Merlin Publishing. ISBN 978-1903582824. Ford, Charl
Psychic surgery is a pseudoscientific medical fraud in which the practitioner creates the illusion of performing surgery with their bare hands and uses trickery, fake blood, animal parts to convince the patient that the diseased lesions have been removed and that the incision has spontaneously healed. It has been denounced by the US Federal Trade Commission as a "total hoax", the American Cancer Society maintains that psychic surgery may cause needless death by keeping the ill away from life-saving medical care. Medical professionals and skeptics classify it as sleight of hand and any positive results as a placebo effect, it first appeared in the Spiritualist communities of the Philippines and Brazil in the middle of the 20th century, it has taken different paths in those two countries. Although psychic surgery varies by region and practitioner, it follows some common lines. Without the use of a surgical instrument, a practitioner will press the tips of his/her fingers against the patient's skin in the area to be treated.
The practitioner's hands appear to penetrate into the patient's body painlessly and blood seems to flow. The practitioner will show organic matter or foreign objects removed from the patient's body, clean the area, end the procedure with the patient's skin showing no wounds or scars. Most cases do not involve actual surgery. In regions of the world where belief in evil spirits is prevalent, practitioners will sometimes exhibit objects, such as glass, explaining that the foreign bodies were placed in the patient's body by evil spirits. Accounts of psychic surgery started to appear in the Spiritualist communities of the Philippines and Brazil in the mid-1900s. In the Philippines, the procedure was first noticed in the 1940s, when performed by Eleuterio Terte. Terte and his pupil Tony Agpaoa, associated with the Union Espiritista Christiana de Filipinas, trained others in this procedure. In 1959, the procedure came to the attention of the U. S. public after the publication of Into the Strange Unknown by Ron Ormond and Ormond McGill.
The authors called the practice "fourth dimensional surgery," and wrote " still don’t know what to think. Filipino psychic surgeons known as spiritual/magnetic healers."Alex Orbito, who became well known in the United States through his association with actress Shirley MacLaine was a practitioner of the procedure. On June 14, 2005, Orbito was indicted for fraud. On Jan 20, 2006, the charges were dropped as it seemed unlikely that Orbito would be convicted. Psychic surgery made U. S. tabloid headlines in March 1984 when entertainer Andy Kaufman, diagnosed with large cell carcinoma, traveled to the Philippines for a six-week course of psychic surgery. Practitioner Jun Labo claimed to have removed large cancerous tumors and Kaufman declared he believed this cancer had been removed. Kaufman died from renal failure as consequence of a metastatic lung cancer, on May 16, 1984; the origins of the practice in Brazil are obscure. Many of them were associated with Spiritism, a major spiritualistic movement in Brazil and claimed to be performing their operations as channels for spirits of deceased medical doctors.
A known Brazilian psychic healer who practiced psychic surgery was Zé Arigó, who claimed to be channeling for a deceased medical doctor of name Dr. Fritz. Unlike most other psychic healers, who work bare-handed, Arigó used a non-surgical blade. Other psychic healers who claimed to channel for Dr. Fritz were Edson Queiroz and Rubens Farias Jr.. Popular today is João de Faria known as João de Deus, a quack operating in Abadiânia, state of Goiás. According to the descriptions of Yoshiaki Omura, Brazilian psychic surgery appears to be different from that practiced in the Philippines. Omura calls attention to the fact that practitioners in Brazil use techniques resembling Qigong, Shiatsu massage, chiropractic manipulation; some patients are injected with a brown liquid, alleged minor surgery was performed in about 20% of the cases observed. While Arigó performed his procedures using kitchen knives in improvised settings, Omura reports that the clamping of blood vessels and the closing of the surgical wounds are now performed by licensed surgeons or licensed nurses.
In the 1970s a specific form of surgery known as psychic dentistry emerged in America. Willard Fuller was the most well known proponent, it was alleged that Fuller could cause dental fillings to appear spontaneously, change silver into golden fillings, straighten crooked teeth or produce new teeth. However and skeptics have found these claims to be unsupported by solid evidence. One dentist examined some patients of Fuller. In one case miraculous gold fillings turned out to be tobacco stains. In another case a female patient who reported a miraculous new silver filling admitted she had forgotten that the filling was there. In 1975, the Federal Trade Commission declared that "'psychic surgery' "is nothing but a total hoax"." Judge Daniel H. Hanscom, when granting the FTC an injunction against travel agencies promoting psychic surgery tours, declared: "Psychic surgery is pure and unmitigated fakery. The'surgical operation
Daniel Michael DeVito Jr. is an American actor and filmmaker. He gained prominence for his portrayal of the taxi dispatcher Louie De Palma in the television series Taxi, which won him a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy Award, he plays Frank Reynolds on the FX and FXX sitcom It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia. He is known for his film roles in One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Terms of Endearment Throw Momma from the Train, The War of the Roses, Batman Returns, Get Shorty, Mars Attacks!, L. A. Confidential, Man on the Moon, Wiener-Dog and most his Dumbo, he is known for his voiceovers in such films as Space Jam and The Lorax. DeVito and Michael Shamberg founded Jersey Films. Soon afterwards, Stacey Sher became an equal partner; the production company is known for films such as Pulp Fiction, Garden State, Freedom Writers. DeVito owned Jersey Television, which produced the Comedy Central series Reno 911!. DeVito and wife Rhea Perlman starred together in his 1996 film Matilda, based on Roald Dahl's children's novel.
DeVito was one of the producers nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture for Erin Brockovich. DeVito's short stature is the result of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, a rare genetic disorder that affects bone growth. DeVito was born in Neptune Township, New Jersey, the son of Daniel DeVito Sr. a small business owner, Julia DeVito. He grew up with his parents and two older sisters, he is of Italian descent. He was raised in New Jersey. DeVito was raised as a Catholic; when he was 14, he persuaded his father to send him to boarding school to "keep him out of trouble", graduated from Oratory Preparatory School in Summit, New Jersey in 1962. He trained at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, where he graduated in 1966. In his early theater days, he performed with the Colonnades Theater Lab at the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center in Waterford, and, along with his future wife Rhea Perlman, appeared in plays produced by the Westbeth Playwrights Feminist Collective. DeVito played Martini in the 1975 film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, reprising his role from the 1971 off-Broadway play of the same title.
He gained fame in 1978 playing Louie De Palma, the short but domineering dispatcher for the fictional Sunshine Cab Company, on the hit TV show Taxi. When Taxi ended, DeVito began a successful film career, first appearing as Vernon Dalhart in the 1983 hit Terms of Endearment. In 1986, DeVito starred in Ruthless People with Bette Midler and Judge Reinhold, in 1987 he made his feature-directing debut with the dark comedy Throw Momma from the Train, in which he starred with Billy Crystal and Anne Ramsey, he reunited with Douglas and Turner two years in The War of the Roses, which he directed and in which he co-starred. DeVito's work during this time included Other People's Money with Gregory Peck. Although a comic actor, DeVito expanded into dramatic roles with The Rainmaker. A. Confidential. DeVito has an interest in documentaries. In 2006 he began a partnership with Morgan Freeman's company ClickStar, for whom he hosts the documentary channel Jersey Docs, he was interviewed in the documentary Revenge of the Electric Car about his interest in and ownership of electric vehicles.
In April 2012, DeVito made his West End acting debut in a revival of the Neil Simon play The Sunshine Boys as Willie Clark, alongside Richard Griffiths. It previewed at the Savoy Theatre in London from 27 April 2012, opened on 17 May, played a limited 12-week season until 28 July. DeVito made his Broadway debut in a Roundabout Theatre Company revival of the Arthur Miller play The Price as Gregory Solomon, for which he was nominated for a Tony Award; the production began preview performances at the American Airlines Theatre on February 16, 2017 and opened on March 16 for a limited run through May 7. DeVito has become a major television producer. Through Jersey Films, he has produced many films, including Pulp Fiction, Get Shorty, Erin Brockovich and Garden State. In 1999, he produced and co-starred in Man on the Moon, a film about the unusual life of his former Taxi co-star Andy Kaufman, played in the film by Jim Carrey. DeVito produced the Comedy Central series Reno 911! and the film spin-off Reno 911!: Miami.
DeVito made his directorial debut in 1984 with The Ratings Game. He directed and starred in Throw Momma from the Train, The War of the Roses, Matilda, Death to Smoochy and Duplex; the War of the Roses was a commercial and critical success, as was the film adaptation of Roald Dahl's Matilda. He directed the TV movie Queen B in 2005. In 1977, DeVito played the role of John'John John the Apple' D
The Truman Show
The Truman Show is a 1998 American satirical science fiction film directed by Peter Weir, produced by Scott Rudin, Andrew Niccol, Edward S. Feldman, Adam Schroeder, written by Niccol; the film stars Jim Carrey as Truman Burbank and raised by a corporation inside a simulated television show revolving around his life, until he discovers it and decides to escape. Additional roles are performed by Laura Linney, Noah Emmerich, Natascha McElhone, Holland Taylor, Ed Harris, Brian Delate; the Truman Show was a spec script by Niccol, inspired by an episode of The Twilight Zone called "Special Service". Unlike the finished product, it was more of a science-fiction thriller, with the story set in New York City. Scott Rudin purchased the script, set up production at Paramount Pictures. Brian De Palma was to direct before Weir signed as director, making the film for $60 million—$20 million less than the original estimate. Niccol rewrote the script; the majority of filming took place at Seaside, Florida, a master-planned community located in the Florida Panhandle.
The film was a financial success, debuting to critical acclaim, earned numerous nominations at the 71st Academy Awards, 56th Golden Globe Awards, 52nd British Academy Film Awards and The Saturn Awards. The Truman Show has been analyzed as a thesis on Christianity, simulated reality and reality television. Truman Burbank is the unsuspecting star of The Truman Show, a reality television program, broadcast live around the clock and across the globe, his entire life has taken place within a giant arcological dome near Hollywood, fashioned to create the seaside town of Seahaven Island, equipped with thousands of cameras to monitor all aspects of his life. The producers discouraged Truman from wanting to leave Seahaven by instilling him with aquaphobia through the "death" of his TV father in a boating "accident," and by broadcasting and printing messages of the dangers of traveling. All of Seahaven's other residents are actors, either acting out a script or repeating lines fed to them by the show's creator and executive producer, Christof.
Christof seeks to capture Truman's real emotion and human behavior and give audiences a relatable everyman. Despite Christof's control, Truman manages to act in unexpected ways. During his college years, Truman was intended to fall in love with and marry co-student Meryl, but he fell in love with another actress, Sylvia. Sylvia managed to bring Truman out of the sight of cameras long enough to warn him that his reality is fake before she was taken away, with her "father" claiming they are traveling to Fiji. While Truman went on to marry Meryl, he continues to fantasize about Sylvia, using scraps from magazines to recreate her face in secret, seeks travel to Fiji. Outside of the show, Sylvia has become part of a "Free Truman" campaign that demands the end of the show; the film begins during the thirtieth year of the show. Truman starts noticing unusual events that seem centered on him: a falling spotlight, a radio frequency that describes his movements and rain that falls only on him. Truman spots a disheveled man and recognizes him as his father, who had snuck back onto the set, but other actors drag the man away.
Despite efforts by Meryl and Truman's best friend Marlon to reassure him, Truman becomes more suspicious about his life. One day, he takes Meryl by surprise by going on an impromptu road trip, but their way is blocked by implausible emergencies. Meryl begins to break down from the stress. Hoping to bring Truman back to a controllable state, Christof re-introduces Truman's father to the show properly, under the guise of having lost his memory after the boating accident; this helps the show regain the ratings lead with audiences. Truman seems to return to his routines. One evening the production staff discovers that the sleeping Truman is out of their sight. Marlon is sent to check on Truman, finding that he has left a dummy and a tape recorder playing snoring sounds in his place and disappeared through a makeshift tunnel. Marlon breaks character, Christof orders the first transmission cut in the show's history while a citywide search for Truman is launched. Audiences around the world are drawn to this sudden change.
Truman is found sailing out of Seahaven, having conquered his fear of water, Christof resumes the broadcast as he sends a man-made lightning storm to try to capsize the boat. Network executives fear that Truman may die on live television. Realizing he cannot dissuade Truman any further, Christof ends the storm. Truman continues to sail, he finds an exit door, but Christof, speaking directly to Truman through a speaker system, tries to convince him to stay, stating there is "no more truth" in the real world and that by staying in his artificial world, he would have nothing to fear. Truman considers this states: "In case I don't see you... good afternoon, good evening, good night,", takes a bow, leaves. The viewers cheer Truman on. Christof's supervisors end the program for the last time and the viewers see what else is on TV. Jim Carrey as Truman Burbank: Chosen out of six unwanted pregnancies and the first child to be adopted by a corporation, Truman is unaware that his daily life is broadcast continuously around the world.
He has a job in the insurance business and a wife, but he notices that his environment is not what it seems to be. Robin Williams was considered for the role, but Weir cast Carrey after seeing him in Ace Ventu